Salzburg () (German: Salzburg , Bavarian: Såizburg ) is an Austrian city of 150.000 inhabitants in 2006 and the capital of the Land of Salzburg (520 000 inhabitants in 2003). Salzburg is regarded as one of the tourist cities most interesting in the world and the old city is registered on the Liste of the world heritage of UNESCO.
With two steps of the German border, the Austrian city where was born Mozart made yesterday its fortune on salt. Today, rich person of its history and its beauty, strong of the reputation of his festival, it thrives on the treasures of his charm.
The first traces go up with the Neolithic . Thousand years before Jesus-Christ, the Illyrien S occupy the site, inhabited since the neolithic age. The Celte S arrived 400 years later. Starting from 15 av. J.C., a city is formed on banks of the Salzach. In 45 then, the city is called Iuvavum , it belongs to the Roman empire and acquires the municipal right. In Ve century a cloister is arranged there. The bishop Rupert von Worms (or Rupert von Salzburg) receives the remainder of the city in 699 in gift on behalf of the count of Bavaria. The name “Salzburg” is evoked for the first time into 755. The city is since 739 the seat of évêché. Salzburg becomes a city-state controlled by prince-archbishops.
In 1077, the Fortress of Hohensalzburg ( Festung Hohensalzburg ) is built by the Gebhard prince-archbishop.
At the 17th century, the city “baroquise”, in particular under the prince-archbishops Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau, Markus Sittikus Graf von Hohenems and Paris Graf von Lodron.
1803 mark end of the reigns of the princes archbishops of Salzburg. The city passes under the cut of Ferdinand III of Tuscany then in 1805 it is annexed with Berchtesgaden in Austria. In 1810, it is attached to the Bavaria then in 1816 (after the Congrès of Vienna) it is again reinstated in Austria.
About 1860, the fortifications are not enough any more to contain the city and Salzburg extends to the outside.
The June 7th 1935, a decision of the assembly of Salzburg allows the enlarging of the territory of the city. Annexing the neighbouring communes, Salzburg passes from a surface of 8,79 km ² to 24,9 km ² and sees its population climbing of 40.232 inhabitants with 63.275.
The old city is particularly interesting because it knew to preserve its caratère Gothic blazing and Baroque with many constructions of the architects Vincenzo Scamozzi and Santino Solari inter alia. The cathedral (“Salzburger Dom”) is one their contributions to the city. The cathedral was in the Romance beginning (finished into 774) but it burned in 1598 and one news was set up with the same site (construction of 1614 to 1628). Salzburg knows many religious buildings: the cloister Benedictine Saint Pierre, the church of the franciscains, the Petersfriedhof cemetery is worth also the glance. The old city includes/understands also famous Forteresse of Hohensalzburg and among its streets, Getreidegasse belongs to the most famous commercial streets because it shelters in particular the house where Mozart was born.
Apart from the old city, one can admire the Mirabell castle surrounded by a park and the Hellbrunn castle with park, fountains and dancing waters, hunting preserve.
CultureSalzburg knew one flourishing period under the prince-archbishops, accommodating artists of whole Europe and his center town is a chief of Gothic work of art and Baroque. Among the largest artists that Salzburg sheltered between its walls, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart is most famous by far and became the emblem of the city.
Many festivals take place all the year, there are concerts almost daily. The most famous festival is undoubtedly the Festival of Salzburg ( Salzburger Festspiele ), founded in 1920 by max Reinhardt and Hugo von Hofmannstahl, which takes place each year of at the end of July at the end of August. Concerts, operas and plays alternate for one month. A Festival of Pentecost takes place starting from 1973.
In 1967, the leader Herbert von Karajan, born in Salzburg in 1908, creates the Festival of Easter ( Salzburger Osterfestspiele ), independent of the festival of summer: a new opera is presented each year with some concerts, the Philharmonic orchestra of Berlin being in pit.
These two festivals take place in rooms arranged by Clemens Holzmeister in old buildings baroques, which form the “district of the Festival” ( Festspielbezirk ): the Large palace of the festivals ( Großes Festspielhaus ), the House of Mozart ( Haus für Mozart , old Petit Palais of the festivals) and the Horse-gear of the rocks ( Felsenreitschule ).
Mozart is continuously honoured through for example the Serenades with Mozart, together with concerts being spread out May at December, and festivals more specific like Mozart-Bach Festival or the festival of chamber music. The institution which bears its name, the Mozarteum, is known well beyond the borders of Austria.
CelebritiesMany celebrities were born there or lived there of which here some names:
- Mönch von Salzburg (XIVe century)
- Paul Hofhaimer (1459-1537)
- Johann Stadlmayr (Ca 1575-1648)
- Bartholomäus Riedl († 1688)
- Heinrich Ignaz Franz Biber (1644-1704)
- Georg Muffat (1653-1704)
- Leopold Mozart (1719-1787)
- Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791)
- Michael Haydn (1737-1806)
- Sigismund von Neukomm (1778-1858)
- Joseph Mohr (1792-1848), priest and type-setter of “Soft night”
- Joseph Messner (1893-1969)
- Cesar Bresgen (1913-1988)
- Herbert von Karajan (1908-1989)
- Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim (Paracelsus)
- Christian Doppler
- Rupertinum , museum of modern art
- Haus der Natur Salzburg , house of the nature of Salzburg
- Stille Nacht Museum
- Salzburger Freilichtmuseum
- Dommuseum Salzburg , museum of the cathedral of Salzburg
- Mozarts Geburtshaus , the native house of Mozart
- the second house of Mozart
- Seat of the International union of biathlon.
- Space Salzburg Amadé Sport World, greater field Ski whitebait of Europe.
- SV Austria Salzburg, club of Football.
- culinary Specialities: the Mozartkugeln (chocolates spheres of Mozart) and the Salzburger Nockerln (serves crémeux soufflé)
- Europrix, festival of the multimedias, takes place each year in Salzburg.
- Salzburg was eliminated by the CIO from the Winter Olympics from 2014, it is Sotchi which was selected.
- Official site of the city
- Official site of the festival
- Guide of the restaurants & calendar of events
- Information on the city and the country of Salzburg
- Tourist site for rooms of hosts and apartments
- Images of Salzburg
- Report photographs on Salzburg
- Site of Salzburg and of the kitchen of Austria
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