See also: Samoa (homonymy)
The Samoa ( Samoa German of 1900 with 1914, Samoa Western until in 1997) is a State independent of Polynésie, including/understanding four uninhabited inhabited islands and five small islands, in the south of the Pacific Ocean. This State constitutes the Western part of the Archipel of the Samoa, the oriental party being under American administration : the name change in July 1997 (and the disappearance of the Samoan name of I Sisifo , i.e. “Western”, “with setting”) proclamation will to see one day the joined together whole archipelago.
The Samoans constitute, by order of importance, the second Polynesian population after the Maori S of the New Zealand.
See also: History of the Samoa
Populated for approximately 3.000 years by people Polynesia N, the Samoa in the neighborhoods of year 1000 before J. - C have been occupied.
The Dutchman Jacob Roggeveen was the first European to identify the archipelago in 1722. The French explorer Louis-Antoine de Bougainville named the archipelago the islands of the Navigator in 1768.
In 1889, was signed the Traité of Berlin, guaranteeing the political independence of the Samoa. The established mode was then a monarchy.
In 1899, the Samoa were divided into two parts: Samoa Western (integrated into the German New Guinea) and the Samoa Eastern (under American control). This division persists still today.
The Samoa Western obtained their independence the January 1st, 1962 following a referendum.
The country became member of the the Commonwealth in 1970 and the United Nations in 1976.
See also: Political of the Samoa
The Samoa form an independent constitutional monarchy. The constitution of 1960, which formally took effect with independence of the country, is based on the parliamentary democracy of the the United Kingdom, modified to take into account the habits of the Samoa. The two Samoan big bosses at the time of independence transfer themselves indicated jointly for the title of Head of the State. After the death of Tupua Tamasese Mea' ole, in 1963, Malietoa Tanumafili II was alone to occupy this station until its death, which has occurred on May 11th, 2007. June 16th of this same year, the Parliament elects Tupua Tamasese Tupuola Tufuga Efi like O Ao O Malo (Head of State). Contrary to its predecessors, Tupuola Tufuga Efi is not Head of State to life, since he was elected with a five years mandate. The same will apply to its successors.
See also: Subdivisions of the Samoa
The Samoa are divided into eleven districts: A' ana, Aiga-i-le-Tai, Atua, Fa' asaleleaga, Gaga' emauga, Gagaifomauga, Palauli, Satupa' itea, Tuamasaga, Va' a-o-Fonoti and Vaisigano.
See also: Geography of the Samoa
The Samoa are located very close to the international line of change of date, approximately halfway between Hawaii and the New Zealand, in the south of the Kiribati (islands of the Line). The islands located at the east of the 171e degree of western longitude form the American Samoa and those in the west the Samoa Western. The Samoa include/understand the two large islands of Upolu and Savai' I like seven small islands. Almost the three quarters of the population live on the principal island of Upolu, where also the capital is, Apia.
The four Western inhabited islands of the Samoa name Savai' I, Upolu, Apolima and Manono.
The five uninhabited islands name Fanuatapu, Namu' has, Nuutele, Nuulua and Nuusafee.
Formerly baptized archipelago of the Navigators, the islands forming the Samoa are of coral origin or ic Volcan. The presence of run volcanic Lave makes several of the islands of the archipelago uninhabitable.
The Samoa (Western) are enough Montagne use and the highest top of the archipelago is Mauga Silisili (1 858 m), on the island of Savai' I.
The Climat is tropical with one rain season starting in November and finishing in April. The fauna of the Samoa is restricted enough, one finds only few animaux  there;: Snake S, Lizard S and Bird X. The flora of the very rich Samoa east on the other hand, the forest recovering the islands is luxuriant. Several plants and animals of the Samoa are endemic (one nowhere does not find them elsewhere on planet). It is thus of the responsibility for the State to preserve them. This is why the Samoa obtained the Faatotoe Muli O Ola (strategy of the biodiversity of the Samoa).
The Cyclone S are frequent and devastators for the agriculture of the Samoa. It is the primary reason for which the Samoa, on which the economy depends mainly on agriculture, still need the international assistance.
The annual average temperature is of 22 °C.
See also: Economy of the Samoa
Principal exports of the Samoa are the Coprah, the Cacao, the Banane and the Café.
Agriculture employs two thirds of the population of the Samoa and provides 90% of the incomes of export. The principal countries where the products are exported are the Australia, the the United States and the Japan.
Tourism is a growth sector, cash for 25% of the GDP, with 88.000 tourists, in 2001.
Only country of the Pacific to be classified by UNO in the category of the least advanced countries, this situation enables him to receive from the international assistance (52 million in 1992,41% of the GNP). The imports of Pétrole engulf 99% of the incomes of exports.
See also: Demography of the Samoa
Apia, with a population of 33.000 inhabitants (in 1995), is the capital and the shopping mall of the Samoa. 50% of the population of the Samoa live or work abroad. The majority leave for the New Zealand, the Australia or towards the American Samoa, first stage before one second migration towards the the United States.
The Samoans are to 99,7% Christians.
See also: Culture of the Samoa
The fa' asamoa could result in the manner Samoan. It is a kind of code of conduct which touches especially the behaviors towards others and implies a large respect of the authorities in place: elder, police, parents, etc
The fa' asamoa also appears in the legal system of the Samoa which is separate into two. The first is a system of the Western type and rests on a police force like on courts managed by the central government. Second is of traditional type and raises of the jurisdiction of each village.
In spite of the centuries of European influence, Samoa maintains its habits historical, its social systems and its language which one thought that it is the oldest form of Polynesian speech still in existence (assumption disputed by the modern linguists).
The Rugby is extremely popular there. Many players of the New Zealand championship are Samoan, even some of the All Blacks of origin Samoan, as Tana Umaga. Recently, the team of the Samoa joins other archipelagoes sometimes (Fiji, Tonga, Îles Cook) to form the " Pacific Warriors, " left Barbarians of the archipelagoes océaniens. Another important sport in the Samoa, the kirikiti is a kind of derived from the cricket which is played with a rubber ball. There is no official competition but it is undoubtedly the most popular sport, which is generally practiced in end of the afternoon in a perfectly friendly way.
Samoas are recognized by CIO since 1983. Never a Samoan is assembled on an Olympic podium. One also notes the minority practice of football.
- Telephone lines : 8.000 (in 2005)
- Cellphones : more than 30.000 (in 2005)
- Stations radio : 1 AM, 5 FM (in 2005)
- Radios : 90% of the 23.098 hearths (in 2001)
- Television broadcast stations : 3 (in 2005)
- Television stations : 15.603 (in 2001)
- Many suppliers of access Internet : 3 (in 2005)
- Roads : 866 km, 350 km tarred, 516 km not tarred (estimate of 2001)
- Railways : 0 km
- inland Waterways : 2.043 km
- Many airports : 3 (in 2005), 2 having tracks tarred (of which the airport Apia Faleolo, code AITA APW)
- Ports : Apia, Asau, Mulifanua, Salelologa
CodesSamoa has as codes:
- SAM, according to the Code list country of the CIO,
- WS, according to the international Code list of the number plates,
- WSM, according to the standard ISO 3166-1 (code list country), code alpha-3,
- WSM, according to the Code list countries used by NATO, code alpha-3,
- Strategy of the biodiversity of the government of the Samoa
- Web site of the government of the Samoa
- History of Samoa
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