Seoul (in Hangeul: 서울) has been, for more than 600 years, the Capitale of the Korea and, since the Guerre of Korea, the capital of the République of Korea. It is also more the big city of the Korean Péninsule. The name of the city derives from former Korean Seorabeol or Seobeol , which means " capitale" city;. The city was known in the past by several successive names: Wiryeseong (위례성; 慰禮城; Paekche), Hanyang (한양; 漢陽) and Hanseong (한성; 漢城; period Koryo and Period Chosŏn). It is located on the river Han, in the North-West of the country. The demilitarized zone (DMZ), as for it, is with approximately 45 kilometers of the downtown area.
With a population of 22.446.567 inhabitants (Séouliens) and an urban surface of more than 22.800.000 inhabitants by including Incheon, Seoul is the third city more populated in the world. More than 3.000.000 vehicles are entered there, which involves daily congestions beyond midnight.
HistoryIt is thought that the first men lived along the lower banks of the river Han during the Paleolithic Age, bus of the prehistoric ruins were unearthed in Amsa-dong (village), Gangdong-gu (district). With the introduction of bronze 700 years ago before J-C, the men gradually dispersed basin of the river towards the interior regions.
The history of Seoul goes back to 18 av. J. - C. This year, the new kingdom of Paekche built its capital in the area of Seoul under the name of Wiryeseong (慰禮城). At the time where the Three Kingdoms disputed the hegemony of the Korea, Seoul was often the site where the conflicts were regulated. It was considered that only the kingdom which controlled the area in the neighborhoods was able to control all the peninsula. This is why at the 11th century the leader of the dynasty Koryŏ built a palate in Seoul, which was regarded as the capital South . The city saw changing its name of Hanyang (漢陽) into Hansŏng (漢城) when it became the capital of the Dynastie Chosŏn in 1394 (it was known under this name in Chinese - Hancheng - until October 2005, month have was adopted Shou' er 首爾 at the request of the mayor of Seoul). It was renamed Kyŏngsŏng (京城 -- Keijō in Japanese) at the time of the Japanese occupation and found finally the name of Seoul to the release in 1945. This word had been used since the kingdom Silla (57 av. J. - C. - 935); it comes from the old words sŏbŏl or “sŏrabŏl”. Both indicated Kyŏngju then, capital of Silla, and meant capital. They were then transliterated in several types reflecting the progressive changes during time and arrived at Seoul. The Hanja kyŏng (京) also means “capital” and is used to represent Seoul in the names of the railway lines and the Autoroute S - for example the railway line Kyŏngbu (Seoul-Busan) and the highway Kyŏngin (Seoul-Inch' ŏn).
Towards the end of the XIXe century, after hundreds of years of insulation, Seoul opened its doors the abroads and started to be modernized. Seoul became the first city in East Asia to have electricity, the tram, running water, the telephone, and the telegraph. Much of this was due to the trade with the the United States. For example, Seoul Electric Company, Seoul Electric Company Trolley, and Seoul Fresh Spring Water Company were companies had by American. In 1904, an American named Angus Hamilton visited the city and said: " The streets of Seoul splendid, are admirably made roomy, clean and well-drained. The narrow gauge railways, dirty were widened, the gutters were covered, the roadways are increased. Seoul east as far as to become most important, most interesting and cleanest of the cities in the est."
In 1905, the Japan established a protectorate in Korea, following the treaty of Portsmouth which closes the Guerre Russo-Japanese woman, making of Seoul a colonial capital. Under the Japanese occupation (1910 - 1945), the city was called Kyŏngsŏng (경성; 京城, in Japanese Keijō ). Japanese General Government Building (destroyed in 1995) was useful like sits of the Japanese colonial Government. After the Second world war and the release of Korea, the city took its name present of Seoul. When the Republic of Korea (South Korea) was declared, the new state adopted the city like the capital.
In 1950, the Guerre of Korea burst and Seoul changed several times of occupants between the Koreans of north supported by China and the Koreans of the south supported by UNO, the city was seriously damaged during this war. An evaluation of the wide damage declares that at least 191.000 buildings, 55.000 houses, and 1.000 factories were in ruins. Moreover, one crowd of refugees of North coming to populate the city, which was already in shortage of residences. With the surges of refugees the population was estimated at 2.500.000 people at the end of the war.
With the assistance of the the United States, Seoul became the center of an immense rebuilding and modernization. The accomplished fast economic growth during the industrialization of the years 1960 and 1970 raised the standard of living of the inhabitants considerably. The high-rise office buildings and the apartments started to push everywhere in the city during the boom of constructions of the years 1980. Pollution and the congestions became main issues whereas the urbanization in the country accelerates and more and more people started to migrate towards Seoul and its surrounding areas. In spite of a green belt established around the city to avoid the urban spreading out, the metropolitan zone of Seoul at once will become one of largest world in terms of the most piled up population and one of.
During the years 1990, the city started to attract many workmen of other countries. Previously, almost all the residents of Seoul were Korean, except the exception of a small Chinese minority. Today, it is estimated that 200.000 foreign nationals live in Seoul. Those include workers of Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Mongolia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, Ouzbékistan and Vietnam.
As a district business, commercial and financial major, Seoul has also many frameworks and analysts come from North America, Europe and Japan. Seoul is classified 7th in the world in term of the number of multinationals classified with the Fortune 500, having their seat in Seoul. It is also the second most expensive city of the world, in front of Tokyo and Hong-Kong (classified 3rd and 4th, respectively).
Seoul accommodated the Olympic Games of 1988 and the Football world cup 2002.
Geographical locationThe historical center was built on a site leant with the mountain and opened towards the river Han, thus answering geomancic criteria favorable. The hill of Namsan (the mountain of the south), just in the south of the historical center, is now a practical benchmark making it possible to locate the center town of almost everywhere, thanks to its tower of television.
Demography| valign=" top" | |}
Seoul is in moderate zone. The annual average temperature is of 12,2°C. The difference in temperature between the seasons is very important; thus, the maximum temperature in summer adds up on average 38,4°C, while the lowest temperature in winter is of -23,1°C.
EconomyThe South Korea has the 12th higher Gross domestic product of the world and Seoul is classified 7th world with the number of multinationals belonging to the classification Fortune 500:
Samsung Electronics (삼성전자): 46 ème with Fortune 500
- LG (엘지 Lucky-GoldStar): 72
- Hyundai Motor (현대/현대자동차): 80
- SK (에스케이): 111
- Samsung Life Insurance (삼성/삼성생명보험): 224
- Korea Electric Power (한국전력공사): 240
- Kookmin Bank (국민은행): 364
- Hanwha/Korean Air (한화그룹): 381
- SK Networks (에스케이텔레콤): 467
Transport and communications
Public transportSeoul has 8 underground lines, almost 200 lines of bus and 6 highways major which bind the districts of the city between them and with the surrounding area. The Métro of Seoul (서울지하철) was inaugurated in 1974 and is currently one of most important in the world. The price of a way being rather low (and roughly proportional to the distance covered), the majority of the population uses public transport. With more than 8 million passengers per day, Seoul has one of the subways most attended in the world . It is the the fastest means of transport in the capital and it is practical for the foreigners, because in the fields of the network and in the stations, the name of the stations written east, not only in Korean, but also in transcription " romanisée". The network counts 8 different lines which remain in service of 5:00 of the morning at midnight. It counts 201 stations and measurement 280 km length.
Truck driverThere exist two types of bus: standard buses (of blue color, green and yellow) and red buses.
- Drunk standard: The network of bus squares the city and is distributed according to three types of service roads.
- the blue buses serve the main arteries (long distances) of Seoul on at least two districts.
- the green buses operate in the same district of Seoul, transporting the passengers with stops of transfers.
- the yellow buses circulate in loop in the principal districts of Seoul.
red buses: in fact buses express train connect Seoul to the perish-urban zones.
AirThe city is served by two airports: that of Incheon (인천국제공항) (for the international flights), located on an island opposite the port of this city, and that of Gimpo (김포국내공항) (intended for the interior flights).
RailwayLines of KNR (National Korean Railroad) (한국철도공사) cover almost the totality of the territory starting from Seoul. There exist 3 types of trains the KTX, it first Saemeul class (새마을) and it second class Mugunghwa (무궁화).
- Station of Seoul (서울역): it is the principal starting point of the majority of the railroads.
- Station of Cheongnyangni
- Station of Seongbuk
RoadFive coach stations serve Seoul: Drunk Seoul Final Express train (서울버스터미널), Final Dong Seoul Drunk (동서울버스터미널), Final Sangbong Drunk (상봉버스터미널) and Final Nambu Drunk (남부버스터미널). The zones traversed by the express train drunk are with more than 60% of the highways and those do not carry out stops with semi-course.
CultureThe old site of the National university of Seoul (founded in 1946 and moved in 1975), become the Park Chestnut tree. It has in particular a bridge Mirabeau .
Old fortifications, there remains primarily Namdaemun (the large door of the south, national treasure n°1 of Korea 37°33' 36" NR, 126°58' 31" E) and Dongdaemun, the large door of the East.
Among the palates of the center: Gyeongboggung (Kyŏngbokkung) and Deogsugung, which are next to the place of the town hall.
The Université of Sejong currently works with the construction of a universal language, the Unish.
AdministrationSeoul east made up of 25 districts called Gus (구), which themselves are composed of districts called Dongs .
Dobong-gu (도봉구; 道峰區)
- Dongdaemun-gu (동대문구; 東大門區)
- Dongjak-gu (동작구; 銅雀區)
- Eunpyeong-gu (은평구; 恩平區)
- Gangbuk-gu (강북구; 江北區)
- Gangdong-gu (강동구; 江東區)
- Gangnam-gu (강남구; 江南區)
- Gangseo-gu (강서구; 江西區)
- Geumcheon-gu (금천구; 衿川區)
- Guro-gu (구로구; 九老區)
- Gwanak-gu (관악구; 冠岳區)
- Gwangjin-gu (광진구; 廣津區)
- Jongno-gu (종로구; 鍾路區)
- Jung-gu (중구; 中區), historical center
- Jungnang-gu (중랑구; 中浪區)
- Mapo-gu (마포구; 麻浦區)
- Nowon-gu (노원구; 蘆原區)
- Seocho-gu (서초구; 瑞草區), in the south of the Han river, in which are the national library of Korea and the college French.
- Seodaemun-gu (서대문구; 西大門區)
- Seongbuk-gu (성북구; 城北區)
- Seongdong-gu (성동구; 城東區)
- Songpa-gu (송파구; 松坡區)
- Yangcheon-gu (양천구; 陽川區)
- Yeongdeungpo-gu (영등포구; 永登浦區)
- Yongsan-gu (용산구; 龍山區)
- Archdiocese of Seoul
- Cathedral of Seoul
TwinningsSince October 2005, the French city of Issy-les-Moulineaux is twinned with the town of Seoul/district of Guro (source).
Simple: Seoul Zh-classical: 首爾 Zh-yue: 首爾
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