Sheik Anta Diop
See also: Diop
Sheik Anta Diop (born on December 29th, 1923 with Diourbel - died on February 7th, 1986 with Dakar) is a Historien and Anthropologue Senegal board. It stressed the contribution of the Africa and in particular of the Black Africa at the culture and civilization world. Its theses remain today disputed, and little included in the Western scientific community .
The man and work
Sheik Anta Diop was born the December 29th 1923 in Théytou, in the area of Diourbel (Senegal). At the 23 years age, it leaves to Paris to study physics and chemistry but also turns to the Histoire and the Social sciences. It follows in particular the courses of Gaston Bachelard and Frederic Joliot-Curie. It adopts a specifically African point of view vis-a-vis the vision of certain authors of the time, according to which the Africans are people without past.
In 1951, Diop prepares under the direction of Marcel Griaule a thesis of doctorate to the Université of Paris, in which he affirms that the ancient Egypt was populated black Africans and that the language and the culture Egyptian women were then diffused in West Africa. He initially does not manage to join together a jury, but according to Doué Gnonsoa, its thesis meets a “great echo” in the form of a book, negro Nations and culture , published in 1954. It will obtain finally its Doctorat in 1960. It continues in same time a specialization in Nuclear physics at the nuclear chemistry laboratory of the Collège de France. Diop makes profitable its multi-field formation to combine several methods of approach.
It is based on quotations of old authors like Hérodote and Strabon to illustrate its theory according to which the old Egyptians presented the same physical features as the black Africans of today (color of the skin, aspect of the hair, the nose and the lips). Its interpretation of data of an anthropological nature (like the role of the Matriarchy) and archaeological lead it to conclude that the Egyptian culture is a “negro” culture. On the linguistic level, he considers in particular that the wolof, spoken today in Western Africa, is genetically related with the ancient Egyptian language.
. When it obtains its doctorate in 1960, it is with the honourable mention, which in practice, prevents it from teaching in France. It returns to Senegal to teach as University lecturer with the Université of Dakar, from now on famous Université Sheik Anta Diop (UCAD). It is only in 1981 qu ' it will obtain the title of professor there. But since 1966, it creates within this University of Dakar the first African laboratory of dating of the archaeological fossils to radiocarbon. ; in collaboration with that of the French Police station to the atomic energy (ECA) of Gif-sur-Yvette. It also carries out tests of mélanine there on samples of skin of Egyptian mummies, whose interpretation would make it possible, according to Diop, to confirm the accounts of the old Greek authors on the melanodermy of the former Egyptians.
In the years 1970, Diop takes part in the scientific committee which directs, within the framework of UNESCO, the drafting of a general Histoire of Africa . Within the framework of the drafting of this work, it takes part in 1974 in the International symposium of the Cairo where it confronts the methods and results of its research with those of the principal world specialists. Following this international symposium, he to him is entrusted the drafting of the chapter devoted to the Origine of the former Egyptians. The final report of the conference mentions the agreement of the specialists - to the exception in one on the elements brought by Sheik Anta Diop and Theophilus Obenga about filiation between the old Egyptian culture and the African cultures. Thus, for the professor Jean Vercoutter: . Professor Leclant recognized this same African character in the temperament and the manner of thinking of the Egyptians. The scientific community remains nevertheless divided on the nature of the settlement of old Egypt: mainly made up of Blacks until the loss of independence for some, mixed according to other experts.
In addition, since 1947, Diop engages politically in favor of independence of the African countries and the constitution of a Federal state in Africa. Until 1960, he fights for the independence of Africa and Senegal and contributes to the politization of many African intellectuals in France. Between 1950 and 1953, he is general secretary of the students of the African democratic Gathering and denounces very early, through a article published in the Voice of the Black Africa, the French Union, which, “whatever the angle under which one considers it, appears unfavourable with the interests of the Africans”. Continuing the fight on a more cultural level, it takes part in the various congresses of the artists and black writers and, in 1960, it publishes what will become its political platform: economic and cultural Bases of a future Federal state in Black Africa .
According to Gifted Gnonsoa, Diop will be one of the principal instigators of the democratization of the political debate in Senegal, where it will animate the institutional opposition to the mode of Léopold Sédar Senghor, through the creation of political parties (the FNS in 1961, the RND in 1976), of a newspaper of opposition ( Siggi , famous thereafter Taxaw ) and of a trade union of peasants. Its confrontation, in Senegal, with the cantor of Négritude would be one of the intellectual episodes and the most outstanding policies of the modern history of the Black Africa.
Sheik Anta Diop dies in his sleep with Dakar, the February 7th 1986. In 1966, at the time of the first festival of negro arts of Dakar, Diop was distinguished as “the African author who exerted the most influence over the XXe century”.
The historiographic theory of Sheik Anta Diop
Sheik Anta Diop gathered the results of his work in the last work which it published before his death entitled Civilization or cruelty, anthropology without kindness ; where it exposes its historiographic theory, while trying to answer principal criticisms which its work caused in the historians and “Egyptologists insincerely”.
Anteriority of negro civilizations
According to Diop, the man (Homo sapiens), appeared under the tropical latitudes of Africa, in the area of the Big lakes. The chain of African hominisation would be only which is complete, oldest and also the most prolific. Elsewhere one would find fossils human representing of the links scattered of a sequence of dubious hominisation.
Diop poses that the first homo sapiens were to be probably of black phenotype, because according to the Règle of Gloger, the living beings originating in the tropical latitudes secrete more Mélanine in their skin, in order to be protected from the solar radiations. What confers a complexion with the darkest nuances to them (or the least clear). For him, during millenia, there were men on Earth only of “Negros”, nowhere elsewhere in the world that in Africa, where oldest bones of men " modernes" discovered have more: 150000 years of age; while elsewhere the oldest human fossils (e.g. the Middle East) have approximately: 100000 years.
According to Günter Bräuer, the human fossils are all the more old as they are in Africa, in the middle of Africa. While they are all the more recent as they are out of Africa, far from Africa. According to Yves Coppens, no exception still was brought to this rule coherence of the theory “Out off Africa”, which remains the only one to present if high degree of stability.
If Africa is “the cradle of humanity”, then according to Diop the oldest phenomena civilisationnels necessarily must have taken place on this continent. According to Nathalie Michalon, born in Africa, the man tries out the oldest cultural techniques there before going to conquer planet, precisely thanks to them.
According to Diop, as Africa has an approximate surface of thirty million square kilometers, one imagines that the only hominisation of all this space had to take several millenia. So that the fossils/human phenomena of the Southern half of Africa are generally older than those of its Northern half. According to a bulletin of the IFAN, this geographical vastness of the first environment of homo sapiens , taking into account its great climatic diversity, resulted in another to differentiate African humanity very early, from the phenotypical and morphological point of view.
The natural leading cause of the first human migrations would consist in the climatic evolutions: in the succession of rainy periods and drynesses in Africa, corresponding respectively to periods of glaciation and/or precipitation in its regions bordering, in southernmost Europe and with the Middle East. According to Diop, the homo sapiens would have followed, in the first times, the natural availability of the food resources (animal and vegetable) to the liking of the climatic economic situations; by always borrowing the natural ways of exit of Africa (Sicily, Italy of the South, Isthmus of Suez, Straits of Gibraltar). According to Internet site Hominides, the cultural catalysts of this migration would consist in the control of the fire, which allowing to live in moderated regions, and according to Diop, the invention of navigation allowing to cross vast watery extents.
According to Theophilus Obenga, until first half of the 20th century, this historiographic prospect for Diop is contrary to what is commonly diffused; since Hegel, Hume, Kant, Rousseau, Hobbes, Marx, Weber, Renan, etc So that its negro Nations and culture would be the first work of this scale studied the history of Africa former to the drafts négrières Arab and European, in the oldest times. Always according to Obenga, Diop introduced there a diachronic depth that there was not; with the radical difference of ethnological or anthropological work generally anhistoric: “the most daring book that a negro ever wrote”, will say Aimé Césaire in his Discours on colonialism .
Egypt like a négro-African civilization
“Afrocentrée” Egyptology is a field of research initiated by Sheik Anta Diop, where one studies the age of old Egypt on the basis of the postulate which it is a négro-African civilization. Indeed, according to Diop Egyptian civilization would be a “negro” civilization.
By its inhabitants
Diop reports that according to Hérodote, Aristote, Strabon and Diodore of Sicily, the Egyptians had the skin “black”. It also announces the opinion of the count de Volney for whom the Egyptians would be the downward one of “negro”. Other authors, like Mubabinge Bilolo, will take again and develop this argument.
See also: Kemet
According to Sheik Anta Diop, by the expression Kemet, the Egyptians would have indicated themselves in their own language like people of “Negros”.
In support of its thesis, he calls upon a “strange” C-W communication of km.t given by a man and a woman sitting, C-W communication translated by “the Egyptians”, but that the afrocentric Egyptologist Alain Anselin translated like “a community of men and women blacks”. One knows only one occurrence of it, in a literary text of the Moyen Empire.
As an old Egyptian, Kemet is written with like root the word km , “black”, whose Diop thinks that it is at the etymological origin of “the biblical root kam ”. For him, the traditions Jewish and Arab generally classify Egypt like one of the countries of Blacks. Moreover, according to Diop, the morpheme km proliferated in many négro-African languages where it preserved the same direction of “black, black being”; in particular in its native tongue, the “wolof” where khem means “black, to carbonize by excess of cooking”, or in pulaar where kembu means “coal”.
Tests of mélanine
According to Sheik Anta Diop, the Egyptian processes of momification do not destroy the skin at the point to return impracticable the various tests of the mélanine making it possible to know their pigmentation. On the contrary, have regard to the reliability of such tests, it is astonished that they were not generalized on the mummies available. On samples of skin of Egyptian mummy “taken at the laboratory of physical anthropology of the Museum of the Man in Paris”, Sheik Anta Diop built mean cuts, whose microscopic observation with the ultraviolet light makes him “undoubtedly classify the former Egyptians among the Blacks”.
By its language
The linguistic argument of Diop comprises two shutters. On the one hand, the author tries to prove that the old Egyptian does not belong to the afroasiatic family. In addition, it tries to positively establish the genetic relationship of the old Egyptian with the contemporary négro-African languages. Thus, according to Diop and Obenga, the contemporary négro-African languages and the old Egyptian have a common linguistic ancestor, whose theoretical matrix (or “ancestor common pre-dialecta” L) would have been reconstituted by Obenga, which baptized it “Négro-Egyptian”.
The native tongue of Sheik Anta Diop is the wolof (wolof, ouolof), and it learned the old Egyptian at the time of his studies of Egyptology. What, according to Diop, would have enabled him to see concretely that there were similarities between the two languages. It thus tried to check if these similarities fortuitous, were borrowed, or subsidiary.
Example of similarities:
- nad: to ask (as an Egyptian) | stable-lad: to ask (in Wolof)
- nah: to protect (as an Egyptian) | lah: to protect (in Wolof)
- benben: sourdre (as an Egyptian) | beautiful beautiful: sourdre (in Wolof)
According to Diop, there are a regular equivalence between the direction of the Egyptian word and that of the word walaf. More generally, there would be a perfect agreement between the semantic field of the Egyptian words and that of the words wolof of the same morphology.
According to Alain Anselin, the phenomenon of duplication (benben/beautiful beautiful) is generalized as an old Egyptian and in the modern négro-African languages:
- Egyptian: dgdg = to crush foot, to trample
- somali: degdeg = quickly, urgent
- walaf: dëgdëg = to trample
- basaa: tegatega = clopin-clopan
- lingala: leka-leka = to grind
- kikongo: dekadeka = wavering.
Diop observes a “law of correspondence” between N as an Egyptian and L in walaf. It also observes that in the presence of a morpheme having a structure Nd as an Egyptian, one generally meets an equivalent morpheme in Walaf of structure ld .
For Diop, the consonant structure of the Egyptian word (Nd) is the same one as that of the word walaf (ld); knowing that often the vowels are not graphiées as an Egyptian, even if they are marked. That wants to say, according to him, that where is noted for the Egyptian has, it is possible to meet very an other vowel in the morpheme walaf equivalent. In this case the correspondence would be approximate only seemingly, because it is the phonetisation (the pronunciation) of the Egyptian according to the Semitic rules of pronunciation which would be erroneous. Of course such a law does not result from two or three examples, it supposes the establishment of.
By the spiritual culture
According to Sheik Anta Diop, the comparison between Egyptian cosmogonies and contemporary African cosmogonies (Dogon, Ashanti, Yoruba, etc) watch a radical similarity which testifies according to him to a common cultural relationship. It advances a similarity of the God-Snake dogon and Egyptian God-Snake, or that of the God-Jackal incestueux dogon and incestueux Egyptian God-Jackal. The author also calls upon isomorphisms Noun/Nommo, Amon/Ama; just as the similarity of the festivals of the pertaining to worship agrarian or cyclic sowing and others practical.
. For this reason, the aforementioned animal (or sometimes a plant) been the subject of taboos which determine pertaining to worship attitudes specific to the clan, that one indicates by the term of Totémisme. According to Diop, this the related institution and pertaining to worship practices are attested in Egypt just like in the other “négro-African” cultures.
According to Diop, the Egyptians practiced the circumcision as of the predynastic period. Being based on a testimony of Hérodote in Euterpe , he thinks that this institution would have diffused itself with the Semitic populations from Egypt. It is attested in other “négro-African” cultures, in particular at Dogons where it is during excision. Thus for Diop, circumcision and excision are duelles institutions of social sexuation; those would result from the cosmogonic myths of the original androgyny of the life, in particular of humanity (it quotes the example of).
By its sociology
According to Josep Cervello Autuori, the Egyptian royalty carries a sacerdotal dimension like elsewhere in Black Africa. But according to Diop, a feature even more singular commun run with the African traditional sovereigns consists of “the setting with ritual death of the king”. This practice would be attested, in particular at the Yoruba, Haoussa, Dagomba, Tchambas, Djoukons, Igara, Songhoy, Shillouks. According to Diop, Égytpiens would have also practiced the ritual regicide, who would have become gradually symbolic system, through the festival of the '' Sed '', a rite of revitalization of the royalty.
For Diop, the matriarchy is with the base of the “négro-African” social organization. Also it would be attested like such in old Egypt: as well through the matronymat, as by the distribution matrilinéaire of the public authorities.
According to Diop, the old Egyptian company was structured hierarchically in the same way that the other “négro-African” companies old. Bottom of the socio-professional scale to the top, it would be composed of:
- semi-skilled worker, called “castes” elsewhere in Black Africa,
- warlike, priests, civils servant,
- King-Crowned, called “Pharaon” in Egyptology.
By its material culture
The whole of the various types of arguments which the afrocentrists call upon mobilizes various scientific disciplines, and constitutes according to them a “beam of evidence”, i.e. a total sales system, having its own internal coherence which establishes it like an autonomous epistemological paradigm.
However, the concern of Diop less consists in innovating as regards historiography of Africa, that to know the history of Africa deeply in order to learn the useful lessons from them to act effectively on its future. More it is not a question to enorgueillir themselves childishly of some glorious past, but to know well where one comes for better including/understanding where one goes. From where its remarkable political futurology in economic and cultural bases of a Federal state of Black Africa (ED. African presence, 1960); and its implication concretes in the political competition with the Senegal, its native land.
Cultural unit of the Black AfricaAugust 1st
Posterity of the work of Sheik Anta DiopMany authors, while recognizing that Diop had the merit to release the vision of old Egypt of its skew europeocentrist, remain divided on certain of its conclusions. Certain researchers Africanists dispute the insistence of Diop on the cultural unit of the Black Africa. Others estimate that its multi-field approach brings it to summary bringings together in certain fields like linguistics, or that its theses enter in contradiction with the academic lesson of the archeology and the history of Africa and in particular of Egypt. Its work is not regarded as a reliable source by part of the current historians affirming that its work arouses the interest in the field of the historiography of Africa and not on that of the knowledge of its past. For Mubabinge Bilolo. the summary bringings together do not constitute a negative point, because for him, Diop is a pioneer who opened prospects, layout of the tracks of research and left a series of tasks for the future generations.
Out off AfricaWork of Yves Coppens, Luigi Luca Cavalli Sforza, Svante Paabo, Anna di Rienzo, Bryan Sykes, abundantly documents the theory of the African origin of humanity.
Egypt, EthiopiaThe idea of black old Egypt had already been advanced by other authors, but the work of Sheik Anta Diop is founder insofar as it considerably looked further into the study of the role of the Black Africa in the origins of civilization. It gave rise to a school of African Egyptology by inspiring for example Theophilus Obenga, Mubabinge Bilolo and Molefi Kete Asante. Diop took part in the development of a African conscience released from very complex vis-a-vis the European vision of the world. Work of Sheik Anta Diop, inter alia, gave rise to a current historiographic called of the afrocentricity. On the linguistic level, it initiated the diachronic study of the African languages and cleared the African history précoloniale (except period pre-Egyptian woman largely with accompanying notes). From now on, the fact that Egypt is a primarily African civilization is not called into question by the Egyptologists, contrary to the racial theories aiming at making a “negro” civilization of it.
African historical linguisticsAccording to Sheik Anta Diop, there exist correspondences syntactic, morphological, phonological and grammatical regular between the négro-African languages, in particular the walaf, and old Egyptian. He considers that the laws of correspondences observed between old Egyptian and walaf do not exist between old and Hebrew, Arab, or Berber Egyptian.
Its step known as of “African historical linguistics” will be generalized by Theophilus Obenga with many other négro-African languages, in particular the mbochi, its native tongue. Oum Ndigi made similar studies on based. Aboubacry Moussa Lam worked in this direction for the peul. Alain Anselin belonged to many regular similarities with regard to “grammar of the verb, the gesture and the body as an old Egyptian and in the modern négro-African languages”. Thus, a whole school of African historical linguistics was born from this research. Obenga has famous “Négro-Egyptian” the general theory of this African historical linguistics.
. Indeed, on the site of Blombos were exhumed. They date of more than: 70000 years. In the same way, on the site of Kerma, work of Switzerland Charles Bonnet has (- 3000/-1500) compared to Pharaonic Egypt.
The message that Diop wished to make pass is that he wrote in 1979 in Negro Nations and Culture is that: the Black Africa has a rich history and largely contributed at the origin of civilizations and the techniques.
The Egyptologist Alain Anselin sought to show the africanity of the hieroglyphic writing . For him, “if the repeated absence of the pairs of homophons necessary to the establishment of the hieroglyphic code in a family of languages given makes difficult to affirm that this linguistic universe can give an account of the development of the hieroglyphic writing”, he considers “African paradigm” would be equipped with a “explanatory capacity” larger, that the “Semitic paradigm” which he regards as skewed. Anselin also estimates that the hiéroglyphes photograph the ecological medium and sociétal which saw them being born. However, the fauna and the flora of the Egyptian scriptural signs are, according to him, African, in particular of the area of the Big lakes, in the middle of Africa and the Egyptian Ichthyonomie would present similarities with the fish names in various languages " négro-africaines" contemporary.
Babacar Sall raises that in the sign list of the Egyptian grammar of Alan H. Gardiner the symbols relating to the instruments of fishing and hunting are particularly numerous, and estimates that they correspond to practices and techniques attested in all the Black Africa, still nowadays.
Political anthropologyThe comparisons of Diop between the institution of Pharaon and, inter alia, that of the Damel of Cayor or the Mogho Naba of Mossi caused other research, in particular by Alain Anselin, but also Cervello Autuori. According to this last author, the political institution known as of “the crowned royalty” (Ivans-Pritchard, Luc De Heusch, Michel Izard) would be attested in Egypt like elsewhere in Africa; just as the ancestral practice of the ritual regicide. The Pharaon, Mansah, Mwene or Mogho Naba are structurally similar institutions: sacerdotal and at the same time policies. They are distinguished radically from the “King”: Was Pharaonic monarchy a African divine royalty? First of all, it is advisable to notice that in Egypt god-which-dies it is Osiris and that, as in the case of the African divine kings but with the difference in the others god-which-die of Europe and of the Middle East old, Osiris is also king (...). Like the African kings, Osiris is the personification of principal food of the community, the cereal, the barley (cf, e.g., Mystère of the succession, scene 9,29-32; Texts of the sarcophagi, 269,330; Fights of Horus and Seth, 14,10; Texts of the sarcophagus of Ankhnesneferibre, 256-302; Plutarque, Isis and Osiris, 36,41,65,70; cf also " Osiris végétants" , representations of the clay god in which are inserted seeds of cereal which end up germinating), and itself or moods which emanate from its corpse identify with the Nile or water fertilizing of raw (cf Textes of the Pyramids, 39,117,788,848,1360; Anthem of Ramsès V in Osiris). The capital of Egypt, Memphis, is a center which diffuses abundance because the corpse of Osiris floated in water of the Nile to its height and that it was buried there (Theology memphite, 61-62, 64). It is that Osiris, died king-god, exemption abundance precisely under its condition of death, to be sacrificed (Frankfort, 1948, chap. 2). In addition to being god-which-dies it, Osiris is also the first ancestor of the royalty (to be individual) and, as a died king, that to which all the kings are identified while dying (to be collective). Osiris thus resembles itself in all aspects to the African king-god. (...) To conclude, we could wonder how is explained this relationship and, in general, how are explained many parallelisms which exist between Egypt and Africa. Certain authors spoke about diffusion, others of convergence. We prefer, as for us, the concept of “cultural substrate side-African”, included/understood as a common cultural heritage which would have had its origin at the time Neolithic era and of which would have emerged, here and there in space and time, various historical African civilizations and actuelles.
Work of Diop in this field in particular inspired the work entitled Conception Bantu of the Authority. Followed by Baluba: Bumfumu BuLongolodi (African University Publications, Munich-Kinshasa, 1994) of the authors Kabongu Kanundowi and Bilolo Mubabinge.
Critical of the work of DiopAlthough demonstration was made before work of Diop that the Egyptian does not belong to the Semitic group of the afroasiatic languages, it does not result from it necessarily that it does not belong to the phylum afroasiatic. Thus, the linguist specialist in comparative literature A. Loprieno in particular raises the characteristics common to the Egyptian and the other afroasiatic languages: inter alia the presence of roots bi- and trilitères, constants in the verb and nominal stems which derive from it; the frequency of consonants glottales and laryngeal, most characteristic being occlusive laryngeal the ˁayn ; the female suffix *at ; the nominal prefix m ; the adjectival suffix - I (the Arab nisba ). With the International Conference of Toulouse (September 2005), A. Anselin as for him “delivered a communication relating to the names of numbers as an old Egyptian where he considers two currents of influence, one tchado-Egyptian, the other égypto-Semitic one”. The genetic relationship of the old Egyptian with the contemporary négro-African languages pareillement is pareillement disputed by certain philologists and lexicologists. Thus, Henry Tourneux, specialist in the African languages (will mbara, fulfulde, munjuk, kotoko…) and member of the mixed unit of research Language, Languages and Cultures of Black Africa (CNRS), observes that “ the coincidence of three noncontiguous languages” does not guarantee “ the common character, “négro-Egyptian”, of a word ”: indeed, it is not enough that a linguistic fact is attested in two noncontiguous languages of contemporary “négro-African” (the third language being the old Egyptian or the Copte) nor that the semantic fields are identical so that the proof is had that the linguistic fact in question raises of a hypothetical matrix “négro-Egyptian woman”.
Criticisms of Henry Tourneux were the detailed answer object of Theophilus Obenga in " The direction of the fight against the Africanism eurocentriste" , where it estimates that its contradictor is not qualified as regards comparative historical linguistics, nor even specialist in the Egyptian language. Indeed, Henry Tourneux is “specialist in the tchadic languages and the lexicography peule”. In addition, according to Obenga, no linguist specialist in linguistics historical still disputed his work and those of Diop, particularly with regard to the regularity of the properties common to the négro-African languages, the copte and the old Egyptian. However, always according to Theophilus Obenga, it is very precisely this regularity, making the force of linguistic law (cf F. of Saussure, A. Meillet, E. Benveniste), which founds its general theory of the " négro-égyptien" : scattered, irregular similarities between the languages or groups of compared languages being able to raise, or of coincidences, or - more surely in the afroasiatic species of the paradigm - reciprocal loans of languages whose speakers are geographically joint since millenia. For Obenga, the fact even as the modern African languages are not contemporary of the old Egyptian, and than much of these languages are attested to thousands of kilometers of Egypt, would be an argument favorable to its linguistic theory of the " négro-égyptien" : Enormous geographical discontinuity militates in favor of the exclusion of the loan in these old times, on the whole of the established, morphological, phonetic and lexicological agreements. I.e. the very old separation of the common stock prédialectale eliminates the effects of convergence, chance and loan. In other words, so of connections of character sérial are established between the Pharaonic Egyptian, the modern copte and négro-African languages, one is authorized to recognize a “air of family”, a “relationship by sequence” according to the expression of systematic of the plants, even if one moves away much from the initial type, of the rebuilt prototypes. Thus, the time which separates the old Egyptian from the current African languages - a 5000 years hiatus - instead of constituting a difficulty presents on the contrary as a sure criterion of comparison (the time which separates the hittite from current Portuguese is also enormous, but nothing prevents from comparing these two languages directly, in a given unit, to join the indo-européen. precisely
negro Nations and culture: Egyptian negro antiquity with the cultural problems of the Black Africa of today , (1954)
- the cultural unit of the Black Africa , (1959)
- African antiquity by the image ,
- the Black Africa précoloniale. Comparative study of the political systems and social of Europe and the Black Africa of antiquity with the formation of the modern States , (1960)
- technical cultural bases and industrialists of a future Federal state of Black Africa ,
- Anteriority of negro civilizations, myth or historical truth? , (1967)
- genetic Relationship of the Pharaonic Egyptian and the négro-African languages (1977)
- Civilization or cruelty , (1981)
- New research on the old Egyptian and African languages modern , African Presence, Paris, 1988. Posthumous work.
- Sheik Me Backé Diop, Sheik Anta Diop, the man and work , ED. African presence, 2003
- Theophilus Obenga, Sheik Anta Diop, Volney and the Sphinx , ED. Khepera/African Presence, 1996
- Gifted Gnonsoa, Sheik Anta Diop, Theophilus Obenga: fights for the African Rebirth , ED. Harmattan, 2003
- Djibril Samb, Sheik Anta Diop , ED. NEA, Dakar, 1992
- Pathé Diagne, Sheik Anta Diop and Africa in the history of the world , ED. Sankoré/L' Harmattan, 1997
- Jean-Marc Ela, Sheik Anta Diop or honor to think, ED. Harmattan, 1989
- François-Xavier Fauvelle, Africa of Sheik Anta Diop , ED. Karthala, 1996
- Re-examined cultural Nomad, n°3, Last criticisms of the thought of the African scientist Sheik Anta Diop , ED. Harmattan, 1991
- Re-examined cultural Nomad, Sheik Anta Diop , ED. Harmattan, 2000
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