Skull and Bones
The Skull and bones (literally the cranium and the bones ) is a Secret society of the Université Yale with the the United States. This group is also known by the Anglophones under the names “Chapter 322” and “Brotherhood off Death” ( brotherhood of dead the ).
It would be the first secret society which was born with Yale, under the impulse of William Huntington Russell in December 1830. At the end of the 19th century, it constitutes one of most prestigious American secret societies the, with Scroll and Key , Wolf' S Head , Book and Snake and Berzelius . Some companies of honor established in other universities obviously were inspired by the Skull and Bones or have a similar prestige, its members being recognized like the elite by the students. They are for example the Cape and Skull at the Rutgers university, the company Bishop James Madison with the College off William and Mary, or the Iron Arrow Honor Society at the university of Miami.
There exist other companies bearing the name Skull and Bones : with the Pennsylvania State University or with the University Vanderbilt, but they are only clubs of former students who do not have, with share the name and the logo, absolutely nothing to see with Skull and original Bones.
OriginWilliam Huntington Russell, a cousin of Samuel, studies in Germany 1830 with 1831. Germany is then a ground of novel ideas. The scientific method is applied there to all the studies on the human behavior. The Prussia reproaches the defeat of its armed forces against those of Napoleon in 1806 whereas its soldiers are regarded as being the best in the world. Thus in 1817, the German Université S create a new type of education system based on the principles, always applied at present, establish by Jean-Jacques Rousseau and John Locke. Johann Gottlieb Fichte, in its “address with the German people”, declares that the children must from now on take the reins of the State. Its Chaire at the University is taken again by Hegel which will teach there until its death in 1831. It is with the latter that the Philosophie Idéaliste German exit of Kant reaches its culminating point.
But Germany still has another speciality: the secret societies student be. William Huntington thus is initiated and incorporated in the chapter of the one of them. Of return to Yale, in 1832, it creates there with Alphonso Taft the company of the Skull and Bones . This term Bones proves to be the chapter of a body within a German university. Thus W.H. Russel and 14 other members of final found the order of the Skull and bones , which will change later its name into Skull and Bones .
Since 1832, in Yale, fifteen juniors are maltreated each year by their elder in order to be initiated and integrated into the group the following year. It is said that each initiate receives 15.000 Dollar S and a watch of grandfather. Far from being a kind of house of the pleasure whose activity would be reduced to the only years of campus, the group preserves thereafter relations followed in order to support the success of its members in the postgraduate world.
InfluenceIn its book the American Establishment secret , Anthony Sutton denounces the capacity of the S&B to establish chains of influences vertical and horizontal, which makes it possible to ensure a continuity in their plan of domination of the policy.
The Whitney-Stimson-Bundy bond would represent the “vertical chain”. W.C. Whitney (1863), which married Flora Payne (dynasty Standard Oil Payne), was secretary of Navy. Its lawyer was a man named Elihu Root. Root engaged Henry Stimson (1888), at his exit of the school of right. William Howard Taft, the 27e president of the USA and bonesman also engaged to him Stimson at the post of secretary of the war in 1911. Later this last became governor-general of Philippines of. Hollister Bundy (1909) was the special assistant of Stimson and a man essential with the Pentagon during the Projet Manhattan. Its two sons were also members of the S&B: William Bundy (1939) and McGeorge Bundy (1940) were very active in the governmental businesses thanks to their positions in the CIA, the Department of Defense and the State Department, and special assistance with Presidents Kennedy and Johnson. They thus exerted a significant impact on the flow of information and espionage during the war of Vietnam. William Bundy continued to be a writer of Foreign Affairs, quarterly the very influential one of the Council one Foreign Relations (CFR). McGeorge became president of the Fondation Ford. Two other very influential families of bonesmen were the Harriman and the Bush. Averil Harriman (1913) is regarded as a " sage" within the democratic party. His/her brother Roland Harriman (1917) was also a very active partisan.
What strikes with the reading of the list of the members of the " Skull and Bones" , it is the quasi systematic presence of the names of the American families most prestigious. Lord, Whitney, Taft, Jay, Bundy, Harriman, Weyerhaeuser, Pinchot, Rockefeller, Goodyear, Sloane, Stimson, Phelps, Perkins, Pillsbury, Kellogg, Vanderbilt, Bush, Lovett and so on. The Skull and Bones it is quite simply the club of the elite, of the Establishment , still today, as the presence testifies some to George Walker Bush and John Kerry, dependant consequently by a “secret pact”.
Some famous members
- Prescott Bush
- George H.W. Bush
- George W. Bush
- John Kerry
- E. Roland Harriman
- H.S. Fenimore Cooper (small son of James Fenimore Cooper)
- Knight Wooley
- Ellery James
- Henry Neil Mallon.
- “It' S so secret, we can' T talk butt it. ”, ( it is so secret, which we cannot speak .) (George Walker Bush in a discussion with Tim Russert, the February 8th 2004 ().
“Not much, because it' secret S.A. ” ( Not large thing, because it is a secrecy .) (John Kerry in an interview with Tim Russert the August 31st 2003, in answer to the question of knowing which conclusion one could draw from his membership and that of George W. Bush at the secret society.
“the last year (of my studies with Yale), I became member of Skull and Bones, a secret society, if secret in truth which I cannot more say. I am there fact 14 new friends”. G W BUSH, With the assistance of God, Paris, editions Odile Jacob, 2000, p. 76
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