See also: Salsa (homonymy)
The salsa (Spanish word which means “Sauce”) indicates at the same time a Danse, a Musical genre, but also a family of musical genres (Latin-American music). A musician (or singer) or dancer of salsa is called salsero ( will salsera with female).
Typical formationThe typical formation includes/understands:
- a Rhythm section: low, Piano, drinking cup S, Congas, Bongos;
- a Section coppers: trumpet S, Trombone S, sometimes Saxophone S;
- of the voice: Song and choruses.
The number of coppers, voices and percussions can vary.
During the Years 1970, the majority of the groups will try, while varying these parameters, to create “their” sound.
The variations containing European, African and creole instruments produced many combinations according to the style of interpreted music and the instruments available. Many cuban units are derived from the orchestral tradition whereas others are a combination of styles of folk music and country.
Cuban musical roots
What is called today salsa is a term as broad as Jazz or Rock. Difficult to define and prone to controversies, this musical complex is more than a Musical genre, a fusion or a musical style. It is resulting from many rates/rhythms such as the its, the Mambo and the Guaracha of Cuba, the Plena and the Bomba Puerto Rico, and various styles such as the Charanga, the Conjunto, the Sexteto and others. But it is mainly based on a fusion of sound montuno and mambo. By confusion or commercial goal, one uses sometimes the term “salsa” to include there other incompatible kinds such as the Merengue, the Cha cha cha, and even the Latin-house, the Cumbia, the Bachata.
The salsa term includes this variety of rhythmic styles and musical forms. To study the roots of the salsa, we must turn to Cuba because of its enormous contributions to this type of music. Countries like the E. - U., Puerto Rico, the Venezuela, the Mexico, the Colombia and the Dominican Republic also contributed to the development of the salsa, but it is in Cuba that its bases were developed.
Technically, the salsa can be described as a general term which gathers all these musics, which all are structured around a rhythmic cell called Clave . What distinguishes the Rythme of the salsa is this rhythmic structure in which presence and rate/rhythm are strictly maintained by the musicians and the arrangers, who thus create a single rhythmic base in the musical styles of afro-Caribbean origin.
The cuban Musique is a fusion of Harmonie S, melody S, Rythme S and instruments of Africa and Europe. This continuous fusion of elements as of the 16th century gave rise to a complex and attractive multitude of musical forms, giving to the salsa its variety of aspects, instrumentations, step of Danse, poetic forms, structures and rhythmic and melody sentences.
A major factor in the development of the salsa is its major connection with several styles of percussion, this more particularly in Cuba, where the African people reduced in Esclavage could preserve their Tradition S crowned and secular of percussion. A single element of this tradition is the bond between natural music, such the punk one or the rock'n'roll, and language where the word extends beyond the piece to become an instrument.
This integration of the percussion in the popular culture is perhaps the dominant characteristic of the musics Cuban Negroes -- and of all the musics afro-centrists.
The rhythmic heritage of the salsa is directly related to the popular Musique cuban. Of particular importance in this respect are the forms known as Rumba, its and Danzón, which represents the consolidation of African and European elements secular and religious.
The sound montunoThe its montuno was founded by the Cuba in Arsenio Rodriguez towards 1930 starting from the Its Cuban (appeared with the Carnaval of Santiago of Cuba in 1892, and resulting from the Changui born towards 1860, played by a Trio musicians: a “Very”, Bongos and sometimes of the Claves and an instrument of low, the Marimbula at the beginning), by replacing the Very by the Piano and the Bongos by Congas playing the rate/rhythm Rumba of the Guaguanco.
Diffusion of this music in Puerto Rico then New YorkThe creation of the State free and associated Puerto Rico in 1952 will start great migratory exits of this island towards the east coast of the the United States, and especially towards the Spanish Harlem ( El Barrio ), part of the district “East Harlem” of Manhattan to New York between 1st and the 5th avenue and the 96e and 125e streets Are (they are baptized Nuyorican ).
Thus, of many Porto Rican musicians plays New York the Latin rates/rhythms with the mode.
These rates/rhythms come mainly from Cuba, then center of the life Culture lle of the the Caribbean from its geographical location.
But after the cuban Révolution completed in 1959, of many Cuba ins also emigrate in the United States (New York and Miami). Cuba, by the embargo, loses its role Culture L central, leaving with New York this role of center of attraction.
The music with New York will be then mainly of inspiration Cuba innate, played by musicians of all Caraïbes.
In particular the combo of Cortijo and its singer Ismael “Maelo” Will rivet cumulate the first by playing these rates/rhythms at the time of a round in the gross pomme.
The Porto Rican do not forsake therefore their own rates/rhythms (Bomba, Plena…).
- the Its Cuban (or Rumba) in 1928
- the Mambo in 1949 (after having forwarded by the Mexico)
- the Cha-cha in 1954
- the Pachanga in 1964,
- the Boogaloo in 1966 (near to the rhythm' blues, intended to counter the music of the Beatles).
Towards 1967, the musicians will return to Latin sources, the its montuno particularly.
Let us quote: Lebron Brothers, Charlie Palmieri, Johnny Pacheco, Richie Ray and Bobby Cruz, Willie Colonist, accompanied by Celia Cruz, Hector Lavoe then Ruben Blades, Ray Barretto, Roberto Roena, Cheo Feliciano, Bobby Valentine… (the majority belong to the recording company Fania, which is with the salsa what the Motown is with the Soul).
Colombian Salsa and salsa cubanThe salsa then diffuses in Colombia (fatherland of the Cumbia and the Vallenato, and very many rates/rhythms: Joe Stream, Fruko, Yolanda Rayo…) and everywhere in the world.
With Cuba, the word salsa is used very little to speak about Musique (it was adopted to indicate the Danse casino for the tourists). One will continue to speak about Casino or His ; this one will be modernized by the group of Juan Formell, Los Van Van and will be called initially Songo, before becoming the Timba at the end of the years 1980, with NG Bandaged It. The cuban salsa is represented by Albita, Willy Chirino, certain titles of Maraca and Issac Delgado ( emptied It are a carnival , a Cumbia arranged in Salsa for Celia Cruz). The salsa term being very popular, nonthe experts employ the salsa term cuban to also indicate the Timba practiced by Los Van Van and others.
Salsa RománticaStarting from 1981, industry in crisis will try to widen its public. The salsa becomes Salsa Romántica (or Salsa Sensual , Salsa Sexy : mainly romantic Taken again S of Ballade S or Bolero S; the texts and arrangements are less aggressive, more “soft”. The pioneers would be Orquesta Versalles with individual' the Todo derrumbo', a Reprise again of a Ballade of Manuel Alejandro, orchestrated in salsa by Fitto Faster " Palabra". The term Salsa Romántica is due to Louie Ramírez, which had subtitle the album ``Noche Caliente'', ``Los éxitos más románticos of ayer in ritmo of salsa''. Willie Rosario will qualify this music of Salsa Monga , it will become Salsa Erótica (then Salsa de Escritorio according to Tommy Muriel).
A posteriori, one will then qualify the salsa Années 1970 of salsa lasted , salsa gorda or salsa clasica . Among the first singers of salsa romantica: Eddie Santiago, Frankie Ruiz, Lalo Rodriguez, Willie González. And their number did nothing but grow since the years 1990: Shine Enrique, Jerry Rivera, Rey Ruiz, Marc Anthony, Tito Rojas, Tito Nieves, Jose Alberto `' El Canario'', Tony Vega, Victor Manuelle, Domingo Quiñones, Michael Stuart and so much of others…
External bond: Origin of the romantic salsa (in Spanish)
See also: Clave
The most extraordinary and single characteristic of the cuban Music, the salsa and others musics Latin-American as the Brazilian music is the binary concept of rhythmic cell called Clave . This cell is often played with the known instrument as Claves which consists of two cylindrical pieces of wood that one strikes together, or by other instruments.
the danceThe salsa is a improvised Danse, which is generally danced to two, but that one can also only practice or with several (example: a leader and two partners, several couples at the same time, two leaders and a partner, etc).
ScheduleThe principle is to alternate the left steps (G) and right-hand side (d). For the riding one, the steps are reversed: (d) and (G) then). The light difficulty is to move them on the Rythme of the music: left-right-hand side-left ( pause ) and right-hand side-left-right-hand side ( pause ) ((d) (G) (d) (pause) and (G) (d) (G) for the riding ones).
The fourth time is a pause: some count “1,2,3, AND 4,5,6 AND” or “1,2,3, AND 5,6,7 AND” or “1,2,3… 5,6,7…”, instead of “1,2,3,4 (5,6,7,8)”). Although one it " compte" not, it is very important to mark the pause.
There exists also a marginal way to dance by marking times of the Clave with the feet, which is more complicated.
It can be also danced on the rhythmic one on 2,3,4… 6,7,8. It is what is called the " On2" style Palladium.
One can also dance " On2" while remaining on 1,2,3… 5,6,7 by using the New York Style.
Not basicThe salsa is danced in 8 times with 6 danced times and 2 times of pause. The steps amount as follows: “1,2,3, (), 5,6,7, ()”. Times 4 and 8 are not counted because they are times of pause.
The steps of the rider and riding are carried out in Miroir: when the rider carries out the first 4 times steps, the riding one carries out those of the 4 last, which are reversed; for example, if the rider moves its left foot, the riding one moves its right foot.
One of the basic step, sometimes called “not of Mambo”, is carried out as follows:
Time 1 (for the rider, the riding one starts with time 5),
one advances the left foot ahead then one takes off the right foot,
Times 2 , one puts back the foot right , Temps 3 , one brings back behind the left foot , and Times 4 , one marks a pause .
Four other times are reversed: Times 5 , one moves back the foot right (the riding one carries out this pas-là, when the rider carries out Time 1, to advance the left foot, which avoids with the dancers being gone on the feet) and one takes off the left foot, Temps 6 , one puts back the left foot , Temps 7 , one brings back in front of the foot right , and Times 8 , one marks a pause again.
There exist other alternatives while keeping some basic principles:
- time 4 and time 8 are times of pause
- the rider on the 1 always starts with the left foot (and to 5 with the right foot)
- the riding one on the 1 with the right foot (and to 5 with the left foot)
- the alternation of the feet is respected: left, right-hand side, left and right-hand side, left, right-hand side (for the rider)
Among these alternatives, let us quote:
- the “step of salsa”: almost identical to the step of mambo; The principle is " here; behind/derrière" instead of " behind/devant" : Time 1 one moves back the left foot (instead of advancing it as in the mambo, and thus one advances it on 3rd, and it is the right foot which one advances over time 5 instead of moving back it, and thus one moves back it over time 7). Often, one " croise" slightly steps (see hereafter, “not cross”);
- the “cross step”: almost identical to the step of salsa, the principle is " behind/derrière". Time 1 to 4, even principle that for the step of salsa, by moving back the left foot , one shifts it a little with right . Time 5 to 8: Even thing with the right foot , which one thus moves back also and which one shifts a little with left ;
- the “step of rumba” (or of guaguanco, or not on side): here one moves on the sides (" left/droite" instead of advancing/moving back (" in front of/derrière") for the step of mambo); left foot on the left then right foot on the right. Alternative: One can also go several times on the left, then several times on the right;
- the “gone step”: it is a little like the step of mambo, but over time 2 one advances the foot right , over time 5 one advances the right foot (instead of moving back it), and over time 6 the left foot is advanced.
It is essential for a dancer of salsa to control the steps of bases AND the " timing " (on the music) before being able to carry out figures.
One distinguishes, among the multiple manners of dancing Salsa, 3 principal styles:
- the cuban style, more running, in particular to Europe,
- Colombian style, very practiced in Latin America
- the Porto Rican style, whose characteristic is to respect a line of dance. This style gathers several principal subclasses: the style L.A. dances " on the 1" whereas the Style New York and the Palladium style dance " on the 2".
The style New York boardIn this style, one respects a line of dance. One can describe it as more conclusive: it includes in particular many leg movements ( shines , of English shoe shine meaning " waxing with chaussure" , such as for example the Suzie Q ). Contrary to the precedent, this style of salsa is danced “over weak time (the 2nd time)”, which means that the change of management (the station-wagon ) is carried out over the 2nd time. It derives from the Mambo.
The style of Los AngelesIt is close to the style New Yorkais, but is danced on the " 1" and can be Acrobatique.
However, one should not lose sight of the fact that the salsa is before a a whole spontaneous dance. Ultimately, it does not matter the style, as long as the dancers vibrate units on the same music.
AcadémisationDance mainly popular and learned in the street, it académise at high speed since 1996. This year saw the birth with Puerto Rico of what one then called the “Congress Bacardi of the salsa” become “World congress of Salsa”. Since, the congresses of dance salsa spread with the whole world causing a academisation of this dance and a separation marked between the professionals and the amateurs.
The word salsa
Many sources indicate the title of the Its Cuban “Echale Salsita” of Septeto of Ignacio Piñeiro as being at the origin of the word salsa… However, if the sound is well the ancestor of the salsa, the word salsa is not used yet to indicate a music, and in this piece, it has just the significance of the Spanish word salsa (" Sauce ").
In 1962, Pupi Legarreta leaves an album entitled Salsa Nueva idiot Pupi Legarreta .
In 1966, at the time of a Interview of Richie Ray and Bobby Cruz with the Radio Difusora of the Venezuela Richie answers that their music is like the sauce Ketchup, and the organizer Phidias Danilo Escalona takes again the term of sauce (salsa).
However, word SALSA is really used only starting from 1973, when Izzy Sanabria (Illustrateur of the small pocket S of the Fania) uses it in the magazine Latin New York (LNY) like a new word to indicate the Latin Musique, and that the label Fania will use it in its turn.
The November 17th 1973 (with 18:30) starts with the New Yorkean Télévision the “SALSA TV SHOW” on channel 41 (WXTU).
DJ Polito Vega animates “100% Salsa” on the radio WBNX.
Larry Harlow records an album entitled “Salsa”.
From now on, this Musique (which existed since some Année S already) carries a Nom!
The word salsa was seen given a heap of different definitions: for some, it is about the fusion several rates/rhythms (but it is rather about a confusion with the “Melting pot”); for others: - a musical genre (derivative of the sound mutuno) - a commercial label - a more or less broad family of musical genres, (it included the majority of the cuban musics, the Bent and the Plena of Puerto Rico, the Cumbia and the Vallenato of Colombia, the Bachata and the Dominican Merengue, but some include there finally all the tropical musics).
- What is this thing called salsa? (in English)
African cultures in the CaribbeanAfrican who was brought to the Caribbean came mainly from the coastal regions of the west of the Africa. The Africans of various nations played a big role in the musical development of the new world. Some of the most influential people were: the Yoruba S of the Nigeria, the Bantous of the Congo and the Angola, the Ewes - Fon and the Fanti - Ashanti of the Dahomey and Male or Mandingues of the Sudan.
Although certain African musical traditions were lost after being transplanted in the Caribbean, much remained until our days.
- Ces traditions includes:
- Of the songs question and answer (antiphonaux) in which lines improvised by the singer solo receive a fixed answer choral society.
- polymetric a such as metric doubles or triple played simultaneously.
- a polyrythmy which includes syncopes and overtaxation of various parts, with however a pulsation which tends to divide the cells into two or four times.
- Of the pentatonic and nonEuropean ranges , particularly in respect of the impromptu vocal lines which contain decorative inflections.
- the development and the creation of many instruments , as well of percussions and melody.
Spanish influencesOf all the influences of the Western music in the Caribbean, that of the music of Spain is prevalent in the islands of Spanish language. The Spanish music, from the rich and animated history of this country, is itself a combination of influences European, Arab, gipsies, Scandinavian, Indian and Jewish. The urban music of the Caribbean was influenced directly by the music of the court of Spain, its theater, its army and its church. The rural music which one finds in all the Latin America -- known as Música campesina (country music) -- is almost entirely of Spanish origin.
The Spanish secular tradition shows a great love of the music and regional popular dance, including nostalgic songs of love and, as well as dances jubilatoires practiced by all the economic classes of the company. In a similar way, the African people preserved their songs and their dances, these last being often polyarticulées (many dancers together), which attracted the sensitivity of the Spanish colonizers. It was through the exchange between the Africans and the Spanish working class that the African dances became a share of the cuban popular culture, and that they slowly went up the social scale until being accepted by the higher class.
The Flamenco was introduced with Cuba during the sixteenth century and it influenced the Musique of the Caribbean like Latin America. With flamenco, new influences arrived: they were the ranges and the modes of the East and the Indies, their instruments and rates/rhythms coupled with the music of the north of Spain and other influences which affected the musical development of the Caribbean. These forms and styles which appeared include/understand: the Habanera and the Rumba with Cuba, the Joropo in Colombia and the Jarabe with the Mexico, as well as others.
Influences of the jazz and the North-American musicThe musical styles of North America, the Europe and the Caribbean exchanged information and influenced the ones the others during centuries. It is however at the time of the last century that we find the influences reciprocal most notable, especially between the North-American jazz and the cuban music.
- Il has there several factors which led to these reciprocal influences:
- L' incorporation of religious traditions of Africa in the cuban music.
- L' adaptation of the style of the Brass band S European soldiers in the popular instrumentation.
- Le harmonic development and innovations made by the European impressionists, mixed with the African harmonies (like the ranges Pentatonique S and " blue").
The invention of the radio in the years 1920, as well as the development of the industry of recording of the discs and talking film was going to develop the taste of the listeners and to make it possible the cuban music to know a world famous. She played even a great part like source of innovation and inspiration. She influenced the foreign styles just like she had succeeded in assimilating and incorporating foreign influences. That result in a style almost indistinguable of its counterparts " étrangères".
The Jazz and the music of the Caribbean share a parallel development, especially owing to the fact that the New-Orleans, the cradle of the Jazz, belonged to the community of the Caribbean. About the years 1930, the cuban music and that of Puerto Rico were established with New York and were spread through the the United States. This Latin Musique had a deep influence on the North-American music, influences which remains still today. The constant evolution of this music gave rise to musical forms like the Cubop, the Latin jazz, the salsa, the Latin rock'n'roll and the Latin fusion. It was also spread in kinds like the Rhythm and blues, the Rock-and-roll and even the Rap.
However with Cuba, the Jazz and the other forms of musics North-American continued to evolve/move inside the context of the cuban traditional music. The cuban artists perpetuate not only the traditions of their own popular music, but they also continue to explore and create new sounds by mixing the old styles with the new ones, as well as with other cultural influences come from the Brésil, of Haiti, Jamaica and of South America: it is the case of the Timba .
Characteristics of the music salsa
Instruments and whole of salsa
The instruments used in the salsa are the result of several centuries of innovation and development. As the cultures autochtones were virtually destroyed by the European colonizers, it remains little of evidence of their musical contributions. Certain terms and instruments however survived.
For more details, to see the article cuban Musical instruments.
Reviews and books
- Latin Happy Magazine in English and Spanish and his files on the Net
- Leymarie, Isabelle (1999). Salsa and Latin Jazz . university Presses of France, collection Which do I know?. ISBN 2130453171
- Gum, Jose Manuel. the essential guide of the salsa . Editions Mascara. ISBN 8479745436
- Escalona, Saúl (2000). the salsa: " pa' bailar semi gente" : a cultural phenomenon . Editions Harmattan. ISBN 2738466907
- Escalona, Saúl. My salsa disfigured . Editions Harmattan. ISBN 2747524965
- Dorier-Apprill, Elisabeth. (2001). Latin Dances: the desire of the continents . Paris: Otherwise (in French). ISBN 2746701189
- Figueroa Hernández, Rafael. (1992). Ismael Will rivet: El Sonero Mayor . San Juan: Leading article del Instituto de Cultura Puertorriqueña. (in Spanish). ISBN 0-86581-436-8
- Quintero Will rivet, Angel G. (2002). Salsa, Sabor there Control! : Sociologia of “Tropical” Musica . San Juan: Siglo XXI Ediciones (in Spanish)
- Rondón, César Miguel. (1980). El Libro of Salsa . Caracas: Nato leading article. (in Spanish). ISBN 9589740537
- Mauleón, Rebeca (1993), Salsa Guidebook For Piano and Together : Sher Music CO (in English), ISBN 0-9614701-9-4
- Salsa-ragga and salsaton: fusions with the Ragga and the Reggaeton
- Rueda of casino: dance casino (" salsa" style cuban) danced rings some by several couples
- Timba: new kind of cuban music, Los Van Van and others…
- Clave: rate/rhythm used by the salsa
- Tempo Latino: the greatest festival salsa of Europe with Vic-Fézensac (France)
- Its Cuban: musical roots of the salsa
- Jazz Cuban Negro and Latin jazz
- Latin Music and tropical Music: not all to confuse…
- Boogaloo or Latin Drunk person: transitory mode appeared little before the salsa
- Radio operator Latina: radio station Paris ienne 99.0FM which diffuses salsa, Merengue as well as creole music (http://www.latina.fr).
Sauce salsa: sauce used in the Mexican kitchen.
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- salsatools.com, articles (photographs, vidéos, sounds) on the salsa
- '' the salsa, sociocultural phenomenon in the Hispanic Caribbean ''; article of Saul Escalona
- Series of course of a Chilean university (documents .doc: History of the salsa; Salsa, identity and globalisation
- salsa.wikia.com, Wiki on the salsa lodged by Wikia
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