The sixth crusade , of 1228 with 1229, was launched by the Germanic Roman Emperor Frederic II to conquer the Royaume of Jerusalem. It was victorious without the downstream of the Pape and without military support, creating a precedent which will influence the Croisade S to come.
Germanic sights on the kingdom of JerusalemFrederic II of the Holy roman Empire had tried to join the fifth crusade, but the pope Innocent III had prevented some, for fear it does not undermine the pontifical authority. Nevertheless, Frederic promised once again to leave in crusade after it was crowned emperor in 1220 by the pope Honorius III, and it sent a small army to help the fifth crusade.
In 1225 Frederic married Yolande of Jerusalem (also known under the name of Isabella) girl of Jean de Brienne, the king in title of Jerusalem. Frederic consequently had claims on the lost kingdom and a reason to try to recover it. In 1227, when Gregoire IX reached the pontifical load, Frederic and his army embarked Brindisi in direction of the Syria, but an epidemic obliged them to turn over to Italy. Gregoire benefitted from it to excommunicate it, under the pretext of have broken his engagement to leave in crusade, but it was acted in fact of a settling of score, because Frederic had spent several years to sit the imperial capacity in Italy with the detriment of papacy. After having tried to negotiate with the pope, Frederic finally chooses to be unaware of it and set out again in Syria in 1228, although it is excommunicated, and arrived at Acre in September.
Dissensions between papacy and empireAcre, the capital in title of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, was divided on its support for Frederic. Its army and of many noble were on its side, but the Gerald patriarch of Lausanne, the Order of Malta and the Order of the Temple disapproved his company. They reproached him for wanting to impose its imperial authority, and were involved in the combat between the supporters of papacy (the Guelfes) and the Gibelins, in favor of the Saint Worsens.
Agreement between Frederic II and Al-KamilAlthough Frederic was not able to unify the two parts of Acre, it did not have time to engage the war before having to be interested in the political matters of the dynasty Ayyoubide. Al-Kamel, the Egyptian sultan who had overcome the fifth crusade, had quickly divided its territory with one of his/her brothers in Syria, whereas its nephew Al-Nasir asserted the Palestine. The February 18th 1229, Frederic signed a treaty of alliance with Al-Kamel, valid ten years, in order to be combined with him against Al-Nasir, in exchange of the promise to recover sovereignty on Jerusalem, Nazareth and Bethlehem. Frederic did not obtain the authorization to rebuild the walls of Jerusalem, destroyed by Saladin in 1187, but it entered as a king the city. As Gregoire IX and Gerald of Lausanne condemned this treaty, it crowned itself king the March 18th. Legally, he was however regent for his son Conrad IV, the grandson of Jean de Brienne who had been born in 1228, little before his father does not leave.
Germanic Victoire with the detriment of the pontifical influenceAs Frederic had to deal with other businesses in his country, it left Jerusalem in May. He did not manage to make raise his excommunication in 1229, but he had shown that a crusade could be victorious without the downstream of the pope nor his military support.
A fight opposed shortly after the barons of the kingdom and the partisans of the emperor Frederic II and Philippe took with his cousin Balian d' Ibelin the head of the party of the barons. Philippe Ier de Montfort took the town of Tyr, held by the imperial ones, in 1243 and became constable of the kingdom of 1244 to 1251.
The treaty expired in 1239 and Jerusalem was taken again by the Mamelouks in 1244. However, Frederic having shown the example, other sovereigns undertook new crusades without the implication of the pope, in particular:
- In France, Saint Louis for the seventh and Eighth crusade S.
- Edouard Ier of England for the Ninth crusade.
- History of the pilgrimage of Jerusalem
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