See also: Bolívar
Simón Jose Antonio of Santísima Trinidad Bolívar there Palacios , more known under the name of Simón Bolívar was born the July 24th 1783 with Caracas with the Venezuela, and died the December 17th 1830 with Santa Marta in Colombia.
General and South American politician, it is an emblematic figure, with Argentinian the Jose de San Martín of the emancipation of the Spanish colonies of South America as of 1813. It takes part in a decisive way in independence of current the Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Panamá, Peru and Venezuela. It took part in the creation of the Grande Colombia, of which it wished that it become a great political confederation and soldier gathering the whole of the Latin America.
Bolívar is today a political and military icon in many countries of Latin America and in the world, it gave its name to a very great number of places, streets or parks. One finds statues with his effigy in the majority of the big cities of Spanish-speaking America, but also with New York, Paris, London, Cairo, Tokyo, Quebec. Its name is also that of a State of the Venezuela, of a Département of Colombia and of a country, the Bolivia.
Family and heritageThe mother of Simón Bolívar, María of Concepción Palacios there Blanco, just like his/her father Juan Vicente Bolívar Ponte belonged there to the aristocracy of Caracas, and in spite of a great difference of old they married in 1773: Juan Vicente was 47 years old while Concepción had 15 of them. They had five children, in the order María Antonia, Juana Nepomucena, Juan Vicente, Simón and María del Carmen. The latter died however in the hours which followed its birth.
The Bolívar family was originating in the small town of Ziortza-Bolibar, in Biscay (Basque Country Spanish), attached to the commune of Markina-Xemein. Since the beginning of the South American colonies the Bolívar family implied itself with the Venezuela. The first family member who arrived at Venezuela was his homonym Simón de Bolívar (known as Simón de Bolívar the Old man) which arrived to Caracas with his/her son (known as Simón de Bolívar the Young person), in 1589, thirty years after the foundation of the city. Bolívar the Old man was distinguished as accountant from the King to the exclusive service from Philippe II from Spain, and had other administrative responsibilities in Venezuela.
With time the Bolívar family was linked by the marriage with other families of the first colonists of Venezuela and obtained various rows and distinctions like those of Régisseur , Sous-lieutenant of the King , as well as others titles of nobility like that of Marquis de Bolívar and Vicomte of Cocorote , this last being associated with the transfer of copper the rich person mines of Cocorote and of the seigniory of Aroa. The Spaniards had made come from the Noirs slaves to Venezuela, and Bolivar had also origins mulattos: indeed, its family had generations of the African slaves since.
ChildhoodSimón Bolívar was born in the night from July 24th to 25th 1783, in a villa of the Plaza San Jacinto of Caracas and its complete name is Simón Jose Antonio of Santísima Trinidad Bolívar of Concepción there Ponte Palacios there Blanco , with which he was baptized the July 30th according to with the cathedral of Caracas by his cousin, Doctor Juan Felix Jerez Aristeguieta. It is the latter which would have, according to Juan Vicente Bolívar, proposed the first name of Simón.
In January 1786, whereas Simón Bolívar was two years old, his/her father died of the Tuberculose, letting Concepción direct the family, taking care effectively of the interests of the family. But itself was touched by tuberculosis and its health declined quickly and according to certain médico-historians it is possible that Simón Bolívar suffered from the primary infection tubercular patient, with a type of tuberculosis which would have passed unperceived while immunizing defenses were favorable.
Concepción died the July 6th 1792, when Simón was nine years old, but taking the precaution to write a detailing will which should have the load of his/her children. The brothers and Bolívar sisters thus passed under the guard of their grandfather Don Feliciano Palacios , which while assuming this responsibility fell also sick and started to him to write in his turn a will to appoint a new tutor chosen in agreement with the children.
Simón Bolívar was entrusted to his/her uncle Don Esteban Palacios there Blanco, but as this one was in Spain it remained under the guard of another of his/her uncles, Don Carlos Palacios there Blanco, which was him of nature hard and strict, and which frequently went away from Caracas to deal with its properties, leaving the guard of its nephew to his servants. Simón Bolívar was then provided education for at the public school of Caracas.
Despite everything, the references which Bolívar in its correspondences left let suppose that its childhood was happy and that it was surrounded by much affection, having pleasant memories, with known and influential parents in a very aristocratic environment and in a more general way, in an environment which offered a certain emotional balance to him.
There are some anecdotes popularized in Venezuela which present Bolívar child like somebody of turbulent, anecdotes relayed by romantic writers who sought to allot to him as of childhood an unsubdued character, with the idea that an exceptional man cannot come from a wise child. But it was shown that these anecdotes was invented and introduced into historical accounts by Arístides Rojas, considered as an excellent narrator but often using of his imagination for lack of documents supporting its assertions.
EducationThe schooling of Bolívar was not very brilliant, in a public school of the municipality of Caracas lacking means and presenting administrative deficiencies. Simón Rodríguez was there the teacher of Bolívar and Don Carlos thought of entrusting the guard of Bolívar to him, not being able to deal personally with him. The protests of his/her niece María Antonia in connection with the education which Bolívar received were frequent.
In front of the prospect for going to live with its schoolmaster, Bolívar escaped from the house of his/her uncle the July 23rd 1795 to join his/her sister María Antonia, who took her guard temporarily time that is regulated the legal litigation with the Real Audiencia of Caracas, which returned to Don Carlos the guard of the child. Bolívar tried to resist it, but was taken along of force towards the residence of Simón Rodríguez.
There, the living conditions for Bolívar were very in on this side the EC what he knew, having to share space with 20 other people in a house not being conceived for that. Bolívar escaped again on several occasions, returning each time by order of the courts. Rodríguez ends up giving up its function of teacher to leave in Europe, and the Real Audiencia of Caracas decided whereas Bolívar would be transferred to the Academy of Mathématiques, directed by the father Andújar and who was held in the house of his uncle Don Carlos.
In this academy, the formation of Bolívar improved notably and was supplemented by courses of Histoire and Cosmographie given by Don Andrés Bello, to its entry in the Batallón de Milicias of blancos of los Valles de Aragua (the “battalion of the militia of white of the valleys of Aragua”) the January 14th 1797.
Professors de Simón BolívarHere some of the people having taken part in the education of Bolívar, and who influenced her values and her thoughts:
- Francisco A. Carrasco
- Father Sojo (Pedro Palacios there Sojo)
- Fernando Vacuums
- Simón Rodríguez
- Presbítero Jose Antonio Negrete
- Andrés Bello
- Guillermo Pelgrón
- Fraile Francisco Andújar
- Francine Maria
Between Europe and AmericaBolívar begins its military career at the fourteen years age and eight jours and the title of Sous-lieutenant obtains two years later, in a military unit created in 1759 by one of its aïeux, Don Juan de Bolívar.
Its military service is stopped by the decision of his/her uncles Esteban and Carlos to send it in Spain in order to better know the world and to supplement its formation.
However Spain is then taken in a complex international crisis caused by the French revolution and the ambitions of Napoleon Bonaparte, for which it is necessary to add an internal confrontation between absolutists and liberals, and a tax deficit worsened by a maritime blockade imposed by the Britanniques which disturbs the usual traffic towards Americas, attacking any boat which would try to cross the blockade.
The company of voyage delicate and is thus risked, but Bolívar can nevertheless achieve it in particular thanks to convoys sent by the Spaniards to break the blockade. It is thanks to a convoy ordered by the admiral Alcalá Galiano, who could leave the port of Cádiz in December 1798, cross the blockade and arrive at Venezuela, that Bolívar can leave. It embarks the January 19th 1799 on board the one of the whole arrived ships, the Linership San Ildefonso , in the port of Guaira. The ship sets sail towards Veracruz to join together the fleet and to wait the convenient period to turn over to Spain.
In Veracruz, Bolívar is lodged at Don Jose Donato de Austria and while the fleet of Galiano stations with the port of Havana, he travels to the town of Mexico City to return visit in Obispo Viana. Of return to Veracruz, it takes again its voyage for Spain and reached the port of Santoña the May 13rd 1799 from where it leaves immediately for Madrid.
Quickly after its arrival in Madrid, Bolívar settles in the Marquis d' Ustáriz, a senior official of the King having an education, sophisticated and which becomes one of the most influential tutors on the education and the thought of Bolívar. It is a qualified person with in particular of the experiment in the tasks of government, field in which it supplements the education of Bolívar.
It is as at this period as it meets that which will become his wife, Maria Teresa del Toro there Alayza, girl of the Marquis del Toro and with whom it must have patience two years before marrying, being given the youth of been engaged. Bolívar benefits from it to go first of all to Bilbao where it starts to study the languages, then to Paris where he is the witness many events of the revolutionary France and in direct contact with the France of the Light. It shows also enthusiastic admiror of Napoleon.
Marriage and widowhoodIn 1802, Bolívar turns over to Spain to take again the legal procedures of its marriage, and becomes the husband of Maria Teresa the May 26th in the parochial church of San Jose of Madrid. It is then devoted to prepare its return in America.
Following various events which modify their plans, Bolívar and his wife embark with Corogne the June 15th 1802 for a direct way until the Venezuela, and arrive at the port of Guaira the July 12th of the same year.
Quickly after their arrival they are established with the Majorat Concepción , located close to the Plaza Mayor of Caracas, with the angle of Las Gradillas . Bolívar fully assumes the administration of its goods.
The two husbands cause the curiosity of the Aristocratie of Caracas, which hopes to learn some on the Court and the character from the moment, Bonaparte. During the various festivals and meetings which they attend, Maria Teresa discovers a cultivated and refined company where one discusses freely policy and the revolutionary books however prohibited in Spain.
The couple frequently goes in the properties of the family of Bolívar, which benefits from one year happy. But Maria Teresa contracts the Yellow fever then, disease endemic of the tropical countries , and its state is degraded quickly. She dies about it the January 22nd 1803.
Its death deeply affects Bolívar which is at the edge of the depression, turned sour, and whose idea of a happy life in Venezuela is destroyed.
Oath of the Assembles Sacro
After the death of his wife, Bolívar is devoted to work in its plantations, but the time spent to Venezuela becomes to him unbearable and it decides to return in Europe.
In December 1803, it arrives to Spain and settles in the port of Cádiz where there remains until February 1804, then goes to Madrid. It is known that Bolívar maintains during this period of the contacts with its commercial representatives but one also speculates in his adhesion at this time for the American Big room of the Francs-maçons.
It re-examines in Madrid his father-in-law the Marquis del Toro with whom it shares the death penalty of Maria Teresa. Little time after it decides to turn over to France, newcomer with Paris in April 1804.
According to various critical points of view, the rebuilding of the life of Bolívar between 1804 and 1807 is difficult and the accounts over this period seem strewn with myths. It is known however that he travels between Paris and Rome during this period, that he finds his former Master Simón Rodríguez and that he maintains the exchanges with the famous exploring Naturaliste and baron Alexander von Humboldt, the Botaniste Aimé Bonpland like with the student Carlos Aguirre there Montúfar, who accompanies it in Rome in 1805.
In Paris, Bolívar attends the crowning of Napoleon i, and is found in contact with the thought of the Lumières in an atmosphere in charge of romanticism. The ideas of changes and revolution notably impregnated its political ideals, and Bolívar comes from there to conclude that Spain will not be able to be opposed to France of Napoleon and that its weakening will be made profitable by its enemies such as England. It becomes aware that all that will lead the Spanish colonies of America to having to choose between a French or English domination, unless taking in hand its future independently of Spain.
This reasoning confirms Bolívar in its conviction that the independence is the most beneficial option for Americas after the destruction of the Spanish fleet by the British at the time of the Bataille of Trafalgar in 1805 and by considering the very delicate position of the Spanish crown vis-a-vis Napoleon.
These elements lead it to reject the idea of a possible leadership of Napoleon in the world, and to carry out in front of his/her friend Simón Rodríguez the oath of the Monte Sacro in Rome, where he swears by the gods of his ancestors, by his ancestors themselves, his honor and his fatherland to put a term at the Spanish domination in America.
Bolívar the “Libertador”After having studied in Spain and having visited the France, the Italy and the the United States, it turned over to the Venezuela to take share with the war of independence against the Spanish royalists. It was used initially under the orders as Francisco de Miranda which the weather will be captive in 1812 to deliver it to the Spaniards. Its brilliant military countryside was worth to him the nickname of “El Libertador” ( the Liberator ), but the Spaniards forced it with the exile. It returned in 1817 and seized the News-Grenade in 1819 (the current Colombia), and the Venezuela in 1821. Colombia, the Panamá and Venezuela formed then the Fédération of Large Colombia to which the Ecuador in 1822 united.
With his lieutenant, the general Antonio Jose de Sucre, it contributed to the release of the Peru, already engaged by the army of Jose de San Martín. He became president of Bolivia, country lately formed on the territory of the old viceroyalty of Peru and which taken its name of its liberator, the August 11th 1825 (until January 1st 1826) whereas he was already the president of Large Colombia since 1819. Of this last country, it would preserve the presidency until its departure in exile in 1830. One can consider that until 1826 it did not occupy it any more but symbolically being given its campaigns in the central Andes.
It was however impotent to unify the old Spanish colonies of Latin America. Its political vision was too advances some over its time, and it was shown to want all to dominate. One tried even several times to assassinate it. Thus, on September 30th, 1828, it had its survival only with the decided intervention of the second woman of its life, Manuela Saenz, which gained there its gallons of “Liberator of the Liberator” (Libertadora del Libertador). Disappointed and sick, it definitively withdrew in 1830 and died out on the way of the exile.
According to certain Spanish-Americans historians whose work is resumed by the president Chavez Venezuelan, Bolivar would have been empoisoinné. These adversaries cragnaient that it can reconcquérir the capacity by democratic elections and defend it by the weapons if the need were. Investigations take place to determine the causes of its death: tuberculosis or criminal poisoning.
- “I plowed the sea and sowed the wind”, will say it little before dying, following disillusion not to have been able to build a joint project for all America.
To pay homage to him, one gave the name of Bolivia to a country of South America. The Monnaie of Bolivia is the Boliviano and that of the Venezuela, the Bolívar. In Colombia, Plaza de Bolivar (Plaza Bolívar) is the most known place of Bogotá, in the center there is a statue of Simón Bolívar.
It was also the topic of many literary works like the historical novel of the Venezuelan Arturo Pietri entitled the lanzas coloradas , published in Spanish in 1931 ( red lances , appeared in French, in 1932) and the famous general El known there laberinto , of Gabriel García Márquez, in which are recreated the sad last month of its life, whereas, burned by those which had adulated it, it left for the exile and which in same time the disease completed it.
Still today, the ideas of Simon Bolivar remain in the imaginary revolutionist of the Latin America.
The bolivarism is a current policy asserting certain ideas of the liberator Simón Bolívar.
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