The term shogun , of Japanese shōgun (将軍), means “general”, it is the contraction of seiitaishōgun (征夷大将軍), which one can translate by “large pacificatory general of the barbarians”. Nevertheless, after it was allotted to Minamoto No Yoritomo, there became a hereditary title of the line Minamoto, indicating the leader de facto Japan (military dictator), while at the same time the emperor remained leading the of swears (to some extent the guard of the traditions).
Seii Taishōgun of the Time of Heian (794-1185)
Conquest of Emishis
It is originally about a title given, at the beginning of the Time of Heian, with the military commanders of princely row for the duration of the campaigns against the Emishi (蝦夷, native-born people which refused to submit themselves to the imperial capacity of prince Yamamoto. Most famous of these shoguns was Sakanoue No Tamuramaro (坂上田村麻呂) which subjected the Emishi in the name of the emperor Kammu (桓武, 桓武天皇). Later in the Heian time, once Emishi integrated or confined on Hokkaidō (北海道), the Shōgun term was not used any more in this direction.
War of GempeiHowever, later in the Heian time, during the War of Gempei, an additional shogun was indicated.
Minamoto No Yoshinaka, after being entered the capital and having made some leave Will conceal them, was proclaimed Asahi Shogun by the emperor withdrawn Go-Shirakawa. However, after it had tried to take the control of the clan Minamoto, it was very quickly eliminated by his cousin Minamoto No Yoshitsune (brother of Minamoto No Yoritomo), not without to have forced Go-Shirakawa to raise it with the row of Seii Taishogun .
Seii Taishōgun of the Feudal period (1185-1868)
Shogunat KamakuraSee the detailed article Shogunat de Kamakura
After the defeat of the clan during the Guerre of Gempei in 1185 Will conceal, Minamoto No Yoritomo seized the power with the emperor and became the dictator and directing from Japan. It establishes a system of feudal government based with Kamakura (鎌倉), where the soldiers and Samurai S seized the political power which held then the emperor and of the aristocrats of his court with Kyōto.
In 1192, Yoritomo accepted the title of Seii Taishōgun by the emperor, and the political system which it developed by the succession of different the shoguns became known under the name of Bakufu (幕府), or Shogunat. As from this moment, all the shoguns were by tradition of the Minamoto, and the title was transmitted from generation to generation to the oldest descendants.
During the restoration Kemmu (建武), after the fall of Shogunat de Kamakura in 1333, another shogun emerges: Prince Moriyoshi (護良親王) (also known under the name of Prince Morinaga ), wire of the emperor Go-Daigo (後醍醐, 後醍醐天皇). It accepted the title of Seii Taishogun and the direction of the army. Because of Takauji Ashikaga (足利尊氏) (which will be later the founder of the shogunat Muromachi) in rebellion against the emperor, prince Moriyoshi was put in arrest and carried out by Tadayoshi Ashikaga (足利直義), the younger brother of Takauji.
Shogunats of Muromachi and Edo
Apart from Minamoto No Yoritomo, whose shogunat of Kamakura lasted approximately 150 years, of 1192 with 1333, only Ashikaga Takauji and Tokugawa Ieyasu (徳川家康), both descendants of princes Minamoto, accepted the title of Seii Taishōgun and established their own military government bakufu . The shogunat Ashikaga lasted of 1338 with 1573, while the Shogunat Tokugawa covered the period with 1603 with 1868.
Transitory “shoguns” of 1568 - 1598 actually accepted never the title of Seii Taishōgun by the emperor, and did not establish a bakufu , but obtained for a given period the control of the emperor and the greatest part or of the unit of Japan.
The title of Seii Taishōgun was abolished during the restoration Meiji in 1868, in which the effective capacity “was restored” with the emperor and his delegates (see Taisei hōkan (大政奉還)).
Some shoguns famous
List of the Shoguns Ashikaga
Simple: Shogun Zh-classical: 征夷大將軍
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