San Diego is a coastal town of the south of the California, with the the United States, located at the south-western extême of the country, close to the Mexican border. The population of the city of 1.223.400 inhabitants in 2000 and was estimated at 1.305.736 in 2005; the agglomeration counts of them 3.051.280 in 2005 and the urban surface of San Diego-Tijuana 4.688.762. It is the second city of the state of California and the eighth in terms of inhabitants of the the United States. It is known for its pleasant climate, its many beaches and to have been an important military naval base between its foundation in 1602 and the end of the Cold war. Sit of many installations of the American army, its naval Base accommodates the largest naval fleet of the world. Many boats were baptized USS San Diego in its honor.
San Diego was created like military station in 1602 by Sebastián Vizcaíno close to an Amerindian city called Nipagay . California of the south then formed part of the colony of News-Spain. A religious mission settled in 1769 there, baptized San Diego de Alcalá.
The first forwarding which aimed has to establish a chain of Missions in High California was made up of four bodies different of Franciscains and soldiers; two per ground and two per sea. With regard to forwarding by sea route, only 126 colonists out of 226 survived the continual battle against the winds of face along the basic coast California.
Gift Gaspar de Portolà, the new appointed Governor of High California, was the chief appointed of forwarding, composed Christian soldiers, Indians basic California and of a handle of Franciscains. One of the terrestrial teams was directed by the Captain Will rivet assisted of the Father Juan Crespi, biographer of forwarding. Portola directed itself the second, accompanied by the Serra father, who had seen himself assigning the task of the creation of all the Missions of the new territory by the General inspector Jose de Galvez, staff representative of King d' Espagne in Mexico.
July 1st 1769, the survivors of the group directed by Portola, the last to reach the point indicated on the coast, arrived at destination, after a painful voyage two months in the arid and inhospitable territory of Low California.
The father Junípero Serra remains behind and hastens to establish the complex of the Mission. At the end of 2 weeks, a cross is set up on a hill overhanging bay (This site is from now on known under the name of Presidio Hill). The name of the Mission was selected according to the name of Franciscain, canonized in 1588. Five years later, it is moved on its current site, because of the proximity of a source of fresh water and place of dwelling of the Indians.
The ceremony having governed the foundation of the Mission of San Diego fixes the model which will be used for the inauguration of the later Missions. A large cross out of wooden is set up, a mass is said and the local Indians are called by bells attached in the trees. One offers present to them to gain their confidence. The “policy of the small presents “did not bear its fruits everywhere and, in San Diego, the Indians easily do not accept the intrusion of the Spaniards on their territory and tackle the Mission as of the first month. The Father Junípero Serra will have to wait one year before being able to baptize the first Indien child. Meanwhile a church was built and, in 1774, the relations with the Indians improved, and 60 baptized Indians are counted.
In 1822, San Diego was attached to the Mexico. In 1834, the first mayor was elected there (Juan María Osuna). The city became American after the Mexico City-American Guerre and was indicated like chief town of the Comté of San Diego. In 1885, a line of Railroad connected it to the remainder country.
Since the Second world war, the military presence played an important role in the economic life. After the end of the Cold war armed manpower were however considerably reduced. San Diego became a specialized center in the Biotechnologie S and shelters the seat of the giant of telecommunications Qualcomm.
San Diego is famous being a city preserving and republican, which makes of it a political aberration within liberal California.
This constant republican domination since the end of the Second world war is due partly to the important presence of American military bases. However, the census of 2005 indicated 39% of democrats for 34% of republicans.
San Diego is located at the south-western end of the United States, with two hours and half of road of Los Angeles. It is the last great agglomeration of the country before the Mexican border , whose town of Tijuana is only at half an hour of road.
The surface of San Diego is of 964 km ², including 840 km ² of ground, the remainder being in the maritime field. The city is served by the international airport of San Diego. The edges of the city are very irregular, because of the absorption of many suburbs inside its limits. Moreover, the many canyons which traverse it create borders making obstacle with its extension. 4.688.762 inhabitants live in the urban surface of San Diego- Tijuana, the 21e more big city of the the United States.
The coastal winds coming from the Pacific Ocean moderate the local climate, making the hotter summers fresher and winters. The average temperature in summer is of 25°C, in winter of 19°C. The average of annual precipitations is of 25,4 centimetres. The period of the most important rainfall is between March and November
San Diego is divided into a great number of districts because of its important surface and its geographical configuration.
Northern : Bay Ho, Bay Park, Carmel Valley, Clairemont Mesa, Del Mar Heights, La Jolla, La Jolla Village, Beach Mission, North City, North Clairemont, Pacific Beach, Torrey Pines, University City
- North-eastern : Carmel Mountain, Miramar, Reflected Mesa, Rancho Bernardo, Rancho Peñasquitos, Saber Springs, Scripps Ranch, Sorrento Valley
- Is : Allied Gardens, Birdland, Del Cerro, Grantville, Kearny Mesa, Lake Murray, San Carlos, Tightened Mesa, Tierrasanta
- Western : Hillcrest, Playa, Linda Vista, Loma Portal, Midtown, Midway District, Mission Bay Park, Hills Mission, Valley Mission, Morena, North Park, Beach Ocean, Old Town, Heights Point Loma, Roseville-Fleetridge, Sunset Cliffs, University Heights, Wooded Area
- Center : Balboa Park, Banker' S Hill, Barrio Logan, Core-Columbia, Cortez, Gaslamp Quarter, Hill Golden delicious, Grant Hill, Harborview, Horton Plaza, Little Italy, Logan Heights, Marina, Memorial, Park West, Sherman Heights, South Park, Stockton
- Mid-City : City Heights, Area College, Darnall, El Cerrito, Gateway, Kensington, Normal Heights, Oak Park, Rolando, Talmadge, Webster
- South-eastern : Alta Vista, Bay Terrace, Chollas View, Emerald Hills, Encanto, Jamacha-Lomita, Lincoln Park, Mountain View, MT. Hope, Shelltown, Skyline, Southcrest, Valencia Park
- Southern : Egger Highlands, Nestor, Ocean Crest, Otay Mesa, Palm City, San Ysidro, Tijuana To rivet Valley
San Diego has a strong Mexican influence because of its proximity with the border separating the United States and the Mexico, and it counts more than 20% the Hispanic ones. Moreover, other minority groups work the culture of the city, like the Siciliens and the Portuguese, arrived during the last centuries, and the new immigrants, whose majority come from the old countries of the the USSR, of Asia and Africa.
All these influences show through in various fields, of which kitchen.
The most prestigious university of San Diego is the the University of California with San Diego, more usually called under its initial UCSD, classified 14th better university of the world in 2007, according to the Université Jiao Tong of Shanghai. One can also find there the Université of San Diego (USD), catholic university, the Université of State de San Diego; and several other establishments of higher education.
DemographyPopulation of the 10 towns of the most populated California (2004)
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from: start till: 3845.8 text: Los Angeles _ (3 845.541) from: start till: 1263.2 text: San Diego _ (1 263.756) from: start till: 904.5 text: San Jose _ (904 522) from: start till: 744.2 text: San Francisco _ (744 230) from: start till: 476.5 text: Long Beach _ (476 564) from: start till: 457.7 text: Fresno _ (457 719) from: start till: 454.3 text: Sacramento _ (454 330) from: start till: 397.9 text: Oakland _ (397 976) from: start till: 342.7 text: Santa Anna _ (342 715) from: start till: 333.7 text: Anaheim _ (333 776) TextData= fontsize: S pos: (450,20) text: Many inhabitants (in thousands)
San Diego is an important tourist destination. Enjoying a sunny climate and beautiful sand beaches, it also offers to the visitors other centers of interest.
the Zoo of San Diego is so imposing that its complete visit takes several days. It is managed by a foundation with nonlucrative goal, whose profits are reinvested in programs for protection of nature, as the Center of reproduction of the species in danger. One finds there in particular tiger S, Panda S, Ours, Gorille S, an important collection of Oiseau X and Reptile S, as well as a Arboretum containing rare gasolines. The zoo has its own plantation of Bambou S to nourish the pandas and of Eucalyptus for the Koala S.
- the San Diego Wild Animal Park point of disjunction a great quantity of species in danger, coming from all the continents. Established in a semi-arid zone, its broad spaces make it possible to accommodate Gazelle S, Girafe S, Hippopotame S, Guépard S, Zèbre S, Rhinocéros, as well as a race of horse particularly threatened, the wild horses of Mongolia ( Equus caballus Prjewalski ), whose population was reduced to less than 1000 individuals. The park counts approximately 400 animalist species and 3500 different plants. An electrified train makes it possible to visit it, on a 8 kilometers long course.
- Sea World (World of the sea): an amusement park set of themes, where one can in particular discover Requin S by borrowing a transparent underwater gallery.
- Gaslamp Quarter (the district of the lamps with gas) : one of the historical quarters of San Diego, famous for its reverberators with gases which continue to illuminate it the night. Its architecture is of Victorien style. One finds there restaurants, discotheques, as well as the PETCO Park, new stage built in downtown area to accommodate the San Diego Padres , the team of Baseball of the city.
- the Museum off Contemporary Art (MCASD) is one of the large museums of the city. It was recently increased by the architect Richard Gluckman who conceived Copley Building, installed in an old instruction of the railway line Santa Fe.
The car being the principal means of transport of the area, Large San Diego is served by an important highway network. It includes the Interstate 5, in direction of the county of Orange in north and of the Mexico in the south, the Interstate 8, in direction of the Arizona in the east, the Interstate 15, which moves towards the Comté of Riverside, and the Interstate 805, which separates from I-5 with Sorrento Valley and joined it before the Mexican border.
The important roads of state of the area are the 54 in the zone of South Bay; the 125, 94, and 67 in the east of the county; the 56 and the 78 in north; the 52 (Jolla-Santee); and the 163 (Downtown-Miramar). The San Diego-Coronado Bridge belongs to California State Route 75.
Several regional projects of improvement of this highway network were drawn these last years, with an aim of curing the growing number of congestions on these highways; for example, an important extension of I-5 and I-805.
The city has a joint grid system combining a Tramway, lines of bus and rail links with Amtrak, primarily serving the downtown area and its surroundings. An extension of the network of tram along the 5 Freeway will connect new zones of the city. The bus takes its main roads.
The International airport of San Diego, so known under the name of International Lindbergh Airport or Lindbergh Field , is the commercial airport most important of the area of San Diego. The other airports are the Brown Field Airport ( Brown Field ) and the Montgomery Field Municipal Airport ( Montgomery Field ).
A maritime transport also exists for the bay, which includes/understands several ferries. The port is also the starting point of cruisings towards the Mexico, Hawaii, the Alaska and the the Caribbean via the Panama Canal.
In San Diego two evolve/move fanchises sporting major: the San Diego Chargers in American football and Padres in baseball
Joe Michael Straczynski, author of Science fiction.
- Rey Mysterio, all-in wrestler with WWE
- Mr. Shadow and Lil Rob, rappeurs
- Vanessa Hudgens was born
Official site of the town of San Diego
- Welcome history of San Diego
- in San Diego the site of the French and French-speaking community on San Diego
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