The ski jump (or ski jump ) is a Sport of Hiver in which the skiers descend a slope on a slope to take off (the Tremplin), trying to go as far as possible. In addition with the length the judges give points for the style in flight and the landing of the jumper. The Ski S used are long and broad.
HistoryThe origins are in Norway where the first competition was held in 1862. The first great competition took place on the Husebybakken mount with Oslo in 1879. Holmenkollen is regarded today as Mecque of the Cross-country skiing. The ski jump made its appearance with the Olympic Games, as of the first edition of 1924. One can note that the ski jump was usually practiced as of the appearance of the ski says “Norwegian” in continental Europe at the end of the XIXe century and is not at all a recent or artificial discipline.
PrinciplesThe skier springs top of a Tremplin snow-covered or covered synthetic matter, and reached an high speed exceeding 90 km/h for the large springboards. To this moment, it must give an impulse in order to go possible further in the airs. This impulse is of an major importance, because contrary to the beliefs, the nose of the springboard does not go up. Once in the air, the jumper, which has the free heel, leans in order to place its body between its skis and seeks to obtain an optimal bearing pressure on the air. It is rectified at the time of the landing, and so that its notes of style remain optimal, it must then carry out a “slit” with the feet in position known as of “télémark”.
Three phases of the ski jumpOne can distinguish three essential phases which make it possible to carry out a jump of quality:
- the phase of dash, sanctioned by the speed obtained by the jumper at the end of the springboard. A good speed is essential to carry out a good jump. This speed depends on the position of dash on the jumper, its relaxation in the trace and its weight, and the capacity of the skis to be slipped on the track.
- the impulse at the end of the springboard. This one must be powerful and realized exactly at the good moment.
- the flight phase. It is given mainly by the weight of the jumper, its position in flight and the quality of the transition between the impulse and the position from vol.
One generally distinguishes two categories of jumpers:
the athletic jumpers or jumping , which arrives quickly at the end of the springboard, produce a strong impulse but obtain relatively little bearing pressure on the air from their weight of important body and the trajectory out of bell of their flight consecutive to their strong impulse.
- the light jumpers or robbers , which arrives less quickly at the end of the springboard, produce a less strong impulse but obtain much bearing pressure on the air from their weight of body weak and the shaving trajectory of their flight, rapid, consecutive with their more measured impulse.
Techniques of flightThe current technique known as technical out of V consists as its name indicates it, once in the air, to put the skis out of V and either in parallel.
The technique in “V” appeared thanks to a Swedish jumper of the name of Boklöv which had serious problems of myopia and was not particularly gifted for this sport. Its trainer and itself developed the technique of the “V” which gave better a bearing pressure on the air to Boklöv, thus allowing him to fill his weaknesses. This technique allows a profit of 10% indeed compared with the preceding technique with the parallel skis. Been sulky by the judges and the other jumpers at its beginnings, this technique very quickly proved reliable and other jumpers started to adopt it.
The totality of the high level jumpers use this technique of flight, with a more or less marked degree. Some accentuate too their “V”, at the point to cross their skis with the back (one speaks about technique “in X”), which decreases the bearing pressure again slightly.
External factors influencing the flight
- wind. A wind of face lengthens the distance from jump by adding bearing pressure under the skis of the jumper. On the contrary, a back wind or back folds back the jumper against the track of reception.
- the height of the bar of dash. To adapt to the level of the candidates and the conditions weather, it is possible to modify the height of the bar since which the jumper springs. The higher the bar is, the more the speed of the jumper at exit of springboard is high.
The calculation of the pointsThe winner of a contest is the jumper which carries out the greatest number of points on a total of two jumps (1st and 2nd handle). The total not is made up:
- Of the points allotted for the length,
- and of the points allotted for the style.
Deduct points for the lengthThe skier marks 60 points when it falls down to the height of the point K, distance from reference comparable with the “By” of a course of Golf. Each meter beyond the point K is developed by the addition of 1,8 point, whereas each meter below is penalized by the withdrawal of 1,8 point, each half-meter in more or less bringing back 0,9 point.
Deduct points for the style (or “notes of style”)Five judges placed at the edge of the track give a note ranging between 0 and 20. Best and the least good is removed total, which is added to the points allotted for the distance from jump of the jumper.
The note allotted by defect is the 20. Deductions on this ideal total are carried out, deduction which can occur in three categories:
- the flight (position in flight, movements parasitic, and indirectly length of the jump).
- the reception (softness of the landing, quality of the “télémark”).
- end of jump (edging mistakes, falls).
The most frequent cases of deductions are the movements in flight (-1 point), the absence of télémark (-2 points) and the fall (-5 points minimum).
Records of distanceAt the time of the first competition in 1879, the record was of 23 meters. It will be necessary to await 1936 to see a jump with more 100 meters and 1957 for the 150 meters. In 1994, Toni Nieminen became the first jumper to be jumped beyond mythical the 200 meters. The March 20th 2005, Bjørn Einar Romøren jumped to 239 meters on the springboard of Planica in Slovenia.
To be validated as a record, a jump must:
- To be carried out in a sleeve of world cup, a championship of the world or Olympic Games, like with the official drives (i.e. with a jury of competition) of these last competitions; that in order to prevent that the height of the dash taken by the jumper too important is not compared with the preceding attempts.
- To be held, i.e. the jumper should touch snow with no part of the body at the time of the reception.
World cupAs in all the disciplines of ski, the International federation of ski organizes a world cup throughout the winter. It counts about thirty contest and disputes in Europe, North America and with the Japan.
Since 1994, there exists also a world cup of ski jump in summer, which generally proceeds on springboards in the same way standard than the winter springboards, on which a synthetic coating replaces snow present on the running track and the track of reception.
The Turned of the four springboardsThis competition exists since 1954 and takes place annually. It disputes on two springboards in Germany (Oberstdorf and Garmisch) and two in Austria (Innsbruck and Bischofshofen). The scores carried out at the time of these four contests are added to determine the winner. It is the most prestigious competition of this sport, although there are no medals as at the time of a championship of the world.
Four tests proceed there: two individual (normal springboard and large springboard) and two by teams (one on each springboard).
There exists also a championship of the world of flight to ski which takes place every two years in alternation with the Championnats of the world of cross-country skiing.
Flight with skiThe flight with ski has the same payment as the ski jump. However, it disputes on springboards of flight or giant springboards, on which the jumpers exceed the 200 meters against 100 meters on the traditional springboards. There is only little contest of flight to ski during the season. There exist only 5 springboards of flight to ski approved (against nearly 120 for the ski jump):
- Planica, largest of them, in Slovenia.
- Harrachov, in Czech Republic.
- Kulm, in Austria.
- Oberstdorf, in Germany.
- Vikersund, in Norway.
RegulationNoting many problems of weight going until the Anorexia at certain jumpers, the International federation of ski introduced in September 2004 a new drastic payment: the length of the skis, capital to obtain bearing pressure, is from now on given according to an index of body mass, the standard IMC, in order to prevent that too thin jumpers can benefit from this advantage. The deficit of image was too large with sometimes the impression of a pack of insane thinned wheels, sent in the clouds the empty and tied stomach. Since the introduction of this rule, the muscular and explosive jumpers with the table, able to produce a strong push, took again the advantage in ski jump, giving birth to with it this time the risk from a more traditional doping.
See tooski jump|ski jump
- Skijumper: classification by victories
- : Category: Skijumper
- : Category: Jumping with ski
- Vogtlandarena with Klingenthal in Germany
- Skimuseum - the site of the ski jump and Scandinavian compound français
- French federation of ski
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