The Sarin is an odorless, colorless and volatile substance, of the family of the organophosphorés , extremely Toxique for the Man and the animal, even with very low dose (0,01 mg/kg can be fatal). It is estimated that it is approximately 500 times more Toxique that the Cyanure. It passes the barrier of the lungs easily and is absorbed by the Peau from where it passes directly in blood. When it does not kill, it leaves serious neurological after-effects. For these reasons, it was used like Chemical weapon, before being regarded as a Arme of massive destruction by the the United Nations (Résolution 687). For this reason, its production and its conservation are prohibited since 1993. The States should have destroyed their stocks of chemical weapons before 2007.
It belongs to the weapons and immersed Munitions by certain countries. France, for example immersed a certain quantity, drowned of it in concrete, with broad of Ushant
Chemical characteristicsThe sarin is close, by its structure and its effects, of Insecticide S such as the Malathion or the Sevin. It is also close to Médicament S such as the Pyridostigmine, the Néostigmine and the Antilirium.
With ambient Temperature, the sarin is colorless, odorless and liquid. It evaporates quickly in the form of a Nuage colorless and odorless also.
It is water soluble and in the majority of the biological fluids.
The sarin has one relatively long lifespan when it is preserved under good conditions, but it is degraded in a few weeks in a few months in the Environment, not without consequences for the animals with which it would come into contact. It could persist longer in the grounds and sediments in the absence of oxygen and of light, and some of its by-products or metabolites can be toxic. According to the CIA, in 1989, the government Iraq IEN would have destroyed at least 40 tons of degraded Sarin.
Biological effectsSarin is a Neurotoxique: it attacks the human nervous system.
It is a very powerful Organophosphoré, which inhibits the Acétylcholinestérase by forming a covalent bond with the active site of the Enzyme, which should normally carry out the Hydrolyze Acétylcholine. That causes to allow the Acétylcholine its activity and leads to a complete Paralysie and very rapid.
The symptoms of an exposure to Sarin are:
- a Nose painful and swollen;
- a Twisted tightened, difficulties of breathing;
- Contraction of the Pupil S;
- Nausea S, Vomiting S;
- Loss of the control of the body: Incontinence, Vomiting, loss of Conscience, Coma;
- At a advanced stage, production of Saliva, then crises of Convulsion S before death by asphyxiation, lungs not being able more to fulfill their function.
The exposure to the sarin leads most of the time to an unquestionable death, and it always leaves low registers Lésion S and permanent neurological after-effects at those which survive it.
TreatmentA fast treatment containing Atropine or other inhibiters of the Acetylcholine as well as an inhibiter of organophosphoré: pralidoxime.
OriginThe sarin was discovered in 1938 with Wuppertal - Elberfeld in the valley of the the Ruhr in Germany, in the laboratories of IG Farben, by three German researchers with research better Pesticide S. the compound receives its name according to its inventors: Gerhard S chrader, has mbros, R üdiger and Van DER IN' of.
- 1953 : Ronal Maddison, a 20 year old engineer, dies following human tests of the sarin. The family brings a lawsuit with the Royal Air Force.
- 1956 : The sarin is not produced any more with the the United States.
- 1991 : Resolution 687 of UNO considers that Sarin is a Arme of massive destruction. It is interdict to have some and to produce some. * 1993: A convention (Chemical Weapons Convention or CWC) is signed by 162 members. It takes effect the April 29th 1997. All the chemical agents must be destroyed before April 2007. * 1995: The Secte Japan ease Aum Shinrikyo tries an attack with the Gaz Sarin in the subway with Tokyo, which will be fortunately little mortal thanks to the impurity of the Gaz.
- Questions/Answers about Sarin
- International Stockholm Peace Research Institute: the Research institute for the Peace of Stockholm.
- United States Senate, congress 103d, second session. (May 25th, 1994). Material Safety Dated Sheet -- Lethal Nerve Agent Sarin (GB), November 6th, 2004.
- United States Central Intelligence Agency (July 15th, 1996) Stability off Iraq' S Chemical Weapon Stockpile
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