AmigaOS is the native Operating system of the computers Amiga. Although this model of Ordinateur radically changed (passage to the PowerPC), the system is always maintained (in 2005), and the last version is conceived to make it possible to make function Amiga software on new machines such as the AmigaOne and the microAone.
AmigaOS has the following characteristics:
- Multi-task préemptif with systems of static priority and a scheduling Round-Robin
- architecture Microkernel
- programmable interruptions in real-time with very short latencies
- no memory protection (except on Amiga using the processors 68030 and 68040 with DRIVEN)
- design 32 bits
- programmable filesystems
- language script interprocessus (ARexx) included out of standard
- transmission of messages interprocessus very effective due to the lightness of the context of the core
Components of AmigaOS
AmigaOS is always divided into two parts, Kickstart and Workbench.
Each version of Kickstart is related to a particular version of the operating system of Amiga, thus the users should only use Workbench 1.3 on a machine with a ROMANIAN of Kickstart 1.3. It is possible to use different versions (Workbench 3.1 will function with Kickstart 3.0, but with some problems). The only exception is Workbench 2.1, which was a software update based on Kickstart 2.04. Also, the last versions of Workbench, 3.5 and 3.9, use Kickstart 3.1, the update of the ROMANIAN being done logiciellement at the time when the system starts.
KickstartKickstart is the name given to the ROMANIAN of starting. On original Amiga (the Amiga 1000), this was to be charged starting from a diskette, whereas later, Kickstarts were in ROMANIAN in the computer. Amiga 1000 had to be modified to use them.
Although containing the necessary code to start the computer, Kickstart also contains most of the operating system of Amiga, such as Intuition (graphic libraries of the user interface Amiga), Exec (the multi-task core), DOS (libraries of handling of disc). This last based on the port written in BCPL of TRIPOS by MetaComCo.
The later versions of Kickstart contained the pilots of the controllers IDE and SCSI, of the ports PCMCIA and various other materials which were included in Amigas.
Thanks to peripheral makers, it is possible to have two versions or more Kickstart in a machine, sélectionnables by a switch or a short cut keyboard when you start the machine.
With a third software, it is possible to have a different kickstart charged in the RAM and to use it instead of the ROMANIAN - for example Kickstart 1.3 can be charged in order to carry out of old plays incompatible with Kickstart 2.0 and more. These programs are called of Softkickers.
WorkbenchWorkbench is the graphical interface of origin for Amiga. The name uses the metaphor of the bench ( workbench in English). The repertories are depicted like drawers, the achievable files are depicted like tools and the data files are depicted like projects. The majority of the Amiga applications have pull-down menus starting with “Project to publish…” instead of the “File to publish…” typical other platforms.
Much of other regards the interface resembles Mac OS, with the main office having the icons of the readers and a simple bar of menu above the office. Contrary to the Mac mouse, the Amiga mouse has two buttons - the right button actuates the pull-down menus, with a style Macintosh “to release the button selects”.
A single characteristic of Workbench is the multiple screens. They are somewhat similar to the virtual offices of the system of window X Window, but are produced dynamically by the applications according to the needs. Each screen can have a resolution and a depth of different colors. An icon in the corner in top on the right of the screen makes it possible to cycle the screens - As OS simultaneously stores all the screens in the memory, cooling is instantaneous. These screens can also be moved from top to bottom by their title bars. (the functionality to move the screens is specific to the chipset of Amiga, and it is not available any more on the systems which function with a recent graphics card.)
Although, strictly speaking, Workbench is only the manager of files of AmigaOS, it is a term generally used to refer to all the parts of OS which do not lie in the ROMANIAN of Kickstart. Workbench is not necessary to the machine to function, therefore much of old plays start directly of Kickstart, without charging it.
Without Workbench there is more memory available for the applications besides (certain old women applications as Deluxe Paint proposed the possibility of closing Workbench to recover a little memory to work - it is necessary to remember that at that time the RAM was a not very accessible food product, to have a memory a few Megabytes was a luxury), however if the started application does not make it possible to return towards Shell or to open Workbench at its exit the machine must then be started again to be able to make another thing. However the fact of not launching Workbench does not harm of anything the functionalities OS (i.e it is possible to do everything since Shell obtained when one boot without opening Workbench).
AmigaOS to version 3.1 does not use any software layer to use graphic or audio functions additional. The new versions of AmigaOS take account of graphic materials other that the chipset of origin, but do not include any pilots. It is necessary to use the pilot provided by the manufacturer of the additional material. The common software packages for a graphic solution are EGS, Picasso96 and Cybergraphics. For the sound layer, AHI, a system of free pilots, is largely used.
Starting from AmigaOS 3.5, some of these solutions are delivered of office.
Versions of AmigaOS
The versions 1.x are the first implementation of AmigaOS. They by default are coloured in blue and orange (colors which could be easily changed by the user). Version 1.1 was mainly a correction of bugs. Versions 1.0 and 1.1 were distributed only on diskettes for the Amiga 1000.
Versions 1.2 and 1.3 were the first versions available in ROMANIAN (allowing their use on models having the kickstart in the ROMANIAN) but were still available on diskettes for Amiga 1000. These versions are that of the ROMANIAN of the A500, A1500, CDTV (1.3 only) and the A2000. Version 1.2 of Kickstart saw repaired many bugs, improving the stability of the system considerably, and added the support of AutoConfig which could configure the expander cards automatically. Version 1.3 had few changes in Kickstart (fixing mainly a bug to let start on hard drives) but have much more changes in Workbench, including/understanding a filesystem much faster for the hard drives, an improved CLI, and pilots additional.
Kickstart/Workbench 1.4 was a beta release of the very next update of version 2.0, but it was delivered in very minor amount with first Amiga 3000.
Kickstart/Workbench 2.0 was a principal projection with the operating system Amiga. Finished hard blue and orange, replaced by more pleasant colors with the eye, the gray and blue-clearly. Workbench was not related any more to the 640x200 or views 640x256 (STAKE) (NTSC), and most of the system was improved to facilitate future extensions.
Unfortunately, 2.x presented some incompatibilities with old badly written software, and good number of people were disturbed by this update.
2.x was delivered with the A500+ (2.04), A600 (2.05), A3000 and A3000T. Workbench 2.1 was the last of this series, and was only delivered like software update. It included useful programs such as CrossDOS, to work with diskettes PC. In other words, there was no Kickstart 2.1.
3.x was another important update.
This update includes:
- a system of data universal, known under the name of datatypes, which make it possible programs to charge with the images, sounds and texts in formats which they do not include/understand directly, thanks to the use of entries standards
- Support of the charts PCMCIA
- Réarrangement of the colors for views low colors
- visual Aspect improved
- Amélioration of the basic images
3.x was delivered with CD32, the A1200, the A4000 and A4000T.
AmigaOS 3.5,3.9After the transfer of International Commodore, the owners of the Amiga registered trademark granted a license to a called German company Haage & Partner to update the operating system of Amiga. With this update a change in the manner came of referring to the operating system. Rather than to indicate the “Kickstart”, or “Workbench,”, the updates were generally indicated under the name of “AmigaOS. ”
- Use of CD filesystem like standard
- Distribution on CD instead of diskettes
- Provided with a pile TCP/IP, a navigator Web, and a customer E-mail.
- Graphical interface improved, called “Reaction”
- Reader of films AVI/MPEG
- Support of the hard drives of more than 4Go (a limitation of the 1.x)
- documentation in HTML
- audio Reader of MP3 and CD (OS3.9)
- program of dock
- Workbench improved
AmigaOS 4A new version of AmigaOS is developed by Hyperion Entertainment under the license of Amiga, Inc. Version 4.0 is an important update ten years after the last official update: this jump is comparable with that done by Microsoft, at the time of the passage of Windows 3.1 with Windows 95. She was announced available on December 24th, 2006 on the site of Hyperion Entertainment.
Kickstart with the wire of time…Kickstart did not cease evolving/moving to its last breath. Here great stages of revision of Kickstart.
This table included not minor updates…
the AmigaOS page at Amiga Inc.
- the AmigaOS official site 4.0
- AmigaOS Support homepage
- Amiga Music Audio Amiga Safeguarding/Module/Protracker/Mods/Modules
- Obligement magazine in French on AmigaOS and MorphOS
- Amigaimpact the topicality Pegasos and French-speaking Amiga
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