Relations with the European Union
- the June 10th 1996 Slovenia presents the question of adhesion.
- the March 31st 1998 Slovenia opens the negotiation of adhesion finished the December 13rd 2002.
- the March 23rd 2003 89,6% of the Sloveniens approve adhesion by Référendum.
- the April 14th 2003 the European Council approves adhesion;
- the April 16th 2003 Slovenia signs the Treaty of Accession in force of May 1st 2004.
- the March 2nd 2006 Slovenia requires that be examined its subordination to the Critères of convergence.
- the May 16th 2006 the European Central bank and the European commission publish their reports on the respect of the criteria of convergence by Slovenia.
- the June 16th 2006 the European Council authorizes the adoption of the Euro, after the decision of the Heads of State or Government the Ministers for the Economy and Finances Ecofin) the July 11th 2006 repeal the exemption whose Slovenia enjoys and fix the irrevocable following rate of conversion: 1 euro = 239,640 Slovenien tolars
- January - June 2008 Slovenia chairs for the first time the European Union.
The capital of Slovenia east Ljubljana. The country extends from the Adriatic Sea with the plain pannonienne, while passing by the the Alps juliennes and a share of Karst. Its culminating point is the Triglav (2864 m), which is also represented symbolically on its flag.
EnvironmentThird forest country of Europe, Slovenia east covered to 57%, by 1 227 832 ha of Forest, of which 39% are mixed (282 m ² of wood per ha on average for 2006). Some old forests sheltering of the descendants of the prehistoric forest are protected, but the cultivated forest gains on the natural forests more .
The warming of the climate is in this country (continental) more marked than the world mean, and it could have impacts on the biodiversity and the forest.
Traditional agriculture knew to preserve meadows sometimes exceptionally rich in biodiversity (several hundreds of different species per hectare).
In 2001, an agency of the environment was created, which must apply a national action plan for the environment including/understanding the integration of the environmental concerns in all the other sectors.
To use the European Union, the country was in 2003 to reinforce the application of its legislation on waste, the GMO, air pollution and industrial. It must improve its risk management, chemicals and protection against radiations.
Slovenia having integrated the European Union on May 1st, 2004, it must apply the European directives relating to the environment, and be integrated in the network Natura 2000 (source: http://europa.eu/scadplus/leg/fr/lvb/e40110e.htm).
See also: Political of Slovenia
Slovenia belongs to the Euro area since January 1st, 2007 (1 Euro being worth 239,64 Tolar S). Slovenia thus became the first country to adopt the European currency since the fiduciary introduction of the Euro the 1 er January 2002.
The elections at the Parliament ( Državni zbor ) of the October 3rd 2004 allowed the democratic party (SDS) carried out by Janez Janša to arrive at the head of the poll by doubling its number of deputies, passing from 14 to 29 out of the 90 deputies who account the Lower House. For their part, the liberal-democrats (LDS) of the Prime Minister Anton Rop arrived in second position after having lost much of their influence passing from 34 to 23 seats. The participation was of 60%.
The November 11th 2007, the diplomat of career Danilo Türk, 55 years, which arised as independent candidate but was supported by the left opposition, gained the hand high the presidential election as Slovenia. At the time of the second turn organized in this small country of ex-Yugoslavia, Danilo Türk obtained 68,26% of the voices, far in front of its rival, the former Prime Minister Lojze Peterle, supported by the government coalition of center-right, credited with 31,74% of the voices. The outgoing president Janez Drnovsek, 57 years, which had given its support for none of the two candidates, had decided not to aspire to second a five years mandate. Its mandate expires the December 22nd. The final rate of participation reached more than 57% of the 1,7 million voters called with the ballot boxes according to the Electoral commission.
Administrative divisionsSlovenia is made up of 210 municipalities, including 11 having an “urban” statute. They are to date the only subdivisions as Slovenia. The Slovenien government seeks to create new administrative areas (a dozen).
There is from 8 to 10 traditional areas:
- the High-Carniole or Gorenjska (Kranj)
- the Low-Styrie or Spodnja Štajerska (Maribor)
- the Prekmurje (Murska Sobota)
- the Carinthie or Koroška (Ravne Na Koroškem)
- the Carniole-Interior or Notranjska (Postojna)
- the Low-Carniole Dolenjska (Novo Mesto) with the Carniole-White (Črnomelj)
- Goriška (Nova Gorica)
- the Slovenien Istrie or Primorska (Koper)
- the Zasavje, divided between Styrie and High and Low-Carniole the
See also: Towns of Slovenia
See also: Demography of Slovenia
The ethnicities of Slovenia are the Sloveniens (83,1 %), the Serb ones (2 %), the Croats (1,8 %), the Bosnians (1,1 %) and others (12 %), as well as ethnic minorities Hungarian woman and Italian (0,5 %). The life expectancy in 2000 was 71,1 years for the men and 79,5 years for the women.
After the independence of Slovenia in 1991, 18.355 citizens “ non-Slovènes ” (approximately 1% of the population) were unobtrusive registers administrative and placed in the category from abroad, because born in another Yugoslav republic. In 2004, the Supreme court ordered their rehabilitation (cf “Unobtrusive” of Slovenia).
With 95 inhabitants with the square kilometer, Slovenia places himself among the not very dense countries of Europe (compared with the density of the Netherlands (320 hab. /km ²) or of Italy (195 hab. /km ²)). Approximately 50 % of the population lives in urban areas, the remainder in rural environment.
The official language is the Slovenien , which belongs to the group of the Slavic languages of the south. The Hungarian and the Italian profit from a statute of Official language in the pluriethnic areas along the borders Hungarian woman and Italian.
See also: Economy of Slovenia
Electronic musicsTwo Slovenien DJ, internationally known, Valentino KANZYANI and UMEK are the most famous representatives of their country throughout the world. Remarkable by a smoothness and a technique out of the commun run, their compositions are played by the largest DJ of planet like Carl Cox for example. These two accomplices and friends founded the label Recycled Loops in particular and already produced more than 12 vinyls which are acclaimed like interplanetary tubes of the dancefloors .
LiteratureThe first texts known in Slovenien language are the Feuillets of Freising ( Brižinski spomeniki ), written between 972 and 1039 for needs for evangelization. Language is then used by layers more low of company (even if the middle-class men and the minor nobility knew it), like by the Clergé.
With the Lutheranism, the Slovenien starts his career of literary language. The ideas of the Reform are spread well as Slovenia. One must mention Primož Trubar (1508-1586) which, impregnated of the novel ideas, hesitates however to break with Rome. Its Prêche S in Slovenien in the cathedral of Ljubljana attracts crowd.
In 1550, the first two books in Slovenien appear, including one Catéchisme in Slovenien language. In 1555 the Évangile appears according to saint Matthieu and in 1582 New Testament.
The work of Trubar is prolonged by Jurij Dalmatin (1547-1589) and Adam Bohorič (1520-1600). Dalmatin translates the entirety of the Bible into Slovenien: this translation is regarded for a long time as the model of the Slovenien literary and used by the catholic priests on authorization of the Pope. Bohorič is the author of the Slovenien first Grammaire.
Apart from the publication of utility books, the 18th century marks the first publications of poetry, directed by the father Janez Damascen (pseudonym of Felix Dev., 1732-1786).
With the turning of the century, an erudite circle is formed around the baron Zois (1747-1819), born from Italian father and Slovenien, protective mother of many artists, who holds a kind of living room in his private mansion. This time, marked by the baron Zois, sees also the emergence of the theater and the prolongation of historical works of Valvasor (1641-1693), in particular in the person of Linhart (1756-1835), author of adaptations of German parts, and a historical work. In parallel, a certain number of personalities, whose Vodnik (1758-1819), endeavors to plan the language, by writing handbooks.
At the beginning of the 19th century many grammars, but also various publications appear (cookbooks, handbooks of Obstétrique, etc) The grammar of Kopitar (1780-1844), a large philologist, is the first modern grammar. Kopitar makes create a pulpit of Slavic languages to the Université of Vienna (1849). One creates also pulpits of Slovenien in the colleges.
The beginning of the 19th century is marked by Matija Čop (1797-1835) (large scholar), and especially France Prešeren (1800-1849). Prešeren is regarded as the largest Slovenien poet. Resulting from a country family of Carniole, it grants its Vienna, and becomes Clerc of notary. Borrowing poetic forms in all the times and all the countries, it adapts “Slovenien poetry the most demanding forms and purest of Western poetry”. Author of reduced S, of poems in love desperate, poems epic, and adaptations of popular songs, it contributes to give to the Sloveniens a true literary language.
Second half of gives to the Slovenien language its first outstanding works in Prose. One can quote in particular J. Cigler (1792-1869), author of a picaresque account: the Chance in misfortune (Sreča v nesreči); Janez Trdina (1830-1905); Mr. Valjavec (1831-1897); L. Svetec (1826-1921). Many reviews appear at that time and contribute to the development of the language and the Slovenien literature.
The German country novel is established as Slovenia with an author marking and a little private individual, Fran Levstik (1831-1887). Author of Martin Krpan , he is also a large defender of the Slovenien language. The reviews Slavija (Klagenfurt) and Vaje (Ljubljana) are a fish pond of writers and poets, whose Simon Jenko (1835-1869), author of poems on the topics of nature, the love and the melancholy, but also more political, it is called the “Slovenien Heine”; Fran Erjavec (1834-1887), author of popular novels; J. Menciger (1838-1912); Josip Jurčič (1844-1881), author of historical novels and country, of which great success “ the Slovenien Janissary ” ( Jurij Kozjak ); Ivan Tavčar (1851-1923), author of many novels and news, and also appointed and mayor of Ljubljana; Janko Kersnik (1852-1897), author of middle-class and country novels; Josip Stritar (1836-1923), great writer, it is especially known for its literary analyzes; Simon Gregorčič (1844-1906), excels poet; Anton Aškerc (1856-1912), country poet and Folkloriste.
The authors of the group “moderna” are: Ivan Cankar (1876-1918), regarded as the Slovenien great writer. Born with Vrhnika (southern of Ljubljana), it publishes poetries in the declining style since 1899. Influenced by its time, he lives in Vienna and Ljubljana, devoting himself only to the literature. As from 1907, it takes an active share with the political life. Complete author, it excels in poetry, the novel, the news, the theater. Oton Župančič (1878-1949), contrary to Cankar, is a poet of the harmony, hope and the light. Director of the theater of Ljubljana and conservative to the files, it is influenced inter alia by symbolism, and even calls, at the end of his life, the fight against the Nazis: “Do you Know, poet, your duty? ” ( Veš, poet, svoj dolg? ). Dragotin Kette (1876-1899) and J. Mr. Aleksandrov (1879-1901) are two " poets maudits" remarkable.
The authors of realism seek all to deviate from the influence of the " moderna" : Emptied Jeraj (1875-1932); C. Golar (1879-1965); Mr. Pugelj (1883-1929); F. Milčinski (1867-1932); L. Kraigher (1877-1959).
Some Christian authors progressists are Finžgar (1883-1952), priest originating in Carniole, author of novels in the vein of those of Polish Sienkiewicz, always very appreciated today; Meško (1874-1964), author in particular of accounts of youth; Izidor Cankar (1896-1958), cousin of Ivan Cankar, which directed Dom in svet , an important cultural review; Ivan Pregelj, (1883-1952), author of the Triestian area .
Srečko Kosovel (1904-1926) is the principal one representing expressionnism. Originating in the Karst, he died very young person, and the translations in Italian and French contribute to make known it abroad. Other authors, like Podbevšek (1898-1981), Jarc (1900-1942) or Seliškar (1900-1969), seek new forms in the Expressionnisme or the Futurisme.
As of the years 1930, and even more after the war and the victory of Tito, the movement of the social Réalisme develops and Socialist, with inter alia Miško Kranjec (1908-1983); Prežihov Voranc (1893-1950), of its true name Lovro Kuhar, child cherished of the Communist regime; Ciril Kosmač (1910-1980), native of the Triestian area, attentive with the social and national problems; Ivan Potrč (1913-1993), Communist and militant of the first hour; A. Ingolič (1907-1992). Some authors move away from the dominant currents while turning to the historical novel, like Vladimir Bartol (1903-1967), or psychological like S. Grum (1901-1949).
During the war, clandestine editions of poet-partisans existed. One can quote Matej Bor (pseudonym of Vladimir Pavšič (1912-1993); Karel Destovnik (or Kajuh, 1922-1944); France Balantič (1921-1943), resistant but anticommunist; Edvard Kocbek (1904-1981).
Among the modern poets, the essential figures are: Janez Menart (1929-2004); Ciril Zlobec (1925-); Ivan Minatti (1924-); Gregor Strniša (1930-1987); Veno Taufer (1933-); Tomaž Šalamun (1941-); S. Makarovič (1939-); Mr. Dekleva (1946-); Milan Jesih (1950-); E. Fritz (1940-); Boris A. Novak (1953-). Some live in Austria and Italy, like Kokot, Smole, Kravos. Slovenien poetry remains of a very great vitality, with a big number of reviews and publications taking into account the small number of inhabitants.
In the years 1960, the Prosateur S are detached gradually from the social realism imposed by the mode, by the contribution of new topics, of a new vision of the Man, even of a continuation of the tradition of Avant-guerre: Zdravko Slamnik (1932-1992); Lojze Kovačič (1928-); Andrej Hieng (1925-); Alojz Rebula (1924-); Boris Pahor (1913-), Triestian, resistant interned by the Nazis, translated in many languages, which enjoys an international repute. Among the expatriates, one can quote K. Mauser (1918-1977), alive in Argentine. At the Sloveniens of Austria, the principal author is Florjan Lipuš (1937-).
In the years 1970, a new generation emerges, with at the head Drago Jančar (1948-) whose “control of the language and the dramatic intensity place work (…) with the first rank of the Slovenien literature of today”. Are also notable: Rudi Šeligo (1935-2004); S. Vuga; A. Capuder, Franček Rudolf (1944-), etc
The Slovenien literature is also composed of many critical works. Certain writers carried out translations of foreign philosopher's stones in Slovenien, (Gradnik for Dante and Tagore; Klopčič for Heine and Lermontov, etc). Today, this tradition continues: (Lorca by Udovič, Camões by Capuder).
To announce today the presence in France of Brina Svit of which the first part of work is in Slovenien, his native language, and the French second.
CodesSlovenia has as codes:
- .si according to the names of Domaine of first level,
- SVN, according to the standard ISO 3166-1 alpha-3 (code list country), and the Code list countries used by NATO, alpha-3,
- IF, according to the standard ISO 3166-1 (code list country), code alpha-2, the Code list countries used by NATO, code alpha-2,
- SLO, according to the Code list country of the CIO, and the international Code list of the number plates,
AnecdoteSlovenia and the Slovakia are often confused. The names Slovenská Republika (Slovak Republic into Slovak) and Republika Slovenija can indeed lend to confusion in many languages. Each year, a considerable weight of badly conveyed mail is to be reforwarded towards Slovenia (600 kg in 2004).
Georges W. Bush itself has one day made confusion.
|Random links:||Gary Hall Sr. | Zoological museum of Finland | Casino of Monte Carlo | Treaty of Caen | Rene Duvillier | Établissement_du_projectile|