The Serbia , in Serb Cyrillic Serb Сpбија and in Latin Srbija, is a State of the Europe of the South, which belongs to the Western Balkans and the Central Europe. Serbia is frontier Bosnia-Herzégovine, Croatia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, République of Macedonia, Albania and Montenegro. Its capital is the town of Belgrade.
Even if the linguists use the Serbo-croatian term of to define the spoken language in Serbia, with the Montenegro, in Bosnia-Herzégovine and Croatia, officially the Serbo-croatian does not exist any more, each country naming its language " Serbe" , " Bosniaque" or " Croate". There is no Isoglosse between these languages (the speakers include themselves/understand spontaneously, without translator): their definition is thus historical and political. On the other hand there are differences partial of lexicon (certain words, certain conjugations or variations vary) and especially a difference in alphabet: it is Cyrillic and Latin in Serbia, in Montenegro and in the Serb of Bosnia, but only Latin Republic in Croatia and in the croato-Moslem woman Federation of Bosnia-Herzégovine.
Cyrillic alphabet and Latin
In Serbia, the Serbe is written with two Alphabets, the Cyrillic alphabet and the Latin alphabet. The Cyrillic one is used by the newspapers of reference like Politika (Serb Le Monde). The newspapers in Latin alphabet are newspapers plus general practitioners and less " élitistes" and more " populaires" , like Blic or then by newspapers " of oppositions" or " progressistes" like Danas. The Serb administration privileges the Cyrillic alphabet (government of Serbia), but it uses also the Latin alphabet, (see Ambassade of Serbia in France). It is thus, which it is essential to very Serb to be a perfect Bi-alphabet. At the time of the training of the writing all the children learn the two alphabets. Serb Wikipedia has, for example, two versions of all its articles, the article France exists in Cyrillic alphabet Француска and Latin alphabet Francuska. In top of each page, there exists a miter " Latinica " who means writing in Latin Serb alphabet, it allows to rock the text written in Cyrillic alphabet and conversely, one clicks on " alphabet cyrillique" to have it in the other alphabet.
See also: History of Serbia
Among the Slavic tribes expanding as from our era, one finds the Sorabe S which migrate initially towards the west through the Poland and the current Czech Republic. Their descendants live today in Lusace, in the east of the Germany, more exactly between the Elba and the Saale in what was formerly Large the Moravie. This area, at the time of Charlemagne, was still called the “white Serbia” (the white symbolizes the west at the Slavic ones). At the 7th century, at the time of the Byzantine Emperor Héraclius, the major part of the Sorabe S migrated in several waves between 610 - 641 and the 12th century, towards the central area of the Balkans where they assimilated the Greek, the Valaques and the local Illyriens, thus giving rise to the people Serbe.
Several Serb principalities were founded with but were dislocated at the end of. The process of christianization was engaged by the monks Cyrille and Méthode, who évangélisèrent all the Slavic people of the Grande Moravie, including Serbia, and which invented the alphabet Cyrillique starting from the Greek letters. The first Christian first names, like Stefan or Petar made their appearance then.
A Serb Empire was made up at the end of, under the dynasty of the Nemanjić. The territorial apogee of medieval Serbia was reached with, under the reign of the emperor Stefan Dušan. This empire disappeared under the blow from the Othoman invasions . In 1371, one of kings de Serbie, Vukašin Mrnjavčević, lost, against the Turks, the Bataille of Maritza, which involved the vassalisation of its grounds and the tender of his/her son Marko Mrnjavčević known as Marko Kraljević. Serbia of Lazar crumbled at the time of the Bataille of Kosovo Polje in 1389; prince Lazar lost the life there. The country was definitively annexed by the Othoman after the fall of Smederevo, in 1459.
A first revolt of Serb took place between 1804 and 1813. It was directed by Georges Petrović, called Karageorges (“Georges Black”). A second revolt took place in 1815, under the control of Miloš Obrenović, and it leads to the autonomy of Serbia in 1833. In 1878, the Congrès of Berlin granted its independence to Serbia and, in 1882, the prince Milan IV Obrenović became king de Serbie under the name of Milan Ier.
In 1914, the double assassination of the archduke François-Ferdinand, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, and his wife Sophie Chotek, duchess of Hohenberg, with Sarajevo, the June 28th 1914 by Gabriel Princip, was the event pretexts which started the First World War. In 1915, the kingdom was invaded by the central powers at the time of the Campagne of Serbia. But the country was finally released in 1918 by the Serb army supported by the allied forces, of which the French army of the East.
Gavrilo Princip and its movement were supported by Serbia, but also by France and Great Britain which sought to limit the German influence which was exerted through Austria-Hungary. It is necessary to point out the efforts of the Germans in Africa to obtain colonies, efforts thwarted by the harmony between France and Great Britain. Germany then sought to look towards the east, and in particular south-east: it is the time of the axis Berlin-Baghdad and the construction of the railway line, the East-Express train, which will give its name to a novel of Agatha Christie. Serbia, by supporting its people in Bosnia, found itself engaged at the same time in fights of influence between the European great powers. Serbian Watch, Another Point of view on the World
Serbia belonged to the first Yugoslavia, created in 1918 under the name of Royaume of Serb, the Croats and the Sloveniens, then renamed in 1929 Royaume of Yugoslavia. It lasted 23 years, including 17 of parliamentary democracy. Initially neutral, the Royaume of Yugoslavia was invaded by the Nazi Germany. A fascistic government was set up in Croatia, while Serbia was under German military administration (with however a local marionette at its head). A double resistance movement was organized: that of the Tchetniks legitimists, faithful to the government exiled in London, directed by Serb the Draža Mihailović, and that of the in favor Communists directed by Croatian Josip Broz, said Tito. At the end of the Second world war, Yugoslavia was the only country to release without the intervention from the Red Army . The Allies, which had initially put on Draža Mihailović, gave up it after Teheran and Yalta with the profit of Tito, which seized the power in 1945.
A new Yugoslavia, Communist, was formed: Serbia constituted one of its République S federate. It lasted 46 years.
From 1918 to 1941 and 1945 to 1991, Yugoslavia had a 69 years existence, proving that in a dynamics of gathering, different but close people can easily live together in peace.
But after the death of Tito in 1980, whereas Communism was in lose speed, the Nationalisme a long time contained and channeled by the central capacity, became a practical substitute product to maintain the legitimacy of the leaders of the 6 federate republics. In " surfant" on Serb nationalism, Slobodan Milošević, then number two of the Yugoslav mode, benefitted from the rise of the tensions to the Kosovo to be made elect president of Serbia in May 1989. The Slovenia and the Croatia declared to them Indépendance the June 25th 1991, followed in 1992 by the Bosnia-Herzégovine and the Macedonia. The Serb populations of Croatia and Bosnia-Herzégovine refusing to leave Yugoslavia, then requiring their fastening of Serbia, a military conflict burst: the Wars of Yugoslavia (1992-1995). Officially, they were confrontations between Républiques, but practically, on the ground, the soldiers of each " camp" were caught with the civil populations " of it; camp of opposite " and avoided clashing between them. The Yugoslav official story is that of a series of unconstitutional séccessions, legitimately repressed by the federal army; but the Western official story is that of wars of liberation of the nouveux states against the oppressor and the Serb attacker. At all events, on the ground that resulted in hundreds of civil thousands of deaths, displacements of populations and the destruction of several cities.
In federal the Yugoslavia news of 1992, there remained only Serbia and Montenegro. But in Serbia even, the area of Métohie, more known under the name of " Kosovo - Polje" (Field of the Blackbirds), where Serbia had formerly lost its independence against the Ottoman Empire, with the wire of the centuries had become a Moslem enclave, of Albanian language, in Slavic territory; in 1999, the Serb ones were nothing any more but 10% of the population of this autonomous region, of which Albanian majority, represented by Ismaïl Kadaré, asserting in its turn independence. The mode of Slobodan Milošević (which had begun here its metamorphosis of Communism towards nationalism) intervened brutally to remove the autonomy of this area: the war burst between the Serb authorities and the U.C.K albanophone. Once again the violence and displacements of populations were followed by the intervention of NATO; it was the Guerre of Kosovo. In October 2000, Slobodan Milosevic and her mode were reversed.
The February 4th 2003, restricted Yugoslavia ceased its existence definitively: the Parliament accepted the creation of a new federation to the very loose bonds, limited to the two remaining States, under the name of Serbia-and-Montenegro. Following the independence of Montenegro, proclaimed the June 3rd 2006, the Serb Parliament adopted as of the June 5th 2006 a declaration officially making to Serb State the “successor” of the old common State of Serbia-and-Montenegro, which is equivalent de facto proclaiming the independence of Serbia and recognizing that of Montenegro. The June 15th 2006, the federal ex-minister of the Foreign affairs Vuk Drašković, become Foreign Minister of Serbia, recognizes officially the independence of the Montenegro and signs on June 22nd, with its counterpart Montenegrin, a draft-agreement for the establishment of diplomatic relations between the two States.
As for Kosovo, its statute remains outstanding: occupied by the K.F.O.R. and directed de facto by the U.C.K. (except 5% of Serb territory in the north of Mitrovica, under French protection), it is already an Albanian state on the ground, but officially, it still forms part of Serbia. This one proposes a broad autonomy, the U.C.K always asserts independence and the meeting with Albania.
See also: Geography of Serbia
Serbia presents varied landscapes. In north, in Voïvodine ( Serb Војводина in ), is the large plain pannonienne, true agricultural lung of the country, separated from the remainder of the country by the river Save and the the Danube. More in the south, one finds the areas of low-mountains, Šumadija and Podrinje, areas crossed respectively by the river Drina and the Morava. In the east draw up the areas of Stig, Negotinska Krajina (the “ Go of Negotin ”) and, in south-east, Južna Srbija (“ Serbia of the sud ”), more mountainous areas. In the west of Serbia, one finds the mountains dinaric, primarily in the areas of the Sandjak (to which some give more and more its old name of Rascie ( Рашка - into Serb) and of the Kosovo.
See also the following articles:
- geographical Areas of Serbia
- River of Serbia
- Protected spaces of Serbia
- Mountains of Serbia
- Towns of Serbia
See also: Political of Serbia, Parliament of Serbia
The Republic of Serbia lives under a parliamentary mode with a room of 250 members.
Two Former ministers for the Community of named States of Serbia-and-Montenegro, on a purely provisional basis, Ministers for the Republic of Serbia in June 2006. It is of the Foreign Minister (Vuk Drašković) and the Minister for Defense (Zoran Stanković).
legislative elections took place on January 21st, 2007.
See also: Subdivisions of Serbia
Serbia, just as the other States resulting from the ex-Yugoslavia, inherited the borders delimited by the mode titist, including both “ Provinces autonomes ” of the Kosovo and the Voïvodine. The Yugoslav Constitution of February 1974 gave to these two provinces a total autonomy with respect to Serbia known as interior and a direct representation, with “ equality of droits ”, in the federal authorities.
Slobodan Milošević put an end to this autonomy, in Voïvodine in 1988 by a coup d'etat known as “ Revolution of the yaourts ”, and in March 1989 with the Kosovo by a takeover by force militaro-police officer says “Suspension of the autonomy of the Kosovo”. The Constitution of the Republic of Serbia, implementation in 1990 whereas he was his president, ratifies this double annexation, restoring the old name of the Kosovo, removed in 1968 by the mode Communiste: “Kosovo and Métochie” ( КосовоиМетохија ) - in French: Kosovo means “Country of the blackbirds” and Métochie, word of Greek origin, indicates the territorial possessions of the Church. There is thus officially a “ Autonomous province of the Kosovo and Métochie ” ( АутономнаПокрајинаКосовоиМетохија ) and a “ Autonomous province of Voïvodine ” ( АутономнаПокрајинаВојводина ).
Certain elected officials of Voïvodine claim a return to a greater autonomy, refused by Belgrade which evokes the project of new Constitution for Serbia. For their part, a majority of Albanian of the Kosovo claims, in supposed of the text of 1974, an independence, proclaimed application in October 1991 at the conclusion of a parallel referendum held in September but not recognized by the “ The Community internationale ”. Since the resolution 1244 of the June 10th 1999, the Kosovo is managed by the MINUK ( UNMIK in English), administration of UNO and, under the terms of the Accords of Kumanovo, occupied by KFOR, 18 000 men resulting from NATO. The resolution 1244 recognizes the membership of the Kosovo to the Federal republic of Yugoslavia whose Serbia is the State successor. In addition, it presents this statute like provisional.
From an administrative point of view, Serbia is divided into 29 districts ( округ , plural окружи ) themselves divided into 186 communes ( општина , plural општине ) and 5 cities ( град , plural градови ).
See also: Economy of Serbia
Serbia has an economy based on the services, industry and agriculture.