The République of Singapore (in English Republic off Singapore , in Mandarin 新加坡共和国 Xīnjīapō Gònghégúo , in Malayan Republik Singapura , in Tamoul சிங்கப்பூர்கீடியரசீ Ciŋkappūr Kudiyarasu ) is a country of Asia located at 137 km in the north of the equator. Its surface is of 647,8 km ². It includes/understands 64 islands, whose principal one is the island of Singapore (584,8 km ²). This island densément is very densément urbanized.
City-State and island at the end of the Malayan Peninsula, Singapore is known in the whole world and often shown in example for its extraordinary economic success. After independence, in 1965, Singapore knew with very few natural resources and the important socio-economic problems (racial riots, mass unemployment, difficulties of housing and access to water), to become one of the most developed countries world. The city, sovereign city, are a true Chinese tiny room in the middle very Malayan world: the population is mainly made up of Chinese. From this ethnic confrontation were born partly the disorders which accelerated the withdrawal of Singapore of the Malaysia, in 1965. Turntable commercial between the Peaceful zone and the Europe, the city owes its rise with its exceptional maritime situation: It is the commercial city with the borders of the East . The population has very an high level of life. Singapore is regarded today as a authoritative democracy , with the same family with the capacity since independence. Singapore is thus regarded as a country practitioner the economic liberalism without political liberalism.
Historydetailed Article: History of Singapore
Temasek, the old name of the island where Singapore is, is attested as of the 14th century. The Nagarakertagama , a poem epic writes in 1365 in the kingdom java are born from Majapahit, mentions “Tumasik” among the few hundred “regions tributary” of the kingdom. Actually, the territory controlled by Majapahit did not extend that on part of the east and center of Java. The “tributary regions” were in fact of the counters forming a sales network whose Majapahit was the center. Majapahit sent to it dignitaries of which the role was to make sure that these counters were not devoted to a private trade which would escape the kingdom.
The island was baptized Singapura (“city of the lion” in Sanskrit) at the 14th century by Parameswara (also known like Sang Nila Utama), a prince of Palembang in the south of the island Indonesia of Sumatra which would have been exiled to refuse the suzerainty of Majapahit after an attack of this one in 1377.
In fact, it there forever have Lion on the island but of the tigers (there exists well on the other hand a lion of Asia, Panthera leo persica ). The explorers had probably fallen on a deer from the jungle and compared it to a lion. The animal symbolic system of Singapore is a lion with cut in front, the Merlion.
In 1819, the British to sir Thomas Stamford Raffles took control of it to face the commercial domination of the Dutch in the area. The Treated of London of 1824 between the British and the Netherlanders grants to the latter control territories asserted by Europeans with the south of Singapore. In 1826, Singapore, Malacca and Penang constitute the colonies of the straits or Straits Settlements . Thus, Singapore became an important British naval base, which made it possible to control the passage through the Détroit of Malacca.
However, this arrangement placed the colony under the wide Bureaucratie and the complex Hiérarchie of the English Compagnie of the Eastern Indies. Later, of the tradesmen made pressure on the British to reform the Législation because there was a need growing for new measurements against the Crime and the Piraterie. Singapore has be declared “colony of crown” in 1867, which means domination of the British crown on Singapore which will last until independence in 1965, except the bracket of the Japanese occupation.
During British colonization, immigration developed. Indeed, the British made come in the area from the workers Chinese and Indian to develop the trade and to work in the Plantation S of Hévéa S. Considering the prohibition made the abroads buy arable lands in Malaysia, these communities settled in Singapore.
During the Second world war, starting from the February 15th 1942, the island is subjected to the Expansionnisme of Japan Showa and is integrated in the Sphère of Co-prosperity of large Eastern Asia, following an invasion directed since the grounds, whereas defenses of the city were directed only towards the sea. This device was called “Syonan-To” (in French “light of the South”). In the Sook Ching, one estimates that between 20.000 and 100.000 Chinese were killed as “elements anti-Japanese” during the occupation. The local historians call this period “the darkest years of the history of Singapore”. The imperial army also established to with it the bacteriological research unit 9420, a subsidiary company of the Unité 731, where Japanese researchers practiced experiments on human guinea-pigs. The British Empire recovered Singapore only the September 5th 1945.
In 1959 the British equip Singapore with a clean Constitution and Lee Kuan Yew is elected Prime Minister. Its party, the People' S Action Party (“Started from popular action”) then proposes integration with the Federation of Malaysia (in French: Federation of the States of Malaysia), which was made the September 16th 1963. A little later as of 1964, of the disorders burst, and the independence of the Republic of Singapore is proclaimed the August 9th 1965.
Policydetailed Article: Political of Singapore
The Singaporean Constitution is inspired by British parliamentarism. In the facts, the Parti popular action dominates the Singaporean policy since the independence. The form of government approaches more Autoritarisme than of a Démocratie multipartist. Paradoxically (for the experts in political sciences), the Singaporean market economy is a model of success while being transparent and free from Corruption.
Singapore is member of ASEAN (Association of the Nations of Southeast Asia).
The president is elected by the universal direct suffrage for a six years mandate. August 17th, 2005, the current president Sellapan Rama Nathan was re-elected.
List Prime Ministers
- Lee Kuan Yew : 1965 with 1990, “founder” of Singapore
- Goh Chok Tong: 1988 with the August 12th 2004
- Lee Hsien Loong, wire of Lee Kuan Yew: since the August 12th 2004
Geographydetailed Article: Geography of Singapore
Singapore is located between the Malaysia at north and the Indonesia at the south. This island is connected to the Malayan peninsula by two bridges. The first which also is called “fitted”, arrives at the frontier city of Johor Bahru in Malaysia. The second, more to the west connects also Johor Bahru to the districts of the area of Killed.
Singapore is also made of 64 small islands of which most important are the island of Jurong (industrial), the island of Sentosa (with tourist vocation), Pulau Ubin, and largest Pulau Tekong. Although Singapore is only one city, the administrative limits correspond to the electoral constituencies. Those are re-examined with each legislative to take into account the demographic trends.
Economydetailed Article: Saving in Singapore
Singapore is one of the four “dragons” of Asia as one qualifies the few countries of the South-East Asia in full economic growth in the years 1980. It has a prosperous and modern economy, characterized by an environment open and free from corruption, the stable prices and one of highest GDP per capita in world (GNP per capita: 30228 $US in 2006). Its economy rests on the financial banking services and (second money market of Asia after Japan), the trade, navigation (first world port in tonnage), tourism, the shipyards and the refining of oil. The sector of the electronics industry is also very dynamic and known in the whole world (the company Creative Technology diffused in the famous whole world the chart-sound Sound Blaster). Let us announce also the importance of the sector of the armament, doped by the public orders of the Singaporean State which have two sovereign funds, the Temasek Holdings since 1974 and the Government off Singapore Investment Corporation (GIC) since 1981.
In 2001 the world recession and the fall of the sector of the TIC did not save the Singaporean economy. In 2001 GDP moved back of 2,1%. The epidemic of SARS beginning 2003 made only amplify this crisis.
To counter this deceleration, the government set up in December 2001 an economic committee of day before whose results were published in February 2003. It results from it a will reaffirmed from the government to form part of the world exchanges by distributing better its interests (in particular with the Europe) while reducing the local costs.
Singapore belongs to the Economic cooperation the Asia-Pacific (APEC). One regards it as one of the “Asian dragons”.
Demographydetailed Article: Demography of Singapore
The ethnic diversity of the Singaporean population is very important: the Chinese compose the population with 76,8%; Malayan with 13,9% which are the first inhabitants, the Indiens to 7,9% and the remainder coming from various countries in particular of Occident.
The official languages are the English, the Mandarin, the Malayan and the Tamoul. The Malayan is also symbolically the national language (used for the National anthem). The party directing preferred however to promote the use of English as language federating the communities and the foreign trade. More recently, the place of the Mandarin was seen reinforced in teaching and public posting.
Cleanliness and orderThe laws on the social behavior are famous very strict (some say that “All that is amusing is interdict in Singapore”)
- the sale of Chewing-gum was prohibited in 1992, but not the use. Since May 2004, date of a trade agreement with the the United States, the sale of chewing-gum for medical uses or dental is indeed authorized, provided that the customer in pharmacy presents a document of identity, and, for the chewings-gum with nicotine, a doctor's certificate. In its everyday usage, the chewing-gum remains prohibited with the sale. One can even have a fine if one transports from there in the pockets!
- Of large infringments is given to people who throw papers and waste, which spits or which urinates in the public places.
- Singapore counts more than 4 million inhabitants. In order to control the road traffic, the owners of cars are subjected at high taxes and the price of COE: Certificate off Entitlement is high, obligatory authorization to roll freely to Singapore, an automatic system with toll called ERP functioning at certain hours controls the road traffic effectively.
- Moreover the price of the cars is exorbitant (a Nissan Micra costs more than 70.000 SGD $ i.e. more 34000€, source AA off Singapore). These measurements are necessary on an island of this size and Singapore, in spite of its small surface knows only very few stoppers compared to other world big cities.
- To eat, drink like transporting Durian S or gasoline cans is interdict in the buses and subway ( MRT ) and is liable to heavy fines.
the Censure is practiced there:
- Certain magazines and newspapers such as the Far Eastern Economic Review' have their restricted distributions. The Malaysian newspapers are prohibited in Singapore and reciprocally.
- the Pornographie is prohibited; the representations of a sexual nature are very restricted: Playboy and other adult magazines are prohibited. In general, the films which comprise scenes of nudity, erotism and violence are classified R (A)
- the possession of parabolic aerials is prohibited. Only the cable television is authorized.
- Certain objects of a political nature or being able to harm the religious and cultural harmony are prohibited.
- the anti-drug laws are very strict:
- Whoever taken in possession of more than 13-14 G of Heroin, 28 G of Morphine or 480 G of Cannabis is liable to the Capital punishment. Of 1991 with 2005, 420 people were hung in Singapore, mainly for drug trafficking, according to a report/ratio of Amnesty International. The number of capital executions per capita of Singapore is highest of the world.
- Some practical sexual called by the government as against nature are illegal although they are tolerated. It is acted in fact of the heritage of British laws of the time victorienne not having been revoked after independence (a new legislation cancelling the laws anti-sodomy is coming into effect Monday, September 17, 2007 but it is limited to the heterosexuals). The practice of the oral sex there is found if it is not followed of vaginal penetration and male homosexuality. Female homosexuality, according to the Singaporean Penal code, seems tolerated. As a whole, the company thus seems more tolerant than its laws. The rigor of this legislation all the more seems surprising that Singapore is a city open to the external influences and with a gay influential and organized community .
- the Prostitution is authorized only in certain districts.
- the Demonstration S without authorization and the Grève S are prohibited in Singapore.
- the rate of criminality of Singapore appears among low of the world, the streets are sour at any hour.
Culturedetailed Article: Culture of Singapore
Singapore is an interbreeding various cultures coming from various ethnos groups: Chinese, Malayan and Indian. Each group is encouraged to maintain its traditions, while kissing a lifestyle conformist and modern. Singapore is thus a single place of paradoxes. On the plan them celebrations one can see a Chinese marriage taking seat right beside a Malayan marriage. It is also possible to take part in a whole of festivals illustrating the métissé character of people of Singapore: * See also Languages of Singapore
National slogans are placarded a little everywhere in the city, incentive with good citizenship, honesty and. One finds among them a presidential quotation: “We are not richest, we are not most powerful, and we are not most numerous. We must to thus make us a place with the sun be among able and most educated. ”
DefenseSingapore has a modern and effective army. On its 4.5 million inhabitants, 250.000 are mobilizable in less than 12 midnight. Singapore is a neutral State . Defense is assured mainly by important a air force dissuasion. The terrestrial forces are consisted light units commandos organized on the British model of the Malayan Scouts which fought successfully at the time of the insurrection of Malaysia carried out mainly by these Chinese immigrants.
Domestic transportThe Singaporean grid system is very developed and practical of access. The 3 current lines of subway, supplemented soon by a fourth in 2009, were built as from 1985. The network of bus is also very quite with a grid and the majority of the lines have a raised frequency, even late the evening. In addition, the taxi is a means of transport very much used (Singapore is the city of the world having the greatest number of taxis per capita) since to have a car is expensive. All the taxis, majority of the buses, and all the subway trains, are equipped with air conditioning.
International transportSingapore is accessible from several manners:
- By train from Malaysia: the Railway station of Tanjong Pagar is a terminus constituting a Malayan enclave in Singapore;
- By plane: the International airport of Changi knows a strong traffic and is always expanding, in the east of the island;
- By bus: certain Singaporean lines cross the Causeway towards the downtown area of Johor Bahru.
- By bus: many private companies connect Singapore to the big cities of Malaysia (Malacca, Kuala Lumpur, etc)
- By boat: many a ferries and shuttles in particular connect Singapore to Indonesia.
- the Circulation is made on the left.
- the English taught and promoted follows the standard of the United Kingdom. However, on the spot, this language knew a certain inflection of its form. This English of Singapore is called Singlish , and is resulting from the interbreeding of the populations. It goes from a stressing taking again the tonalities of Chinese Hokkien, with the use of many words Hokkien and Malayan, while passing by certain grammatical simplifications. Population being with more 70 % of origin of the Fujian in China (Hokkien), that explains this influence.
- the format of the Date S is JJ/MM/AAAA
- zip code: 6 digits.
- Units: IF (Métrique)
- Electricity: 220-240 V, 50 Hz; Catch: 3 pins models British
- Singapore should accommodate since 2008 an urban Grand Prix of Formula 1 (like Monaco).
- Archdiocese of Singapore
- Saint-Andrew Cathedral of Singapore
- Communications in Singapore
- Transport in Singapore
- Singaporean defense
- Teaching in Singapore
- foreign Relations in Singapore
- Tourism in Singapore
- International airport Changi
- Island of Batam
- Island of Bintan
- Islands Riau
- island of Sentosa
- Night Safari
- Zoo of Singapore
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