See also: Freud (homonymy)
Sigmund Freud (May 6th, 1856 with Freiberg (Moravie), Austria-Hungary - September 23rd, 1939 with London) is the inventor of the Psychanalyse. He is sometimes located at the sides of Karl Marx and Friedrich Nietzsche like one of the three large “thinkers of the suspicion”, who induced the doubt in the traditional philosophical design of the subject (Descartes, Kant, etc).
Its work, extremely fertile, fed from the very diverse thinkers as well as varied disciplines. In addition to the Psychoanalysts faithful to Freud like Karl Abraham, Sandor Ferenczi, the innovators like Melanie Klein, the dissidents like Wilhelm Reich, etc), its influence is also felt on the epistemology (Bachelard), on the Ethnologie, the Marxisme (attempts at Freudo-Marxism), on sciences policy, philosophy (Deleuze or Derrida to quote only some of them), finally on art (the Surréalisme, the “paranoiac-critical method” of Salvador Dali, etc) Its work of analyst, his assumptions and his writings thus opened many prospects in varied fields.
In the beginning, it practiced the Hypnose and was interested in the Hystérie since it had assisted in Paris with the courses of Jean-Martin Charcot. It is finally and especially the discovery of the psychoanalysis as cleans which contributed to the notoriety of Freud.
Childhood and studiesFreud is born on May 6th, 1856 with Freiberg in Moravie. Trosième wire of Jakob Freud, modest trader, and first child of his last marriage. After some removals, the Freud family settles in the district Juif of Vienna, old Ghetto of the city. Brilliance raises, first of its class during its seven last years of schooling (college and college), it hesitates as for the studies which it must make between the Droit, the Médecine and the Philosophie. Having chosen medicine, it will spend time to finish its studies: it will have benefitted from it to attend the courses of Brentano, to work in the laboratory of Carl Claus initially and Ernst Brücke then. He is doctor of medicine in 1881, and Brücke advises to him to start to practice in hospital if he wants to be able to be made a situation. Freud indeed is rather poor, and it becomes engaged in June 1882: it must think of its future more than with the pleasure of research in laboratory observed already that when one spends a few times close to a cascade, one is initially obstructed by the noise to forget it then completely. The phenomena of intoxication or fright gave them also examples of abolition of the conscience. However, the unconscious one that introduces Freud is not simply what does not concern the conscience. By unconscious, Freud understands at the same time a certain number of data, information, desires held out of the conscience, but he hears also the whole of the processes which prevent certain data from arriving at the conscience and make it possible the others to reach it, like the Refoulement, the Principle of reality, the Pleasure principle, the Death instinct. Thus, Freud made of unconscious the explanation of the majority of the conscious phenomena themselves.
Three stages of infantile sexuality
- the oral stage: during this period (the first year), the privileged erotogenic zone is the mouth, in particular through the action of breast feeding. The baby takes pleasure with téter the center of the mother. It is the pleasure of eating and of being eaten.
- the anal stage: the child focuses himself between 1 and 3 years on the rectal area, the pleasure is generated by the fact of retaining the feces (retention) or of expelling them (defecation). It is as at this time as the child enters in constant opposition, which sometimes gave at this stage the name of anal-sadistic stage.
- the phallic stage: to see Oedipus complex below.
See also: Oedipus complex
For Freud, the structure of our personality is created compared to the Oedipus complex (or of Electra) and paternal function. The Oedipus complex intervenes at the time of the phallic stage. This period ends in the association of the research of the pleasure to an external person, the mother. The father becomes rival then and the child fears to be punished of his desire of the mother by castration by the father. The child thus drives back his desires and supplements his Super-ego with the concept of decency inter alia.
Freud saw in homosexuality a fixing (libido remained fixed at a stage of the evolution of the Man and which involves symptoms and perversions) in the Oedipus.
Three vexations of scienceAnother important theory freudienne lies in three humiliations which science imposed on the Man:
- cosmological vexation: Copernic shows that the Earth is not in the center of the Universe, the Man is thus not the center of divine creation.
- biological vexation: Darwin shows that the Man and the monkey have a common ancestor, God did not create a perfect man with his image, the Man is only the fruit of a long evolution since the primate.
- psychological vexation: Freud shows that psychism is not limited to the field of our conscience, the Man is thus not truly the total Master of its intrigues.
Three Authority S of the psychic apparatusIn the second Topic proposed by Freud, our behavior is the result of a subtle equation between three instancesdistinctes:
the That: they are somatic demonstrations (aggressive, sexual; instinctive aspect and animal). If That is inaccessible for it to the conscience, the symptoms of psychic disease and the dreams make it possible to have an outline of it. That obeys the pleasure principle and research immediate satisfaction, it is a kind of pot where all our driven back desires bubble.
- the Me: ego is mainly conscious, it is the reflection of what we are in company, it seeks to avoid the too strong tensions of the outside world, to avoid the sufferings grace, in particular, with the mechanisms of defense being in the unconscious part of this authority. Ego is the entity which makes the social life possible. It follows the principle of reality.
- the Super-ego: since the birth up to five years, the child inherits the parental authority, groupale and social, it stores quantity of rules of good manners to be respected. In the companies Judeo-Christians, by interiorizing the rules morals or sociétales of his/her parents and of the group, the child, then the adult practice the Refoulement. Indeed, the Super-ego punishes it to Me for its variations by the means of the remorse and the culpability.
In short, Me is to it the result of the impulses of That filtered by the requirements of the Super-ego.
Culture, nature and interactionsCulture: thoughts, reason, all that was created by the Man (religions included/understood), language
Natural: sensitivity, instincts, desires, needs
The Man must permanently fight against his nature, his desires must be réfrénés so that the company lives, without what universal selfishness would bring chaos. The higher the level of the company is, the more the sacrifices of its individuals are important. By the clear rules that it imposes to us, the culture protects us, even if it requires consequent renouncements instinctual, which explains why there exists often a hatred - often unconscious - with respect to the culture. This is why the culture offers compensations for the constraints and sacrifices to us felt, and this through consumption, the entertainment, patriotism…
a Little vocabulary:
Repression: barrier interns defensive and structural aiming at blocking the representative and the instinctual affect in system ICS so that it does not reach system PCS/CS.
Prohibited: device which fixes refusement.
Deprivation: state which involves the interdict. The deprivation can be of an individual nature (pleasure, desire of murder, inceste, cannibalism…) or collective (the poor must give up more things than the rich person, system oppressed/oppressing).
Narcissism: process of structuring psychic by the exploration of Ego. Freud distinguished a primary narcissism in infancy and a secondary narcissism thereafter (see Narcissisme).
ImpulsesStimulus or stimuli: signal received from outside. It can be fled (to close the eyes to avoid the light.).
Impulse: signal received from the interior. It cannot be flees, its source is the physical excitation and it seeks to be satisfied.
Sublimation is the modification of the goal and the object of an impulse by another skew that suggested by the impulse. An artist can for example sublimate his desires without becoming neurotic or hysterical. Sublimation thus channels the energy of the impulses on a precise object.
Freud distinguishes two types of principal impulses: the life instinct (Eros) and the death instinct (Thanatos).
Eros represents the love and the desire while Thanatos represents death, the destroying and aggressive impulses. Thanatos thus tends to destroy all that built Eros (the perpetuation of the species for example). The masochism is an excellent example.
Functions of the religionFreud is extremely critical with respect to the religion and estimates that the Man loses there more than it does not gain there by the escape which she proposes. Humanity must accept that the religion is only one illusion to leave its state of infantilism, as for the child who must leave the Oedipus complex. It counts three functions sociétales religion:
- To exorcize fear and thus to calm the Man: the Man feels stripped vis-a-vis the existence and, as the child who depends on his parents (principle of désaide), it needs a protection that it finds as a God. The Man finds in fact as a God at the adulthood the lost paternal figure. Consequently, the religion is only one illusion, the result of a very major desire of protection which brings reassuring explanations to us: death is not the end of the lifetime, God created the world and it produces the natural phenomena.
- To reconcile the Man with the cruelty of the destiny (namely Death)
- Dédommager for the deprivations imposed by the culture: admittedly, the Man must obey constraining rules, but the religion promises rewards to him if he subjects himself to it (cf the Paradise).
Nevertheless, Freud recognizes that its point of view has a limit: there would exist a core of truth in the religions, the superstitions and what it names the Occultisme. Freud worked out experiments of Télépathie (in particular with the first psychoanalysts Jung and Ferenczi) and wrote several articles on this question. He was a long time member of the English and Greek Companies for Psychic Research. (Cf Christian Moreau, Freud and the Occultism , Payot, 1976 and).
See also: Interpretation of the dreams according to Freud and the psychoanalysis, Dream-work, Symbolique#Symbolique and psychoanalysis freudienne, Symbolic system and psychoanalysis freudienne
According to Freud, its work on the dreams is most important of all that which should survive all. He wrote that the dream is the royal roads of unconscious the . He opened with Wilhelm Fliess of a wish, he wanted that a plate is posed on its house and who says:
It is in this house that on July 24th, 1895 the mystery of the dream was revealed with Dr. Sigmund Freud . This wish was carried out and fig currently plates it in front of the 19 Berggasse in Vienna. The date corresponds to the one of its dreams, that of the made Irma injection.
The dreams are representations of desires driven back in the unconscious one by the internal censure (later, he will speak about Surmoi). The desires appear in the dream in a way less repressed than with the waking state. The manifest content of the dream is the result of a work intrapsychic which aims at masking the latent content, for example a desire oedipien. In cure of psychoanalysis, work rests on interpretation starting from the account (manifest content) while passing by associations of the patient to arrive at the latent content.
The dream-work rests on four processes:
- - the dream condenses, as if he obeyed a principle of economy. In only one representation will be concentrated several ideas, several images, sometimes of the contradictory desires.
- - the dream is decentred, the deformed desire will be fixed on another object that which it aims, or on multiple objects until the scattering, the dream dilutes sometimes. There is a displacement of the emotional accent.
- - the dream is an illustration (figuration) desire in what it expresses it neither in words nor in acts, but in images; here the symbol plays: the substitute representation of the object and the goal of the desire is sometimes typical and of universal use.
- - Lastly, the dream is also the product of an also unconscious activity, but very near to the vigil activity in what she will endeavor to give him an appearance of probability, organization, internal logic. It is the secondary revision.
- - the dream is decentred, the deformed desire will be fixed on another object that which it aims, or on multiple objects until the scattering, the dream dilutes sometimes. There is a displacement of the emotional accent.
Posterity and criticisms
See also: Critical of the psychoanalysis
Freud was criticized by certain opponents as well on the plan of the methods as on the moral level.
The influence of the psychoanalytical movement and the freudism
See also: Psychoanalysis in the world
Freud built its models in order to transpose the lesson of its psychotherapeutic practice in the metapsychologic theories. That led it to imagine or give in light of the concepts like the Inconscient, the infantile Sexualité and to apply them for the Hystérie and the whole of the field of the Névroses. This work was not without defects nor various limits. Historical work of Ernest Jones and, more recently of the Swiss psychiatrist Henri F. Ellenberger makes it possible to specify than the discovery of the Inconscient is former to Freud. If the latter is a precursor on the matter, it is by its manner of theorizing the unconscious one in its Première topics then its Seconde topics. It also and perhaps especially was that which delivered the word of sexuality, of female sexuality, question scorned hitherto by the doctors. It still should be recalled that it on the other hand never took position preaching a release education manners.
Freud also had a historical importance of foreground: its work of pioneer had a decisive impact on what is the Psychologie, on the nosography of the mental disorders, the Psychopathologie, on the relation of the patient and of his psychotherapist ( transfer), on the structure and the development of the personality, on the conflicts intrapsychic, their internal, instinctual origins and their social and family origins, etc Impact which remains still registered in the field of the social sciences even if the contemporary approach is largely dominated by the statistical and experimental scientific ideology.
The considerable, and often decisive influence from the theories of Freud extended in many countries, Europeans, American, South American but at present, it tends to being called into question.
- " Contribution to the knowledge of the effects of the coca" , (1885) in " A little Cocaine to untie me the langue" , Max Milo Editions, 2005, ISBN 2914388764
- " Contribution to the design of the Aphasias: a study critique" (1891) (PUF; 2nd ED., 1996, ISBN 2130415474
" Studies on hysteria " (in collaboration with Joseph Breuer) (1895) (ED.: PUF, 2002, ISBN 2130530699)
"Letters with Wilhelm Fliess 1887-1904" ED.: University presses of France, 2006, ISBN 2130549950
the interpretation of the dreams " (1899) 2005, ISBN 213052950X
- " On the dream " (1900) (ED.: Gallimard folio, 1990, ISBN 2070325547
- " Three tests on the sexual theory " (1905) (ED: Gallimard folio, 1989, ISBN 2070325393)
"Analyzes of a Phobie of little boy a five year old: The Small Hans " , (1909) *, ED.: PUF, 2006, ISBN 2130516874
- " The Man with the rats: Newspaper of a analyze" (1909) (ED.: PUF Quadridge, 1 2000, ISBN 2130511228
"" In connection with the psychoanalysis known as " sauvage" " (1910) (" The question of the Analyze profanes " , ED.: Gallimard-pocket, 1998, ISBN 2070404900
- " The President Schreber " (1911) (ED.: PUF, 2004, ISBN 2130548288
"The beginning of the traitement" , (1913)
"Recollection, repetition, and élaboration" (1914)
" the Brace of Michel-Angel " (1914)
"The Man with the loups" (1914) (ED.: PUF Quadridge, 1990, ISBN 2130434002
- " Métapsychologie " (1915) (ED.: Gallimard Folio, 1986, ISBN 2070323404)
"Overall picture of the neuroses of transfer: a test métapsychologique" (1915) (Gallimard, 1985, ISBN 2070706850)
"Current considerations on the war and the mort" (1915)
- " Introduction to the psychoanalysis " (1917) (ED.: Payot, 2004, ISBN 2228894052)
"Complement metapsychologic with the doctrines of Dreams " (1917)
" the worrying strangeness and others essais" (1919) (ED: Gallimard Folio, 1988, ISBN 2070324672
"A enfant" is beaten; : (1919)
" Beyond the pleasure principle " (1920) (in " Tests of psychanalyse" ED.: Payot-pocket, 2004, ISBN 2228893994)
"Some psychic consequences of the anatomical difference between the sexes" , (1925)
"Inhibition, symptom and Anguish " (1926) (ED.: PUF, 2005, ISBN 2130549802)
"The question of the Analyze profanes " , (1927), ED.: Folio - Gallimard, 1998, ISBN 2070404900
" Malayan in civilization " (1929) (" Faintness in Culture" , PUF, 2004, ISBN 213054701X)
" New conferences on the psychoanalysis " (1932) (" New conferences of introduction to the psychanalyse" ED.: Gallimard, 1989, ISBN 2070325180
- " Summary of psychanalyse" (1938) (ED.: PUF; rev. and corr., 2001, ISBN 2130444423)
"Analyzes finished and analyzes interminable" (1937
Translations in FrenchIn French, the translations are scattered between several editors (PUF, Payot essentially). They unequal or are sometimes carried out in precipitation and thus very debatable. Not less debatable is the choice of Jean Laplanche and his team of translators who, by a preoccupation with a rigor, present retranslated texts, sometimes illegible. The result is that the reader has the choice between old translations improved and improved or those of Laplanche which are more precise but too often unpleasing. With the reader to make his choice!
Karl Abraham - Freud, Correspondence ((1907-1926)) , Gallimard, 2006
- Sandor Ferenczi - Freud, Correspondence I , Calmann-Levy, 1996
- Sandor Ferenczi - Freud, Correspondence T. 3 , Calmann Levy, 2000
- Ernest Jones - Freud, complete Correspondence gathered by Andrew Paskauskas , PUF, 1998
- Oskar Pfister - Freud, Correspondence with Pasteur Pfister, 1909-1939 , Gallimard, 1991
- Lou Andreas-Salome - Freud, Correspondence 1912-1936 , Gallimard, 1970
- Carl Gustav Jung - Freud, Correspondence: 1906-1914 , Gallimard, 1992
- Ludwig Binswanger - Freud, Correspondence, 1908-1938 , Calmann-Levy, 1995
- Stefan Zweig - Freud, Correspondence , Shores, 2006
- Romain Roland - Freud, Correspondence 1923-1936 , PUF, 1993
- Letters of family of Freud and Freud of Manchester , PUF 1996
- Ernest Jones: " Life and the work of Sigmund Freud" , PUF Quadridge 2006,3 volumes. ISBN 2130556922 t.1; ISBN 2130556930 t.2; ISBN 2130556949 t.3
- Didier Anzieu: " Self-analysis of Freud and the discovery of the psychanalyse" , ED: University presses of France (PUF); 3rd edition, 1998, ISBN 2130420842
- Lydia Flem: " Daily life of Freud and its patients" , Hatchet, 1986.
- Lydia Flem: " The Freud Man. A biography intellectuelle" , Threshold, 1991. Gay ISBN 2253041289
- Peter, Freud, a life , Volume 1 & 2, Hatchet literatures, 1991. Translation of Tina Jolas of has life for our time , 1988. ISBN 2012790542 T1; ISBN 2012790550 t2;
- Alain de Mijolla, Bernard Golse, Sophie de Mijolla-Mellor, Roger Perron: " International dictionary of the psychanalyse" , 2 flight, Hatchet, ED. increased review and, 2005, ISBN 201279145X
- Alain de Mijolla: " Freud, fragments of a history: Who are you Sigmund Freud? " , ED.: PUF, 2003, ISBN 2130533604
- Emilio Rodrigue: " Freud: The Century of the psychoanalysis, divides into volumes 1" ED.: Payot, 2003, ISBN 2228892513
- Emilio Rodrigue: " Freud: The Century of the psychoanalysis, divides into volumes 2" ED.: Payot, 2003, ISBN 2228892521
- Elisabeth Roudinesco, History of the psychoanalysis in France. - Paris: Editions of the Threshold.
- Marthe Robert: " The revolution psychanalytique" , ED: Payot; Edition: Rééd 2006 ISBN 2228881090
- Daniel Lagache, the Psychoanalysis. - Paris: What I know n° 660.
- Daniel Boorstin: " Découvreurs" , - Paris, ED.: Laffont, 1986, ISBN 222105587X
- Brigitte Labbé and Michel Puech, Freud (illustrations of Jean-Pierre Joblin). - Toulouse: Milan youth, coll “Of life in life” n° 15,2005. - 58 p., 18 cm. - ISBN 2-7459-1633-5. - for youth.
- Paul-Laurent Assoun: " Introduction to the epistemology freudienne" , ED.: University presses of France, 1993, ISBN 2130452485
- Paul-Laurent Assoun: " Freud, the Philosophical Philosophy and " , ED.: PUF - Quadridge, 2005, ISBN 2130549128
- Alain Delrieu: " Sigmund Freud, Theme index: Chronological, Anthologique" , ED.: Anthropos, Year 2001 ISBN 2-7178-4248-9
- David Bakan préf. Francis Pasche: " Freud and the mystical tradition juive" ED: Payot, 2001, ISBN 2228893749
- Christian Moreau: " Freud and the Occultism " , Privat, 1976, ISBN 2708928120
- Octave Mannoni: Threshold pocket; Nouv. ED.: 2002 ISBN 2020529270
- Jean-Michel Quinodoz: " To see Freud. Chronological discovery of the work of Freud" , Paris P.U.F. 2004, ISBN 2130534236
- Haynal, A., Falzeder, E. & Roazen, P. (2005). In the secrecies of the psychoanalysis , PUF, Paris.
- max Schur: " Death in the life and the work of Freud" , ED. Gallimard Such, 1982, ISBN 2070257940 (the personal doctor of Freud and psychoanalyst)
- Ilse Barande and Maria Torok: " The Maternal singular: Freud and Léonard de Vinci " , ED: Montaigne sapwood, 1977, ISBN 270070066X
- * Danielle Milhaud-Wrap: " Freud and the psychoanalytical movement of pedagogy 1908-1937; August Aichhorn, Hans Zulliger, Oskar Pfister, Vrin, 2007, ISBN-10: 2711619001
Bibliography of the analyzes and criticisms of the man and work
Pierre Janet: the psychoanalysis of Freud , 1913, (Rééd. Harmattan, 2004, ISBN 2747575322)
- Paul Ricœur: " Interprétation" , ED.: Threshold pocket, 1995, ISBN 2020236796
- Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari, the anti-Oedipus , Midnight, 1972.
- Herbert Marcuse: " Eros and civilization" , Editions of Midnight, 1963, ISBN 2707301582
- Pierre-Paul Grasset: " The defeat of the love or triumph of Freud" , 1976, Albin Michel.
- François Roustang: a so disastrous destiny , Editions of Midnight, 1977, ISBN 2707301426
- Andre Haynal and Paul Roazen: " In the secrecies of the psychoanalysis and sound histoire" , PUF, 2005, ISBN 2130553001
- Paul Roazen: " My meetings with the family of Freud" ED: Threshold, 1998, ISBN 2020183978
- Marcel Gauchet: " The Unconscious cérébral" , Bookstore 20th century, 1992, ISBN 2020135485
- Henri F. Ellenberger, " The discovery ot the Unconscious : The History and Evolution off Dynamic Psychiatry" , New York: BASIC Books. " History of discovered inconscient" , Paris, Beech, 1994.
- Pierre Debray-Ritzen, the psychoanalysis, this imposture , A.Michel, 1991, ISBN 2226052364
- Hans Jûrgen Eysenck, " Decline and falls of the Freudien" Empire; , De Guibert, Paris, 1985.
- Karl R. Popper, " The logic of Discovered the scientifique" , Payot, Paris, 1979.
- Mikkel Borch-Jacobsen, Sonu Shamdasani, the Freud file: Inquire into the history of the psychoanalysis , Empêcheurs To think in Round, 2006, ISBN 2846711321;
- Adolf Grünbaum, " The psychoanalysis with the épreuve" , the Glare, Paris, 1993.
- Renee Bouveresse, " Criticisms of the psychanalyse" , What I know n°2620, University Presses of France, Paris, 1991.
- Jacques Van Rillaer, " Illusions of the psychanalyse" , Pierre Mardaga, Brussels, 1980.
- Patrick J. Mahony: " Freud the écrivain" , Beautiful ED Letters, 1982, ISBN 2251334467
- Frank J. Sulloway, " Freud biologist of the esprit" , Beech, 1979.
- Paul Roazen, " Saga freudienne" , Paris, University Presses of France, 1986.
- Turkle Sherry, " France freudienne" , Beech, 1981. * Catherine Meyer to dir. the black Book of the psychoanalysis: To better live, think and go without Freud , collective (to dir. ), Arenas, 2005 (coll Documents). ISBN 2912485886
has to him (the man) the destiny gave a
- spirit Which, untamed, press always ahead,
- And of which the tendency, in its precipitation,
- Saute over the joys of the Earth Goethe quoted by Freud
- spirit Which, untamed, press always ahead,
- infantile Psychoanalysis
- Unconscious Métapsychanalyse
- First topics
- Second topics
- psychoanalysis and
- Theory of seduction
- Interpretation of the dreams according to Freud
"Le" gate of the French psychoanalysis: * International association of History of the Psychoanalysis (AIHP): * Freud, the psychoanalysis and the Anti-semitism: * Oedipus and Névrose
- Philautarchie - the negation
- Reading of Faintness in the culture
- (Fr) Psychopathology of the daily life
- (in) Psychopathology off Everyday Life
- (Fr) Introduction to the Free psychoanalysis
- Expression: You will be able to find in the Bibliothèque section the ebooks free following:
- Its books on Ebooks free and free
- " Freud on the sofa". A collection of texts, books and Web sites in which the psychoanalysis is approximate in a critical way.
- " Some psychic consequences of the anatomical difference between the sexes" , 1925
- Freud, secret passions , of John Huston the USA 1962
- Sigmund Freud - the invention of the psychoanalysis , two documentary of 55 ' realized by Elisabeth Kapnist and writings with Elisabeth Roudinesco 1997 (diffusion France 3 and Arte)
- Freuds Lost Neighbors
Resources on line
Works of Sigmund Freud in full text
- Quotations and biography of Freud
- In connection with Freud: Primitive scene, work of childbirth and birth of the psychoanalysis.
- the traditional ones of social sciences: (texts of Sigmund Freud in French to be downloaded)
- Freud and the sport: “It is known that modern education makes great use of the sports to divert the youth of the sexual activity; it would be righter to say than it replaces the specifically sexual pleasure for that which the movement causes and which it makes regress the sexual activity with one of the car-erotic components. ” Freud, Sigmund, '' Gesammelte werke '', chronologisch geordnet, fünfter band, “Werke aus den Jahren 1904-1905”, 18 vol., Imago Publishing Co., Ltd, London, 1942, S. Fischer Verlag, Frankfurt, fünfte Auflage, T. 5,1972, Drei Abhandlungen zur Sexualtheorie, II, “infantile Die Sexualität”, § “Quellen DER infantilen Sexualität”, p. 104, note 1.
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