Severe Septime ( Lucius Septimius Severus Pertinax ) (April 11th 146 - February 4th 211) was Roman Emperor of 193 with 211. With him begins the dynasty of the Sévères and the come to power the provincial ones of nonRoman ascent.
Its beginningsSeptime Sévère is born the April 11th 145 with Leptis Magna, a city located in Tripolitaine on the coast of the current Libya. It is an African resulting from an indigenous family large notable Libyco-punic from with dimensions of his/her father, Publius Septimus Geta, which had reached the Roman citizenship during Ier century and of Italian immigrants married to natives having obtained the citizenship of dimensioned his/her mother Fulvia Pia. On the two sides, the notable ones: thus his/her paternal grandfather was a prefect of Leptis before being the first about it to duumvir when the city became colony under Trajan. It Marie in second weddings with Julia Domna, girl of the large priest of Emèse (Syria), he has two wire, Geta and Caracalla.
The historian Dion Cassius describes it like a man of small size, thin, very sharp and silent.
With old 18 years it leaves Leptis Magna for Rome, where it occupies various civil and military functions. He exerts in Gaulle Lyons and its sons are born with Lugdunum. In 191 it reaches the post of legate of higher Pannonia, with the support of Aemilius Laetus, the prefect of the Praetorian Garde.
Its access to the capacityAt the time of its stay in 193 with Carnuntum, the capital of the province of higher Pannonia, it learns the murders from Commode and Pertinax. Its legions stationed on the Danube then acclaim it as emperor, while revolt also Clodius Albinus, legate of Brittany, and Pescennius Niger, legate of Syria.
June 1st, 193 the Senate condemns Didius Julianus to death, which opens the way with Septime Sévère, which presents in front of Rome with its legions the June 9th 193. It invites the Praetorian guard with a banquet with its camp Là, it makes encircle the Praetorian ones in behavior of official reception by its soldiers, disarms them and makes carry out the murderers of Pertinax. Then he lays off all the manpower of the Praetorian guard, to replace it by provincial soldiers.
Skilfully, it reconciles Clodius Albinus by granting to him the title of César and the consulate for year 194.
During the autumn and the winter 193 Septime Sévère triumphs over its adversary Pescennius Niger. The decisive final battle takes place in spring 194 with Issus. Its capacity being thus consolidated, it takes again the name of Pertinax, proclaims wire of Marc-Aurèle and creates for itself a fictitious genealogy going back to Nerva.
Its reignIn 195 Septime Sévère leaves to shift against the Parthes. At the end of 195, Septime Sévère makes proclaim Clodius Albinus public enemy. This one crosses the English Channel in 196 with its legions (: 40000 men). The battles decisive takes place in February 197 near Lugdunum (Lyon). Septimius and its legions are victorious. Clodius flees and gives itself death. Septime Sévère makes strip the skin and makes it trample by its horse; the distinct head is sent to Rome, the body is thrown in the the Rhone. The family of Clodius is initially not worried, but its widow and her sons were assassinated later on. 29 senators who had supported Clodius Albinus are eliminated.
In years 197 with 199 of new victorious campaigns against Parthes lead to the creation of the province Mésopotamie. After the conquest of the town of Ctésiphon, it makes kill approximately: 100000 inhabitants, men, women and children, and seizes the treasure of Parthes. During the five following years it organizes the administration of the new province.
He travels then in the East: he visits the Egypt, there pays homage to the embaumée skin of Alexandre Large the and goes up the the Nile until Thèbes. It is only in 202 that Septime Sévère returns to Rome.
He now seeks to consolidate his succession: it Marie her Caracalla son with Plautilla, the girl of Gaius Fulvius Plautianus, prefect of the Praetorian guard, with which he is dependant of friendship. The relations within the couple worsen rapidement.
however Perhaps on incentive of Caracalla, Plautianus is shown of treason by centurions into 205. Severe Septime the fact of assassinating and Plautilla is banished on the island of Lipari.
In 208, Septime Sévère embarks with its two Caracalla sons and Geta towards the province of Brittany to fight the Calédoniens. Several battles take place until in 209, without decisive victory. To make safe the northern border of the Roman empire it makes consolidate the Hadrian's Wall over a length of approximately 130 km.
Its achievementsSeptime Sévère made carry out several imposing constructions:
- has Rome, it embellishes the southern face of Palatine by a monumental fountain, the Septizodium , dedicated to the seven major stars (planets, the Moon and Sun), and by the construction of the new wing to the imperial palace. It also makes start work of the Thermes of Caracalla. In addition, it restored a great number of buildings damaged by fires of the end of the reign of Convenient, among which: the Temple of the Peace (in which it makes set up a monumental plan of Rome, the Forma Urbis), the theater of Pumped, the gantry of Octavie, the Arcus Neroniani , etc
- Its birthplace Leptis Magna was equipped with remarkable monuments: Forum of Severe, basilica sévérienne, installations harbor.
Severe Septime taken of measurements of organization structuring for the Roman Empire:
- it allotted to the imperial post office ( Cursus publicus ) the responsibility for the routing of the supply of the armies
- it transferred to the prefects from the court the treatment in call from the legal causes, until there reserved domain with the emperor. This reform gave to the prefects of the court an increasingly important role in the civil field.
- it instituted free distributions of olive oil, in addition to the traditional distributions of corn, for the plebs.
Severe descent of Septime- Publius Septimius Geta marry Fulvia Pia, to see Flaviens. - Lucius Septimus Severus Emperor marry Julia Domna, to see Flaviens. - Marcus Aurelius Septimius Bassianus Antoninus Caracalla, Emperor (211-217) marry Plautilla, girl of Platianus, chief of the Pretorienne guard. - Wire adoptive: Alexandre Sévère - Publius Lucius Septimius Geta, Co-Emperor (211-212) marry Paccia Marciana - Marciana Severa marry Briget - Bassus , dcd 211 - Bathed , marry Claudius Apellinus - Claudia . marry Flavius Numerius (Greek Prince) - Claudius II Gothicus , Emperor - Quintillus , Emperor 270. - Flavius Crispus . marry Aurélia - Claudia Crispina marry Eutropius - Constantin Gaius Flavius Valerius Constantius Chlorus
- April 146, is born Lucius Septimius Severus
- June 193, reaches the Empire: Imperator Caesar Lucius Septimius Severus Pertinax Augustus
- 195, adds the Pius nickname: Imperator Caesar Lucius Septimius Severus Pius
- 195, following its victory over Adiabéniens and the Arabs: Imperator Caesar Lucius Septimius Severus Pius Pertinax Augustus Arabicus Adiabenicus
- 198, following its victory over Parthes: Imperator Caesar Lucius Septimius Severus Pius Pertinax Augustus Arabicus Adiabenicus Parthicus Maximus
- 209, following its victory over Calédoniens: Imperator Caesar Lucius Septimius Severus Pius Pertinax Augustus Arabicus Adiabenicus Parthicus Maximus Britannicus Maximus.
- 211, titulature with its death: Imperator Caesar Lucius Septimius Severus Pius Pertinax Augustus Arabicus Adiabenicus Parthicus Maximus Britannicus Maximus, Pontifex Maximus, Tribuniciae Potestatis XIX, Imperator XV, Consul IV, Patriae Lord's Prayer.
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