The Sierra Leone is a State of Africa, located between the Guinea (at north) and the Liberia (in south-east). It is bordered in south-west by the Atlantic Ocean. The five principal ethnos groups are: Akwés, Tibulans, Amawoués, Tchogbas and Agbris.
See also: History of the Sierra Leone
The brother of Milton Margaï, Albert Margaï, replaces it like Prime Minister in 1964.
In March 1967, Siaka Stevens, chief of the party All People' S Congress (APC), gains the elections, but its accession with the capacity is delayed until April 1968 by a series of military coups d'etat.
The April 19th 1971, Siaka Stevens founds a mode of sole party. It then starts to try to cleanse the political life, while fighting against corruption for example. But it quickly gives up this way to work the mines of Diamant S in the north of the country.
In November 1987, Joseph Saidu Momoh issues “the economic state of emergency”. Drastic measures of austerity are taken. But the exploitation of the diamond mines always continues to bring back much money to the main leaders of the mode.
The civil war
See also: Civil war of Sierra Leone
It caused the death of 100 000 with 200 000 people and the displacement of more than two million people (what represents one the third of the population of the time). Many mutilations also took place, as well as the large-scale use of children soldiers. The De Beers Sud-Africaine keeps there a role very discussed, since it was the first purchaser of these diamonds, sold with the close Liberia clandestinely. Also, the South Africa keeps it another influence, that of the deployment of its armed forces deprived on the territory of the Sierra Leone in order to make safe the caused diamantiferous areas.
Since the end of the civil warThe May 14th 2002, the outgoing president, Ahmad Tejan Kabbah, is re-elected with 70,6% of the voices.
The country is currently in peace. The various measurements taken by UNO are gradually reduced, even removed, like the lifting of the Embargo on the export of the diamonds of blood . A reduction in manpower of the forces of the blue helmets (Mission of the United Nations in Sierra Leone) is also committed. After a peak of 17 500 men in March 2001, manpower are descended to 13 000 in June 2003 and with 5 000 in October 2004.
However, for economic reasons, many children always work in the diamond mines which are very dangerous. The propagation of the Sida is there also very important, 16 000 children of less than 15 years are HIV positive.
In 2000, according to the Indicating of human development (IDH) which was of 0,275, the Sierra Leone was the country less developed world.
See also: Political of the Sierra Leone
The Sierra Leone is a multi-party République with presidential regime, where the president is at the same time Head of the State and chief of the government. The executive power is with the hands of the government while the legislative power is shared between the government and the Room of the representatives. The judicial power is independent of the executive and the legislature. The new president is Ernest Koroma elected in September 2007.
See also: Geography of the Sierra Leone
Most of the coast are marshes of Palétuvier S, except for the Péninsule where the capital Freetown is. The remainder of the country is mainly a covered plate of Forêt S, being with approximately 300 meters above the sea level. In the east mountains are, of which highest is Loma Mansa, culminating with 1 948 meters.
The climate is tropical, the rain season goes from May to December and the dry season from December at April.
The main cities are Freetown, Koidu (Sefadu), Bo, Kenema and Makeni.
See also: Demography of the Sierra Leone
See also: Subdivisions of the Sierra Leone
The Sierra Leone is divided into four provinces:
- Province of the East
- Province of North
- Province of the South
- Zone of the West, including the capital Freetown
See also: Economy of the Sierra Leone
The economy of the country is mainly based on mining of Diamant and Or. The country is one of poorest world taking into consideration GDP per capita, estimated in 2006 at 900 dollars.
See also: Culture of the Sierra Leone
CodesThe Sierra Leone has as codes:
- SSL, according to the standard ISO 3166-1 (code list country), code alpha-2,
- SSL according to the Code list countries used by NATO, code alpha-2,
- .sl, according to the List of Internet TLD (Signal level domain),
- SLE, according to the Code list country of the CIO,
- SLE, according to the standard ISO 3166-1 alpha-3 (code list country),
- SLE, according to the Code list countries used byNATO, code alpha-3,
- WAL, according to the international Code list of the number plates,
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