The Scotland (in English and Scots Scotland , in Scottish Gaelic Alba ) is one of the three Pays (year: Nation ) which forms the Great Britain, with the England and the Wales, to which is assistant the Province of the Northern Ireland to form the the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. It is located in the septentrional part of Great Britain.
The capital, the financial and administrative center of Scotland east Edinburgh. More the big city is Glasgow which is historically the most industrial city of the area. The other big cities are Aberdeen and Dundee, followed by Stirling, Perth, and Inverness.
There exists a great religious diversity, but the most important Church is the Église of Scotland - a reformed church presbytérienne.
There is an important independence movement in Scotland. Thus, following the legislative elections of 2007, the Left national Scot ( National Scottish Party (SNP)) became the first government independence (but minority) of the history of Scotland. The new Prime Minister for holding a referendum on independence in 2010. Scotland counts two other independence parties in addition: the Scottish Socialist Party (SSP) and Solidarité (socialist Movement of Scotland) which form a republican extreme-left and freedom fighter which approached, as for it, 8 % of the voices in 2003.
The central bank of the United Kingdom, the Bank of England, prints banknotes which are only having legal tender in England and in Wales. However banks in Scotland and Northern Ireland have the right to issue their own tickets: in Scotland they are the banks Banque of Scotland, Clydesdale Bank and Royal Bank off Scotland which prints the tickets. A Scottish banknote can be accepted (without however having legal tender) in all the territory of the United Kingdom like in the Dépendances of the Crown (the financial laws being different in the constituent countries from the United Kingdom, the Scot are not obliged to accept the English tickets, and the English are not obliged to accept the tickets Scot, but everyone is obliged to accept the coins of at least a book).
EtymologyThe word Scotland is the French translation of English Scotland , meaning country of Scots .
The word Scotia was used by the Romains to indicate the tribes which populated with the current territory of Scotland the Romans also used this term in order to designate the Irishmen.
Bède Worthy the uses the term Scottorum to indicate the nation from Ireland which was installed on part of the grounds Pictes (" Scottorum nationem in Pictorum leaves recipit"). This can be interpreted like the arrival of the people called Gaels in the kingdom of Dál Riata, on the west coast of Scotland.
With, the word Scot is mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon Chroniques and refers to the country of Gaels . The term Scottorum again appears, used by an Irish king in 1005. The expression Imperator Scottorum , is added in the name of Brian Bóruma by Mael Suthain, in the Book of Armagh. It is thought that Brian Bóruma was to then reign on Scots.
This denomination was somewhat copied by the kings Scot. One allots the expression Basileus Scottorum to Edgar of Scotland (1074 - 1107). Alexandre Ier of Scotland (about 1078 - 1124) used the expression Rex Scottorum on its seal; as its successors until Jacques II did it.
HistoryDrowned in the fogs, shredded by the sea, volcanicity and the glaciations, Scotland started to cause a romantic admiration only at the 19th century.
See also: Contenu=Voir also lists of [[list of kings d' Écosse]], [[kings d' Écosse]], of [[list of the kings of Pictes]], [[kings of Pictes]] and of [[list of the legendary kings of Scotland]], [[legendary kings of Scotland]].
See also: prehistoric Scotland
AntiquityBecause of its offset geographical position, Scotland was touched by the invasions than England and a fortiori that the continental areas. After the conquest of England (approx. 45 apr. J. - C.) by Claude, the Romans did not succeed or did not wish to pacify Scotland. They were cut off behind the wall that the emperor Hadrian made build towards 120 apr. J. - C., kind of wall of China which succeeds in containing after a fashion the Pictes until in 364. The Mur of Antonin builds more in north was not effective a long time. According to the Greek Claude Ptolémée, the various people which live Scotland then were the Brigantes , the Caledonii , the Votadini , the Selgovae , the Novantae , the Damnonii , the Verturiones , etc
The Middle Ages
See also: Scotland with the Middle Ages
Their various kingdoms will amalgamate in a single kingdom of Scots or Scotland. These kingdoms were:
- the kingdom of Fortriu (picte);
- the kingdom of '' Fib '' (picte);
- the Kingdom of Gododdin (Breton, heir to the Votadini ), absorbed by the Northumbrie saxonne;
- the Kingdom of Strathclyde (Breton);
- the kingdom of Dalriada (scot).
- the kingdom of '' Fib '' (picte);
Modern timeIn 1603, the king Jacques VI of Scotland became also Jacques I of England and Ireland.
In 1707, his/her little girl, the Queen Anne, (of the three kingdoms) died without heir nor heiress. Does the English Parliament choose George of Hanover as king d' Angleterre but the Scottish Parliament threatened for a time to choose different king protesting, perhaps “Jacques III and VIII”, friend of king de France, who could claim with the three thrones? But, the members of Parliament Scot, merchants for the majority, had money worries and thus yielded to the English threat to cease any trade with them and to prohibit freedom of movement at the borders.
After long negotiations, the Traité Union was signed and the United Kingdom of the United Kingdom was born.
Modern historyA Scottish Parlement was founded by “Scotland Act”, adopted by the British Parliament in 1998. A referendum had been organized before, in September 1997 and a vast majority had decided in favor of the creation of a Parliament. It is the first Scottish Parliament since 1707. It is composed of 129 deputies.
The first elections of the Scottish Parliament were organized the May 6th 1999. The first meeting of the Parliament took place the May 12th 1999. Elections took place then in 2003. The ''' Workers party ''' was then the greatest party (29,3 % and 50 seats) majority lack little. With the support of the Liberal (11,8 % and 17 deputies) Liberal Scottish Democratic Party, the members of the Labor Party formed the Scottish Executive, i.e. the government of Scotland.
There was a considerable presence of independence elected officials of the SNP (20,9 % and 27 seats) (National Scottish Party, center left - indeed, it was the second party of the Parliament), of the socialist freedom fighters (6,9 % and 6 deputies) divided between the SSP (Scottish Socialist party) and Solidarity (socialist Movement of Scotland) and of the independence ecologists of the Left green Scot (6,7 % and 7 seats). Unionistic preserving , whose Scottish Conservative and Unionist Party, right-hand side, which was opposed to the creation of the Parliament, had nothing any more but some elected officials (18 and 15,5 %).
The elections of the Thursday, May 3, 2007 gave the advantage to the SNP, which preceded of a seat the workers party (47 seats for the SNP, 46 for the workers party). The conservatives and the democrats keep about the same number of seats, while the greens and other small parts are eliminated. Since the creation of the SNP, it is the first time that it becomes the most important party with the Scottish Parliament. However, not having half of the seats, it will control in coalition with the workers party.
See also: Geography of Scotland
Scotland is bordered in the south by England and the sea on all the other sides. One could speak about an archipelago, since it gathers approximately 800 island S, but the term of peninsula is not moved because it also applies on the cultural level, the Scot having from time immemorial sought to preserve their cultural identity failing to be able to preserve their political autonomy. The three most known groups of islands are the the Shetland (more in north), the the Orkneys ( Orkney Islands , with broad of Thurso) and the Hébrides, in the North-West. The island of Skye belongs to Hébrides Intérieures, as well as the island of Mull.
The coasts are rather often very jagged and composed of cliffs or rocks but one meets sand beaches.
A good part of Scotland east covered with mountains. One should not be let mislead by relatively modest altitudes compared to the alpine tops. Even the Ben Nevis (1344 m) or the Cairn Gorm (1245 m) have proud pace and can appear impressive for little that their top is dissimulated by dark clouds. Often the foot of the mountains is hardly above the sea level. Volcanicity, although old, is visible in certain parts of the relief (piton of the Old Man off Storr on the island of Skye, basaltic Orgues of the island of Constructed in staff, Dykes of Edinburgh).
The Loch S are fresh water lakes or narrow Fjord S leading to the sea. They generally fill the bottom with a narrow and deep valley ( glen ). There are thousands, sometimes very small. Most known, like the famous Log Born, is not inevitably most beautiful.
The forests are rare, because of the excessive deforestation in the past or of the poverty of the ground on the mountains. The moors are covered with heathers or of ferns and the grass is often so rare that hundreds of square kilometers are completely unusable for agriculture.
The climate of Scotland oceanic, is moderated by the “tepid” currents which go up along the coasts. It there rains often and often very extremely, especially on the north-western part of the country.
See also: Political system of Scotland
LanguagesThe British statistics of 2001 revealed that the population of Scotland was then of 4,9 million inhabitants.
The English is the native tongue of 98 % of the Scottish population. They are generally English tinted the accent Scots (the bearing of the characteristic east) and certain lexical characteristics. The Scot Anglophone S monolinguals live, in a proportion of 75 %, in the Exchange Lowlands , i.e. in the center and the south of Scotland
The same statistics of 2001 indicated as 65 674 elderly three year old and more, is 1,3 % of the Scottish population, were still able to speak, read and write in Scottish Gaélique, national language and ancestral. The greatest concentrations of Scot celtophones are in the North-West, i.e. in the Western Isles (or the Hébrides), the Highlands , the islands the Orkneys and the islands the Shetland, as well as the area of Strathclyde and that of Edinburgh, the capital. Scottish Gaelic is not practically any more spoken in the south of Scotland. Jacques IV (1473 - 1513), were seems it one of last kings d' Écosse to speak the Scottish Gaélique.
Scottish Gaelic remains today a threatened language. However, thousand years ago, all the population of Scotland spoke Scottish Gaelic, but the domination of the English language, even at the time of the kings of Scotland, practically liquidated this Celtic Langue of the Scot, as in Ireland, with the Wales and in Cornouailles.
The Scots is different the regional Langue of Scotland. It was in the beginning the language of the Angles, but which evolved/moved with time to become the language of the lowlands . It is estimated that some 100 000 speakers would speak the Scots, ancestral national language and, or one of its varieties (Lallans and Doric). Contrary to the Gaelic which is of Celtic origin, the scots is a Germanic Langue West. One rather speaks the scots in the south about Scotland that in north.
The two regional languages are recognized in Scotland by the government of the United Kingdom according to the European Charte of the regional or minority languages like by the Scottish Parliament. The road signs appears in double English/Scottish form.
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See also: Demography of Scotland
Scotland had at the time of the Recensement of 2001,5 062 011 inhabitants. According to the estimates of 2004, this number could be of 5 078 400 currently. Surface of Scotland being of 78 782 km, the Population density are then of 64 people to the km ². Approximately 70% of the population live in the Exchange Lowlands, broad and fertile valley, stretching the North-East in south-west between the towns of Edinburgh and Glasgow, and including important basins of population such as Stirling, Falkirk, Perth and Dundee. Other concentrations of population are on the north-eastern coast, mainly around Aberdeen and of Inverness. The town of Glasgow has the highest Densité with 3 292 people with the km, whereas the area of the Highlands has the lowest density with only 5 people with the km.
The Scot of the coasts and the islands, after having lived one moment at the city and sometimes faced unemployment, only dream to return, even under difficult conditions, close to their logs, in their ground frays and water landscape.
Close to Glasgow, the crash of the shipyards of the Clyde and coal mines were keep silent with the end of the last war. Silence reigns on Scotland with unemployment and the graduates emigrate towards the Australia. Douglas Lindsay Hill, Scottish journalist, also told how the oil of the North Sea, which ressuscitait dreams of independence, was " confisqué" by the England.
CultureAlthough Scotland divides many aspects of its culture with the remainder of the the United Kingdom, of the cultural differences are however identifiable in certain fields. There exists a Scottish national identity which is present on the Scottish cultural scene.
The paradox of Scotland consists in expressing its identity through characters which are not clean for him. In the same way in the old stones and the working habitat, an eye not informed will not recognize Scottish specificity.
Sets of colossi
Each year in August, in all the country, the traditional Highlands Ranges, plays, are the occasion for kilt colossi to measure their force in an environment of fun fair:
- the most spectacular test, tossing the Caber, date of the 16th century. It is necessary to launch a trunk from 5 to 6 meters length in straight line and to make him touch the ground in driving position.
- Another muscular play, the jet of stones, weighing nearly 10 kg, with more than 10 meters.
- the dance Sean Truitbhas parody the prohibition of the port of the kilt by the English government.
- These entertainments are accompanied by Pipers-bands (brass bands of Cornemuse S), whose strident cry stimulates the aggressiveness of the participants.
- the Thistle, in particular the Thistle with the asses, which according to the legend would have made it possible to the Scot to push back an invasion Viking: one of the invaders would have pushed a howl of pain by putting its foot on a thistle, which alerted the Scot and allowed them to prepare.
- With the thistle is usually associated the currency “ Nemo me impune lacessit ” (“No one does not make fun of me with impunity” or “No one is not caught any with me with impunity”) which is sometimes accepted like the currency of Scotland itself. This currency appears in particular on certain old blazons Scot.
- the Cross of saint Andre or saltire, probably the oldest European national flag. Its form points out the cross on which St Andre was crucifié, patron saint of Scotland. This cross is incorporated, with those of Saint Georges, of England, and Saint Patrick, of Ireland, in the Union Jack, national flag of the United Kingdom.
- Greyfriars Bobby, Scottish national dog, symbol of fidelity.
- the Kilt, clothing considered as today traditional, and often in particular worn at the time of sporting events by the supporters. It is a pleated skirt, traditional clothing of Highlands, adopted like traditional clothing by all Scotland at the XIXe century.
- the Scotch tape Whiskey. Drink of international repute.
- the Monster of the Log Born. Legendary animal often called " Nessie" and supposed to live in the gigantic lake of the Log Born.
- the song Flowers off Scotland is used like anthem at the time of the matches of Rugby to XV of the Scottish sélction.
- William Wallace national hero, to see the film Braveheart .
- Robert the Bruce, (1274-1329), most famous king d' Écosse, victorious of the battle of Bannockburn in 1314 vis-a-vis the English.
- John Knox (ca.1515-1572), disciple of Calvin, founder of the reformed Church of Scotland, enemy of Marie Stuart the catholic.
- Marie Stuart (1542-1587), a famous queen of Scotland to the tragic destiny.
- John Napier (1550-1617), mathematician, inventor of the logarithmic table.
- Adam Smith (1723-1790) born in Kirkcaldy, celebrates economist and founding father of the doctrines of the economic liberalism.
- James Tytler (1742-1806), journalist, writes and publishes in 1771 the first version of famous British Encyclopédie.
- John McAdam (1756-1836), inventor of the process of coating of the roadways, using crushed stones (macadam).
- David Livingstone (1813-1873), missionary and discoverer of the sources of the Zambezi in 1865; its famous meeting with Stanley is in 1871.
- John Boyd Dunlop (1840-1921), veterinary surgeon and inventor of the rubber tire.
- Alexander Graham Beautiful (1847-1922), inventor of the telephone.
- Sir Arthur Conan Doyle (1859-1930), doctor, writer celebrates XIXe century, of Edinburgh, author of Sherlock Holmes.
- James Matthew Barrie (1860-1937) author of the play for children Peter Pan
- Alexander Fleming (1881-1955), originating in Darvel, discoverer of the Penicillin the September 3rd 1928.
to be classified + to check the dates
- British Prime Ministers: John Stuart Butts, George Hamilton-Gordon, Arthur Balfour, Henry Campbell-Bannerman, Andrew Bonar Law (born in Canada), Ramsay MacDonald, Alec Douglas-Home, Tony Blair and Gordon Brown.
- John Loudon McAdam, of Ayr invented, in 1815, the road coating “Macadam” which bears its name.
- John Boyd Dunlop, inventor of the pneumatic in 1888, veterinary surgeon and surgeon originating in Dreghorn. The factories of tires were created with Dublin in 1889.
- John Logie Baird, born with Helensburgh, invented the Télévision.
- Archibald Joseph Cronin, born with Cardross, doctor and writer.
- James Young Simpson, born with Bathgate, uses the Chloroforme for the first time during an operation with the fine anesthetic ones, on November 12th 1847.
- William Paterson, founder of famous the Bank off England, originating in Dumfries.
- Robert Roy MacGregor, alias Rob Roy, gangster and national hero.
- Alex Ferguson, trainer of football of Manchester United, born in Glasgow.
- Robert Burns, poet.
- Sylvester McCoy, actor in Doctor Who, British televised series of science fiction.
- David Holding, also an actor in Doctor Who.
- Billy Connolly, humorist, actor, type-setter, scenario writer and producer.
- Robert Louis Stevenson, writer, born in Edinburgh.
- Ewan McGregor, actor.
- Dario Franchitti (1973), pilot of IndyCar, Indy 500 winner and IndyCar champion 2007.
- Jim Clark (1936-1968), world champion of Formula 1 1963 and 1965.
- Jackie Stewart (1939, world champion of Formula 1 1969, 1971 and 1973.
- David Coulthard (1971), pilot of Formula 1.
- Annie Lennox, singer of the group Eurythmics.
- Mark Knopfler, guitarist and singer of the group To say Straits.
- David Georges Pearson, born with Dunblane (1949), celebrates American journalist Jones, Chevalier about the Merit.
- Jamie Fraser, hero of the series the Thistle and Tartan of Diana Gabaldon.
- Brian Molko, singer and type-setter of the group Placebo.
- John Paul Jones, founder of the US Navy, originating in Kirkbean.
- Thomas Clement (Tommy) Douglas, Prime Minister for the Saskatchewan (Canadian province) of 1944 with 1961, born with Falkirk, it was chosen by the anglophone public like the largest Canadian of the history of the country at the time of a contest in 2005 on the CBC, the English network of Radio-Canada.
- Canadian Prime Ministers Sir John A. Macdonald (born in Glasgow) and Alexander Mackenzie.
- the Young brothers: George (The Easybeats), Malcolm and Angus (AC/DC, of which the former singer Bon Scott was also of Scottish origin), born with Glasgow.
- Harold Macmillan, British Prime Minister.
- Paul McGillion, actor in Stargate Atlantis, born with Paisley.
- Paolo Nutini singer of the éponyme group.
Notes and references of the article
- Cities of the United Kingdom
- Cape Wrath
- Economy of Scotland
- royal National orchestra of Scotland
- Team of Scotland of Rugby to XV
External bonds and documents
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