The Saudi Arabia or Saudi Arabia , in long form the Royaume of Saudi Arabia ( Al-Mamlakat Al “Arabīyat have-Sa' ūdīya rear RTL المملكةالعربيةالسعودية) is largest of the countries of the Arabic Péninsule, with the the Middle East. It is bordering on the Iraq, the Jordan, the Kuwait, Oman, the Qatar, the United Arab Emirates and the Yemen, and is bordered by the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf.
ToponymyThe Arabia is the name of the Arabic peninsula. Saoudite always evokes the dynasty of the Âl Saoud with the capacity.
One finds “Saudi” and “séoudite”, with or without Majuscule.
- annexed List with the Stopped of November 4th, 1993
- Country and capitals of the world at January 1st, 2006, by the Commission of Toponymy of the national geographical Institute French
- inter-institutional Code of drafting, annexes A5, Liste of the States (to the 9.3.2005), by the Office for Official Publications of the European Communities
- alphabetical Liste of the Member States of ILO and Alphabetical list off other countries, territories and areas
- Saudi Arabia
- Lexique of the typographical rules of use with the HMSO (3rd edition, 1990)
The literal translation of the name (long official name) Arab of the country would be Saoudi Arab Royaume where “Arabic” does not return to Arabia (reference geographical), but in the Arab world (cultural reference): as the Jordanian Kingdom is hachémite, the Kingdom of Morocco is of the sherifs, the Kingdom Saoudi, is Arab for him. The Arabs call besides the country the Saudi or Saoudie .
The Saoudi state finds its source in the neighborhoods of 1744. A local tribal chief, Mohammed ibn Saoud, joins the founder of an ideological current asserting a return at the origins of Islam (called Wahhabisme), Mohamed ibn Abd Al-Wahhab, to create a new political entity.
The family of Saoud and the kingdom will know then tops and bottoms according to the agreements and dissensions with the Egypt, the Ottoman Empire and other families Arab for the control of the peninsula. Too much unstable, the kingdom will end up disappearing one century later.
Modern Saudi Arabia is rested by the king Abdul Aziz Al-Saoud (known internationally like Abdul Aziz Ibn Saoud).
In the night from January 15th to 16th 1902, Abdel Aziz ibn Saoud, wishing to restore the old state of its grandfather, seizes Riyadh, the ancestral capital of the dynasty of Al-Saoud, then occupied by rival family Al-Rashid (of Haïl). Abdelaziz then founds with the support of the Bedouin the order of Ikhwân (brothers) which enables him to increase its field. In 1904, it seizes the oasis Buraydah, capital of the area of Qasim, in the north of Nejd. Ikhwân are gradually installed in approximately 200 agricultural colonies (hujjar). In 1913, Abdelaziz seizes the province of Hasa, in the east, whose majority of the population is Shiite. Its political weight is recognized by the Othomans in May 1914 when those name it Wali of Nejd.
With the release of the First World War, Abdelaziz approaches the British gradually. A treaty of protection is signed with the latter in 1915.
Once all the conquered provinces, the state was to be consolidated. The support of the Oulémas, primarily by a Fatwa of 1927, benefitted enormously Abdel Aziz Ibn Saoud. The Oulémas, while issuing that it was interdict to revolt against the holder of the capacity, said that it was licit to make the war against Ikwhân, which wanted to extend the borders of the state at all the community of the believers. It was contrary with the projects of Abdelaziz, their old ally, which had as an ambition to found a powerful country and especially actor of the international scene. Ikwhân will be crushed in 1929, and the state could be stabilized.
Saudi Arabia is officially founded on September 22nd 1932 by the fusion of the provinces of Nejd and Hedjaz (Abdel Aziz ibn Saoud will become about it officially king thereafter).
The discovery of Pétrole in March 1938 transforms the country on the economic plan and marks the beginning of an strategic alliance with the USA become the guard armed with the dynasty. L´esclavage was abolished in 1968. During centuries, the inhabitants of the Arabic peninsula had imported foreign slaves masses some, in particular Blacks d Afric Eastern whose descendants are still numerous in the kingdom.
Saudi Arabia is a Absolute monarchy controlled by the family Saoud.
The Constitution of the country is based on the Moslem Droit. No demonstration or worship of another religion is accepted and those which express a different opinion for this reason are declared apostates and liable to the capital punishment.
The February 10th 2005 were organized the first partial democratic elections in this country: it was a question of electing 50% of the city council men of Riyadh and its province, the others remaining indicated by the capacity. But the women were excluded from the electorate.
According to the newspaper Le Monde of February 9th, 2005, " The American pressures since 11-September, encouraging Saudi Arabia to take the route of the reforms, played much in the decision to organize these élections." the elections take place in the disturbed context of the guerilla and the general elections in Iraq. For the first time, the democratic principles were moderately respected, the women being excluded from the political life: a twelve day old electoral campaign using the Written press, more than 1.800 candidates,… of ever seen in Arabia. Nevertheless, on the plan of the respect of the Human rights and especially of the women's right, Saudi Arabia would be one of the countries of more in margin of planet according to Amnesty International, which classifies this country in the necks and neck with Cuba and the North Korea. Amnesty Int. Saudi Arabia
See also: Subdivisions of Saudi Arabia
See also: Geography of Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia is member of OPEC. The oil incomes of the country rose to 150,3 billion dollars in 2005
See also: Demography of Saudi Arabia
According to the official statistics, 100% of the population are Moslem, mainly of rite sunnite. But reality is different because much of immigrant workers are not-Moslems.
Note: these figures enter the immigrant workers.
See also: Culture of Saudi Arabia
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