the second triumvirate (see First triumvirate) is an political alliance joining together Marc Antoine, Consul of the year 44 av. J. - C. and former lieutenant de César, Lépide, old Maître of cavalry of César and Octave, the future emperor Auguste, adoptive nephew and wire of Jules César. This agreement is sealed for 5 years in Bologna front in November 43 J. - C. on the initiative of Antoine and Lépide. It represents the union of the political heirs to César vis-a-vis the Roman Sénat and to the republicans, in favor of the murderers of the dictator.
During this maintenance the three men are distributed the government of the provinces and the legions (in Lépide return the Gaulle Narbonnese and the Spain, in Antoine the hairy Gaulle and the Gaulle cisalpine, in Octave the Africa and the Sicily). Italy remains undivided. They also try to regulate the problem of the distribution of grounds to the veterans of César.
This agreement also makes it possible the triumvirs to post the list of their enemies whose goods are confiscated and who can be carried out without judgment. It is the Proscription. The following the example of Sylla, they organized horrible persecutions, whose most famous victim was Cicéron.
Contrary to the First triumvirate which was an agreement intended to remain secret, second is officialized by a law: the Lex Titia, voted by the Roman Comices the front on November 13rd, 43 J. - C. This law gives for five years of the capacities (Imperium) exceptional to the triumvirs (right to name magistrates, to make the law, to order the legions…).
The triumvirs are victorious republicans at the time of the battles of Philips in 42 av. J. - C. Marc Antoine is seen granting the capacity on the provinces of the East. In 41-40, tensions between Octave and the brother of Marc Antoine cause the war of Perugia, which makes it possible Octave to seize Gaules. Nevertheless the triumvirs remain allied, because it remains to them to get rid of Sextus Pompée, which still resists in Sicily.
In 37 av. J.C., the triumvirate which expired is officially renewed for one five years duration.
After the elimination of Sextus Pumped and the setting well off Lépide into -36, the triumvirate expires into -32 without nobody wanting to renew it.
Antoine lived in Egypt, of which he had married the queen, Cléopâtre, put before on the throne by Jules César itself. The latter wanted to destroy Rome and to make Alexandria the capital of the Mediterranean world.
Octave, very skilfully, was then posed as a defender Roman civilization against the ambitions of the Queen. The war burst between the two rivals into -32. Octave easily carried it in 31 av. J. - C. at the time of the Bataille of Actium. Antoine, then Cléopâtre committed suicide: Egypt was annexed in 32 av. J. - C. When Octave returned to Rome, one granted to him the title of Auguste, up to that point reserved to the gods, and was sacrilized in 27 av. J. - C. As a sign of peace, Auguste made close the doors of the temple of Janus. The reign of Auguste (27 av. J. - C. - 14 a. J. - C.) mark end of the Republic and the beginning of the Empire.
- to see the detail of the chronology in the History of the Roman Republic
Simple: Second Triumvirate
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