The silure glane ( Silurus glanis ) is large a Poisson of fresh water, originating in Europe of the East, in the neighborhoods of the Seas Baltique and Caspienne and Asia.


Very large fish of form massive on the head and lengthened on the body, with the scale S lower-case (hardly visible), with skin green-brown/white-black, very slipping. Its belly is clear, yellow or white and there exist also certain albino specimens, as well as specimens called " mandarins" resulting in fact from the depigmentation (yellow with orange).

Its head is massive and punt with a very broad mouth, this one can represent up to 30% of its total weight, equipped with lines of small and many teeth, which one calls the graters. Its mouth enables him to absorb without evil of large preys.

It has 6 barbillons: two long on the upper jaw, mobiles and four courts on the lower part of the head. These let us barbillons are used to him to locate its preys or any potential food. They are thus sensors. Let us barbillons are equipped with gustatory buds especially on the distal portion. Let us barbillons very sensitive allow him to detect any movement around him, the stroke of a crayfish to 10 meters is detectable.

It has tiny eyes whose utility is almost null because it uses mainly its barbillons. Its eyes are used to him mainly to detect of the intruders out of their field as detection (except water), and to distinguish certain colors. The eyes are also used to receive the ultra-violet perceptible in the same way whatever the time, which makes it possible fish to respect its biological rythm.

The fins are seven: the two very broad fins pectoral, two ventral slightly least broad, a tiny dorsal fin (of fat texture), a very lonque fin venrale on the basis of the anal opening until the caudal fin, and the caudal fin. It can create a swirl using this one with an aim of disorientating, or of striking its victim which it can then swallow.

The size of the subjects most met is from one to two mêtres. Its size can reach a little more than two mêtres fifty, it can reach a weight of more than one hundred kilos. Subjects of one hundred fifty kilos were taken in Greece.

A legend remains of a silure of 5 mêtre and 306 kilos taken with the net in the Danube but it is completely unverifiable.

It can live more than 30 years and grows all its life just like all the fish.


The group of the Siluriformes is extremely old. The siluriformes existed before the separation of the South America and the Africa, because one knows many water species fresh on the two continents. The siluriformes thus have 110 million years. The silure arrived to Europe approximately 10.000 years ago, at the end of the last glaciation.

SILURUS GLANIS, is originating in the rivers of the East such as the Danube. This one colonized little by little Germany, the Rhine, for finally colonizing the whole of Europe.

One speaks about the first individuals fished in France in the neighborhoods of the Fifties. Some think that the silure of summer introduced by the man voluntarily. Others think that its colonization is natural, according to the principle of settlement of the water ways, and the fertilized egg passage, via the water birds (ducks, geese, swans.)

Food and growth

In the first phase of their development, the alevins nourish plankton, micro invertebrates. The size of their prois grows according to their growth. At the end of the first year, they become carnivorous, have a very fast growth. They meusurent thirty five centimetres at one year, fifty to two years… and reach a weight from 2,5 to 3 kilos the third year. A 25 year old silure weighs approximately 65 kilos… this weight is variable according to the quantities of food available.

The food of silure is very varied and especially opportunist.

They do not hesitate to attack water birds, muskrats, even of the Ragondin S. They can also eat crayfish S and Amphibian S, also of the moulds of fresh water, anodontes… even larvae of dragonflies (of which they raffolent) But their principal food is represented by cyprinidés such as Brèmes, carrassins, carps, keep, rotengles… Of course this one does not scorn by opportunism to eat tenches, poles or pikes. .mais this does not hold of the clean will but chance of the meeting.

The silure is territorial and it happens that he is caught some with his congeneric.

The legends representing silure like a voracious predator, are completely unfounded… indeed good number of fished silures are found to sell it completely empty of any food. Cavity this one eats its weight consequently and is able to eat much food. To specify that it is not of anything in disappearance Pikes. .plutot déssimés by various pollution, with the lack of spawning grounds, and fishes it under with dimensions.


The reproduction of silure is carried out mid-May mid-June. The temperature of water influences directly the date of the abrasion. The laying with place the evening or dawn in a temperature from 18 to 21 degrees c. The silure clears in couple, the eggs are deposited in a nest prepared in advance, the male will savagely defend the nest during incubation against any intruder. The number of eggs is function of the weight of the female, one counts from 20.000 to 26.000 eggs per kilos… A female of one hundred kilos can lay to 2.600.000 eggs. It is absolutely considerable. The overflowing quantity of food in our water, the quality of those like its strong fertility rate and the complete absence of predatory with the height of its size explain its increase in individuals.

habitat and behavior

The silure is thermophilous and saw in deep water and sheltered fort running, preferably encumbered. It affectionate particularly soft or muddy funds, mainly in plain. It passes major the part of the day hidden at the bottom but it sometimes happens to him to drive out in day especially if quelquechose draws its attention, sound waves, fish weakened on its territory… Nevertheless it emmerge generally with laying down sun or it drives out all the night in the search of any food and this until the twilight. It only drives out for him but it is current that it moves into small benches of three or four individuals until reaching a big size. This more especially as the number of individuals is high on a given place. Silure is extremely aggressive towards the intruders or if it feels in danger.

External bonds

See too

  • Poisson S
  • List of fish
  • List of fish of the lakes and rivers used in kitchen
  • Fish shop
  • Pisciculture
  • List of the livestock

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