See also: Shanghai (homonymy)
Shanghai or Chang-hai (in Mandarin; Pinyin: Shànghǎi ; Shanghaïen: zanhe , pronounced, “on the sea”) is the the most populated city China, and one of densest with: 2804 inhabitants with the square kilometer (in 2006). The emergence of the city like centers financial of the Asia-Pacific, with and at the 20th century was done in the pain, with the foreign occupation of the city during several decades. In the years 1920 and 1930, Shanghai was the theater of a formidable cultural rise which contributed much to will have mythical and fantasmatic which has been associated with the city for this time. After the foundation of the Republic of China and the Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945), the advent of the Popular republic of China muzzled the city economically and culturally, considered as a hearth of middle-class man and depravity, until Deng Xiaoping in 1992 decides to promote the urban development. It seems today that the city is on the way to find the place of financial center of Asia which it occupied before. Its growth with two digits, its 17 million inhabitants, its cosmopolitan change and its cultural rise invite it to become a world metropolis, at the sides of New York, London or Paris. It will accommodate the World Fair in 2010 and certain tests of the 2008 Olympics.
Origin of the nameThe word “Shanghai” is generally marked French //, but in Chinese Mandarin it is marked //; the second H is pronounced like the Jota Spanish E.
In dialect shanghaïen, the name of the city east Zanhe //, zan, like French, H pronounced like H English or German, different from that of Mandarin, E pronounced between E and E.
It has several diminutives:
- Hu (滬 or 沪), which means “the palisade in bamboo employed to fish fish”
- Shen (申): during the Period of the kingdoms combatants, king Kaolie of the kingdom of Chu (楚考烈王) gave a field to Huang Xie (黃歇), also called lord Chun shen (春申君). This field was located close to current Shanghai.
Shanghai means literally: “overhanging the sea”.
OriginsIn the modest origin port and village of tisserands, Shanghai (" On the mer") did not seem not promised with similar cosmopolitan rise.
Shanghai was not always called Shanghai. Until the Dynasty Sui, it was the village of Zhongyin Tún Bù (華亭鎮). Under the Dynasty Lā Jī, it became the prefecture of Huating before having its current name under the Dynastie Song.
Being given its strategic situation to the mouth of the Yangzi Jiang, in the center of China, and the proximity with cities with the famous artisanal productions (Suzhou, Hangzhou), Shanghai became very early a center of important economic exchanges.
Foreign occupationHowever, it is only after the Guerres of opium and the foreign occupation that the economic development of the city took the scale which made its reputation. During the First war of opium, the forces Britannique S temporarily held the city. American S and French will follow, preceding the Russian S and the Japanese. The war ceased in 1842 with the Traité of Nankin, establishing the commercial opening of the Chinese ports, of which Shanghai. The victorious British arrange there one of the five open ports which will then be conceded to them. With the Treated Bug, in 1843 and the treaty sino-American of Wangxia, in 1844, foreign nations had the right to be established on the Chinese territory: it is the beginning of the foreign concessions.
With the Rebellion Taiping in 1850, Shanghai was occupied by a Triade, associated with the movement called Société of the Small Swords. The war making rage in the campaigns, of many Chinese took refuge in the city, which was theoretically inaccessible for them: in 1854, new laws made it possible to the Chinese to acquire grounds there, causing a real inflation. This year also took place the first meeting of the municipal council of Shanghai, in order to manage the established foreign concessions de facto . In 1863, the American and British colonies met to form the international Concession, whereas the French established, them, the French Concession.
Play, Opium and Prostitution is then the most gainful employments of this city baptized on this occasion “the largest brothel of the world”. Its godfather more known, Of Yuesheng, carried out his traffics while collaborating narrowly with the police force of the French concession, at this time more big city of France.
After the Sino-Japanese war of 1894-1895, the Traité of Shimonoseki makes it possible to the Japanese to be added to the occupying forces. They establish in Shanghai the first factories of the city.
This period of occupation deeply marked the cultural identity of the city, while contributing in the Twenties and Thirties to the rise of arts, cinema, theater, and the birth of the first group of Chinese jazz. In 1920, one counts there a million inhabitants, including twenty six thousand eight hundred various foreigners of nationality. They work the streets with their taste, mixing the styles neogothic, traditional, victorien, Art déco… The singer and actress Zhou Xuan are undoubtedly the emblématique figure of this period. It is as in Shanghai as is created the Chinese Communist party in 1921 and that the first working strikes were organized. The majority, coolies and workmen, remain in poverty and will enlarge the rows of the Chinese Communist party
Under the mode of the Republic of China, Shanghai became a special city in 1927, and an in May 1930 municipality. It is then the financial center of Asia, where the Mexican dollars for example were exchanged in mass after the stock exchange crisis of 1929. The Japanese navy bombards the city the January 28th 1932, officially to repress the protests coeds having followed the Incident of Mandchourie.
As from the month of August 1937, at the dawn of the Sino-Japanese war, Shanghai are subjected by the marine and the armed Japanese to a series with Bombardement S which involves the death and the evacuation of several thousands of civilians. Having terrestrial and naval forces quite higher than the Chinese army, the imperial troops take possession of the city in November (Bataille of Shanghai), then move towards Nankin where they are devoted to a terrible carnage (Massacre of Nankin).
In 1938, Shanghai is classified eighth world port, the largest Western firms from now on are represented there: one counts there to 300 banks.
During the Second world war, Shanghai became a center for the refugees of Europe: it is then the only city unconditionally open to the Jews. However, under pressure of its allies Nazis, the Japanese accepted the Jewish refugees in a Ghetto, in 1941, where the diseases pullulated.
The Second world war and the victory, in 1949, from Mao Tsé-toung over the troops of the general Tchang KaÏ-chek will precipitate its decline.
After the victory of the Communists, the city was regarded as the symbol of foreign capitalism, it sommeillait, and the world had almost forgotten it, before being revalorized following the movement of reforms of Deng Xiaoping.
During the Cultural revolution, Shanghai knows political and social disturbances: at the end of December 1966, the municipality is reversed. The most important strikes of the history of the city paralyze the economic life. The rebels and the red Gardes wish to set up a system similar to Commune of Paris. The assessment of the Cultural revolution is considerable: : 150000 residences were confiscated only in Shanghai. Between 1968 and 1976, a million Shanghaiens are ruralisés of force.
Rebirth of the “Pearl of the East”
At the beginning of the Years 1990, in one decade, the “pearl of the East” is become again an economic center of first importance, which counts in 2005 for 20% of the national industrial production for only 1,5% of the population. She intends herself today to become the financial center of China.
The February 26th 2002, Chen Liangyu (46 years) was elected mayor of Shanghai by the delegates of the fifth session of the 11th Congress of the people of the Municipality of the large metropolis of the East of China. He then became Secrétaire of the Party of the autonomous Municipality in October 2002, in the place of Huang Ju. This particularly important station usually goes hand in hand with a seat to the Political office of the Parti. It is the case for Chen Liangyu since XVIe Congrès of the Chinese Communist party.
It however was relieved for corruption in September 2006. The mayor of Shanghai is called HAN Zheng.
The December 3rd 2002, the Chinese metropolis has been indicated to organize the World Fair 2010, which will thus be held, for the first time for 151 years, in a country in the process of development.
Language and culture
LanguageThe official language of Shanghai, as in the whole of the China is the Mandarin. However, the spoken language in the delta of the Chang Jiang (长江), the area of Huadong (华东) which includes the provinces of the Jiangsu, of the Zhejiang and part of the Anhui is named the wu. The variety spoken in Shanghai is the Shanghaien . The promotion campaigns of the Mandarin and the schooling carried out exclusively in Mandarin lead to a retreat of the use of the dialect. This one remains however largely used in the abstract communication.
Shanghaiens are regarded by their other compatriots as the Parisian ones in France: Arrogant, cold and calculators. If a share of truth hides behind this stereotype, of the positive aspects exist, in particular have regard to the equality of the sexes: The Shanghaiens men, often considered as " efféminés" , testify in fact to the important, and marked place like such, of the women.
It is also notorious that Shanghai is the capital of the Chinese mode, which goes hand in hand with a certain esthetic sensitivity and relaxation, for example to carry pyjamas in the streets, on behalf of its inhabitants.
It is certain that the identity feeling of Shanghaiens is very strong, and in certain cases scorning with respect to the Chinese of other provinces which spit, phenomenon worsened by air pollution.
Parallel to Beijing, Shanghai is a hearth of cultural activities more and more near to Western standards: the Biennial of Shanghai, the art galleries contemporary as Shanghart are some examples.
- Opera of Shanghai
And also: national museum of Shanghai, Museum of Shanghai, Museum of the Art schools of Shanghai, centers sculpture of Shanghai, Musée Lu Xun of Shanghai, the Memorial of the seat of the 1st Congress of the Chinese Communist party of Shanghai.
SportsThe city aims at reinforcing are international statute by sporting installations of world level, after having accommodated into 2006 the championships of the World of swimming in small basin of FINA it will accommodate in 2011 these same championships in large basin, great appointment of world swimming after Montreal in 2005, Melbourne in 2007 and Rome in 2009.Elle reception also since 2005 the Tennis Masters Cup bringing together the best tennis players of the year.
GeographyShanghai is located on the river Huang Pu, and is thus composed of two distinct parts, Puxi and Pudong (which means respectively in the west and the east of Pu). The city developed first of all exclusively with Puxi but for a few years, under the impulse of the government, Pudong has become a zone of construction hi-tech or the companies and others scrapes-ciels multiply.
The urban landscape has changed quickly for a few years. Whole districts, like that of Dun Today Fang, are shaven to be rebuilt. Expulsions relate to tens of thousands of people since the middle of the years 1990 and one total of 20 million square meters of dwellings was demolished. The inhabitants receive in exchange of their departure a ridiculous compensation and are confronted with the violent and illegal methods companies of demolition or police force.
PopulationThe population of Shanghai (18 million Shanghaïens in 2007) is unequal, with the image of the Chinese company as a whole. The average revenues are higher than the campaigns: data processing and its gadgets penetrated in the tiny apartments of Shanghai. But most of the population lives in poverty: the three quarters of paid city gain less than 300 euros not month.
The August 5th 2002, the new mayor of Shanghai, Chen Liangyu stated that he wanted “to make his city, in the three years to come, the center of the domestic Financial market, and the management circulations of capital of funds, and one of the international financial centers most important for one duration from ten to twenty years. ”
That depends directly on the reform of the Chinese financial system, still very antiquated, carried out by the central authorities of Beijing.
Real estateA giant model of the city is visible with the museum of town planning on the Place of the People: that gives an idea of the value of prestige granted to the real development to Shanghai. There would be currently 5000 turns, of which 120 scrapes-ciels moreover each year, and 20.000 building sites permanent. The hotel Large Hyatt, located between stages 53 and 88 of the Jinmao Tower (currently the most tower of Shanghai), in Pudong, is the brightest example, which should be followed in 2007 by the World Financial Center , high of 492 meters. In 2006, an apartment of Tomson Riviera, located at Pudong, was sold for 190 million yuans, that is to say 19 million euros.
However, it is advisable to add a flat vis-a-vis this speculative passion: there is an occupancy rate of the very low offices in the city. Certain analysts fear a financial bubble comparable with the Japanese bubble of the years 1980. In China, the real estate is one of the most opaque activities, which explains the brittleness of the sector which could burst if the economic growth shows signs of deceleration.
TransportThe Métro of Shanghai is composed of 5 lines.
Two lines of Railroad cross in Shanghai: Beijing - Shanghai (京滬) and Shanghai Hangzhou (滬杭). Many underground lines were built in Shanghai since 1990. In 2005,3 lines function at 100%, others are in construction.
Since January 1st 2004, a line of Transrapid, a train with magnetic sustenation, connects the city to new the international airport of Pudong.
The 2nd Chinese Airline company is based on this airport: Clouded Eastern.
The airport of Hongqiao which is on bank of Puxi remains devoted to the domestic flights.
December 1st, 2005 was inaugurated the longest bridge of the world, the Pont of Donghai which connects the city to new the port out of deep water on the islands Yangshan.
After having exceeded the port of Rotterdam in 2003, that of Hongkong in 2004, and that of Singapore in 2005, Shanghai is from now on, thanks to the dynamism of China, the largest port of the world (traffic of 443 million tons in 2005), but completely blocked with an annual growth of its traffic of 30%. In 2005, the port treated 18 million containers (TEU).
Not being able more to extend, into 2000/2001, it was decided to build new a port out of deep water on the islands Yangshan off Shanghai. This new port having to be connected to the district of Guoyuan by the gigantic bridge - the Bridge of Donghai - longest of the world undulating on the open sea on step less than 32,5 kilometers before achieving its goal, in order to follow the high funds able to support the foundations.
If it is about a bridge, not less than 470 pillars, and 15 harbor were posed including certain with hundred meters of depth of a cost from 14 to 15 billion euros.
According to the financial newspaper The Financial Times, dated July 3rd, 2006, the public operator of the wearing of Shanghai, International Shanghai Group Ports, would like to now extend abroad, via acquisitions in Europe, Asia and in the United States. One of the persons in charge of its board of directors however recognized that the projects could encounter political oppositions.
- the University Jiao Tong of Shanghai (上海交通大学), which is famous to publish, each year, a academic classification of the world universities.
- the University Tongji (同济大学)
- the normal University of the East of China (华东师范大学)
- the University Fudan (复旦大学)
- the University of the international studies of Shanghai (上海外国语大学)
- the University of Shanghai (上海大学)
Administrative subdivisionsThe municipality of Shanghai exerts its jurisdiction on nineteen subdivisions - eighteen districts and a county.
Last nine districts are located in the district of Puxi, urban area central of Shanghai in the west of the Huangpu :
- the district of Huangpu - 黄浦区 Huángpǔ Qū ;
- the district of Luwan - 卢湾区 Lúwān Qū ;
- the district of Xuhui - 徐汇区 Xúhuì Qū ;
- the district of Changning - 长宁区 Chángníng Qū ;
- the district of Jing' year - 静安区 Jìng' ān Qū ;
- the district of Putuo - 普陀区 Pǔtuó Qū ;
- the district of Zhabei - 闸北区 Zháběi Qū ;
- the district of Hongkou - 虹口区 Hóngkǒu Qū ;
- the district of Yangpu - 杨浦区 Yángpǔ Qū .
A district controls the district of Pudong, in the east of the Huangpu :
- the new district of Pudong - 浦东新区 Pǔdōng Xīn Qū (county of Chuansha before 1992).
The eight remaining districts correspond to suburbs, satellite towns and rural areas far away from the center urbain :
- the district of Baoshan - 宝山区 Bǎoshān Qū (county of Baoshan before 1988) ;
- the district of Minhang - 闵行区 Mǐnháng Qū (county of Shanghai before 1992) ;
- the district of Jiading - 嘉定区 Jiādìng Qū (county of Jiading before 1992) ;
- the district of Jinshan - 金山区 Jīnshān Qū (county of Jinshan before 1997) ;
- the district of Songjiang - 松江区 Sōngjiāng Qū (county of Songjiang before 1998) ;
- the district of Qingpu - 青浦区 Qīngpǔ Qū (county of Qingpu before 1999) ;
- the district of Nanhui - 南汇区 Nánhuì Qū (county of Nanhui before 2001) ;
- the district of Fengxian - 奉贤区 Fèngxián Qū (county of Fengxian before 2001).
- the county of Chongming - 崇明县 Chóngmíng Xiàn .
These districts and counties themselves are divided (in 2003) into 220 subdivisions of level canton, including/understanding 114 boroughs, 3 cantons and 103 under-districts.
TwinningShanghai is twinned or has partnerships with the following cities:
Since 1974: Ōsaka, Japan
- Since 1979: Rotterdam, Holland
- Since 1979: Milan, Italy
- Since 1980: Zagreb, Croatia
- Since 1985: Chicago, the United States
- Since 1985: Montreal, Canada
- Since 1986: Hamburg, Germany
- Since 1986: Casablanca, Morocco
- Since 1990: Ho-Chi-Minh-City, Vietnam
- Since 2000: Liverpool, Great Britain
- Since 2002: Constanţa, Romania
- Since 2004: Marseilles, France
- Since 2004: Lille, France
- Since 2005: Cork, Ireland
- Since 2006: Le Havre, France
- Since 2007: Toulouse, France
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