Sanhadja is the name of a great confederation of tribes Berbères of the Moyen-âge.
The Sanhadja tribes are originating in the Saharan North-West but, after the arrival of the Islam, the tribes emigrate towards north while going up until the Moyen Atlas (close to the coasts Atlantique S of current the Morocco) and continuing on the Saharian Atlas (current Algérie).
At the 10th century, Sanhadja tribes, carried out by Ziri ibn Menad, manage to overcome the revolt of Abu Yazid E the tribe of the Banou Ifren Zénète against the Fatimides. By saving the dynasty, the tribes are seen allotting the control of the the central Maghreb. In 971, Sanhadja Bologhine ibn Ziri, wire of Ziri ibn Menad, founds the dynasty ziride which will reign on the Ifriqiya (is of the Maghreb), but it is one of its descendants, Al-Muizz ibn Badis, which will make the dynasty independent in 1046. One of wire of Bologhine, Hammad ibn Bologhine, founds in parallel, 1014, the dynasty hammadide controlling the central Maghreb. Another dynasty resulting from the Sanhadja tribes will reign starting from 1062 on the west of the Maghreb and the country of Al-Andalus: the Almoravides.
The Touaregs are the most direct descendants of Sanhadja.
Sanhadja are at the origin of the name Senegal, via Portuguese Sanaga .
Principal tribes sanhadjaThe four principal tribes are:
- the Lemtuna or Lemtouna (most powerful),
- the Gadala or Djoddala ,
- the Messoufa or Massoufa , and
- the Lemta .
- John Mercer, Spanish the Sahara , George Allen & Unwin Ltd, London, 1976,
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