Saumon is the common noun of several Espèce S of Poisson S of the family of the salmonidé S which counts eleven kind S and sixty-six species. Several other fish of this family are also called Truite S.
It is a very appreciated fish, as well for its flesh, as for the sporting Pêche, and it is the subject of breeding S intensives.
The life cycle
The salmon is a fish anadrome: it is born in Fresh water in running water, goes down until the Mer where it saw sometimes several years, then turns over in the river in which it was born to clear (to reproduce). Sometimes the males of the royal Salmon or Saumon chinook ( Oncorhynchus tschawytscha ) just like the Atlantic Saumon (Salmon salar) turn over at sea and take part one second time in the reproduction.
Which needs, which attractions push adult salmons of the various species to leave the ocean, so rich in food, to face the rivers? They traverse thousands of kilometers then, and go up even very small brooks. Some cross cascades of three meters.
The reproduction of salmons occurs as follows: the female makes a hollow in the gravels of the river with its tail then it deposits the ovules there. At the same time the male deposits its sperm, sometimes other males benefit from it to fertilize the ovules although the male chosen by the female seeks to push back them. Then the female recovers eggs by gravels and the met thus with the shelter of the predatory ones.
The red Saumon of the Pacific ( Onchorhynchus nerka ) undergoes a metamorphosis at the time of the final stage of its increase towards the places of reproduction: its skin passes from the gray to the red, its head becomes green and the males raise a bump on the back, their jaws become more prominent (in the shape of hook), in order to be able to fight for the females.
The alevins hatch and pass 1 to 2 years out of fresh water before joining the sea.
The salmons are able to traverse hundreds of kilometers in going up rivers, and during the construction of stoppings which cut the rivers and the rivers, the men must also install scales with salmon to allow those to cross the obstacles.
The wild Atlantic Salmon in danger
It has seemed difficult to sensitize the general public on the need for currently protecting wild salmon in the process of disappearance, whereas it there forever have, because of the intensive development of the aquiculture for 20 years, as many marketed salmons.
A recent study of the WWF, in partnership with the ASF (Atlantic Salmon Federation) watch which salmon stocks fell of 75% during the 20 last years. The Atlantic salmon entirely disappeared from 15% from the rivers and rivers of Europe and North America in which it abounded.
The prohibition of the captures on the zones of fattening at sea (Agreements North-Atlantic) allowed the restoration of many populations in Europe and in Canada. The critical situation which France knows started of the reactions and the actions of support of stocks and repopulation since about thirty years with certain successes for small rivers (Brittany, the Pyrenees…).
Les causes of regression of the species seems multifactorielles, implying at the same time a degradation and ecological Fragmentation of their habitat (including sailor), of new pathologies and a synergistic effect between Polluant S present at low dose and Parasite S and diseases. A genetic Pollution is locally possibly causes some following anarchistic reintroductions or not considered starting from high stocks of distant origins and genetically little diversified. The loss or escape at sea of salmons or trouts genetically modified to grow in an accelerated way could also be the cause of disappearance of wild species in the future.
Restoration of salmon on the axis the Loire/To combine
Diseases and the care of salmon
The salmons are vaccinated against certain diseases.
The salmon can be affected by diseases (especially since the end of the year 1980), the such Vibriose of cool water. These diseases are treated by antibiotics, the consumption of those dropped by 96% in 10 years, during one year 1 salmon out of 200 takes some contrary to 1 bovine out of 5 or 1 Norwegian out of 2.
The louse of salmon can be treated by drugs, a bath anti-lice or by putting Girelle S (a fish) in the basin so that they eat them. Lepeophtheirus salmonis affects the species of the kind Oncorhynchus and Caligus clemensi affects the species of the Salmo kind.
Breeding and production
The wild salmon is fished since thousands of years, but the breeding of salmon, is initiated in Scotland and Norway, date of the years 1960. It was begun for repopulation; one then raised only the youthful ones that one slackened then. Then one sought to keep fish until the adulthood. The breeding then gained Nova Scotia, then the remainder of the east coast of North America (in the years 1970), then the Pacifique coast of North America. In the years 1990, it developed in Chile. In France, 2 companies launched out in the adventure of salmon, one to Brittany (Wrach' River mouth), the other in Normandy (in roads of Cherbourg). The latter produces more than 2.000 tons of salmon per annum. The salmon was the first species with being cultivated in parks on the open sea.
The die salmon is divided into two: the farmed salmon and the wild salmon.
The salmon of the Atlantic east produced to 93% by the breeding and 7% by fishing. For salmon of the Pacific, the proportion is of 12% for the breeding and 88% for fishing.
The salmon is the second highest product of sea in Aquaculture after the Crevette. The high species is mainly the Atlantic Saumon. The production of salmon in farms of aquiculture decreases the wild demand for salmon, but, paradoxically, increases the request of other wild fish. Indeed, the salmons are carnivorous and for the moment are nourished of food prepared containing other wild fish. Consequently, more the salmon population of aquiculture increases, more the request for fish used to nourish salmon increases too. Work is undertaken to substitute plant proteins for animal proteins intended to nourish farmed salmons.
The breeding of salmon in the estuary of the rivers with salmons or the rivers which shelter trout populations can be harmful for these indigenous fish. These cattle-breeding farms would be true sites of reproduction of parasites, the such louse of sea. It is also possible that the genetic luggage of farmed salmon comes to pollute that of wild salmons. Moreover, the intensive breeding of salmon can be an important source of organic pollution.
The Indice of consumption of a farmed salmon is approximately 1,2.
The salmon spends three years to become ripe, but a genetically modified variety becomes ripe in one year. The producers of this variety seek to make sterile salmons to avoid a dissemination in the natural environment where these salmons would endanger the less competitive wild stock.
Regularly storms destroy enclosures, and salmons are found in nature (for example 100 00 with the Maine at the time of a storm). Thus the salmon was established with the Chile after being escaped breedings. However, 99,7% of farmed salmons do not escape.
There are six consumed salmon species
the royal salmon or salmon chinook ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ) measurement on average from 84 to 91 cm and weighs between 13,5 and 18 kg. Its back is green olivâtre, its sides and its belly are silver plated, and its lower gums are black. The back, the top of the head and the sides are mottled of black. The color of the flesh varies from pink clear with orange dark. It is especially marketed fresh, frozen or smoked; one seldom puts it out of preserve. She very required is smoked.
the red salmon or sockeye ( Oncorhynchus nerka ) is the most required species after royal salmon. It measures on average between 60 and 70 cm length, and weighs between 2 and 3 kg. Its back is green bluish, its silver plated sides and its belly. Its flesh Rouge chechmate is firm and very tasty. It keeps its beautiful red coloring even when it is put out of preserve. This rather thin, slim fish and of uniform size lends itself the preserve setting very well. One especially finds it in this form, but also smoked or salted.
the salmon silver plated or salmon coho ( Oncorhynchus kisutch ) measurement on average between 45 and 60 cm and weighs from 2 to 4,5 kg. Its back metal Bleu is decorated small spots Noir are. Its sides and its belly are silver plated. The silver plated salmon is the third more important species commercial. Its red flesh orange equalizes almost that of red salmon or royal salmon. It demolishes also approximately pieces. It is paler than the flesh of red salmon. Very much used for preserves, the silver plated salmon also is sold fresh, frozen or smoked. It also is marketed slightly pickled.
the pink Saumon ( Oncorhynchus gorbuscha ) is smallest of the kind. It reaches its maturity very early (two years). It measures on average between 43 and 48 cm and weighs between 1,3 and 2,3 kg. Its bluish green back is strewn with large black spots; its sides are silver plated. The pink salmon was regarded a long time as a species of lower quality (just like the keta) because its flesh dew is rather soft and demolishes of small pieces. It is especially put out of preserve, but also is marketed fresh, smoked or frozen.
the salmon keta ( Oncorhynchus keta ) measurement on average 64 cm and weighs from 5 to 6 kg. Its back is blue metal and its sides and its belly are silver plated. It has on the sides of pale stripes crimsons. The salmon keta with the least beautiful and the least good flesh. Hardly dew, it is spongy, soft and demolishes of small pieces; it however has the advantage of being less fatty. It is better fresh. It is also put out of preserve, is frozen, salted dry or smoke. It is the least expensive.
the salmon of the Atlantic ( Salmo salar ) is the only salmon which lives in the Atlantic. It is different from salmon of the Pacific and does not die after the abrasion; it can reproduce two, three or four times. The salmon of the Atlantic is recognized for its combativeness and its pink flesh délicieusement scented. Its body resembles that of the others salmonidés and its color varies with the age. Its back is brown, green or blue, and its sides and its belly, silver plated. The captured specimens measure from 80 to 85 cm and weigh on average 4,5 kg. The salmon of the Atlantic is marketed fresh, frozen or smoked. To prepare most simply possible in order not to not mask savor of it.
There also exists: The ouananiche or salmon of the interior which delicious small fresh water a Salmon. He was imprisoned in the grounds after the diluvial period, not being able to turn over to the sea when water was withdrawn. He remains now out of fresh water in a permanent way even if, very often, the rivers which he attends have an easy access to the sea. One finds it on the east coast of North America like in Scandinavia. Ouananiche means " small the égaré" in montagnais, language of an Indian tribe of the Quebec. This fish forms a species with whole share, as well by its habitat as by certain body modifications which distinguish it from salmon. It is smaller (between 20 and 60cm) and weighs seldom more than 6 kg. Its longer and stronger fins and its large and powerful tail developed while adapting to waters running of its environment. Its eyes as its teeth are larger. Its black back is decorated brought closer and well defined spots. Its sides are gray bluish and its silver plated belly. The ouananiche prepares like salmon or trout.
The farmed salmons are cut down (by a blow related to the head or by anesthesia with CO2), bled, éviscérés, sorted, conditioned and cooled for transport. Others are smoked, cut in net, are sold whole or transformed.
Consommer Huile of salmon flesh makes it possible to fight against the excess of Cholestérol and to prevent the cardiovascular diseases.
It is useful in preparations to fight against cholesterol and to prevent the cardiovascular diseases. This is due to its wealth of polyinsaturés fatty-acids (of which the famous omega 3). Are the present particularly acids eicosapentaénoïque (E.P.A.) and docosahexaéonïque (D.H.A.).) and its poverty in saturated fatty-acids.
The daily catch of this oil contributes cause a drop in to a significant degree the " mauvais" cholesterol (LDL - Lipoprotein S basic density) and the abnormally high blood triglycerides which are at the origin of the arteriosclerosis of which you know the consequences: arterial Hypertension, Infarction, cerebral vascular accidents, etc the usual form of use is the Gélule, with the average amount of 1 G per day to be taken in a catch the morning in the middle of the breakfast with a little water, in 3 months cure renewable regularly.
It can be sold fresh, frozen, smoked (packed vacuum) or be used as ingredient for other products.
the egg S
The eggs (sometimes called red Caviar) make approximately 5 mms in diameter.
They are used for the reproduction of salmons, are sold such as they are or are used as food or cosmetic ingredient. The eggs are extracted from wild salmons fished with the net; one can also extract them (by pressure of the belly) from the female without killing the animal. The zones of provisioning, by decreasing order of tonnage, are: the Alaska, the State of Washington and the Canada. Best quality is done starting from fresh eggs. There exists a production starting from frozen eggs but the eggs suffer from this preparation when they must be pasteurized. The time between fishing and the setting out of buckets of the end product is 12 midnight for shortest and 3 days for longest. Quality depends on two basic principles: maturity and freshness. The eggs are removed from the adherent membranes, then are pickled without other additive. The ideal salt rate is from 4 to 4,5%; it allows a conservation controlled temperature several months.
Once removed from its scales (waste), the skin is used to make leather. This part of the die dates from the end of the year 1980. It is a question of replacing the dégradables parts of the skin by imputrescibles chemicals. The salmon leather resembles that of the crocodile.
AquicultureUnder anesthesia, one extracts eggs from a mature female. Only one animal expels approximately 10 000 small balls receuillies in a bucket. Then, by precise massages, the aquiculturist takes the white seed of a male which it spreads on the orange caviar. The substance obtained is then mixed with precaution. To ensure fecundation, one uses each time the seeds of three different males.
The birth of the salmon larvae is calculated very precisely. With a temperature of 2°C, the eggs hatch in 200 days, with 4°C twice less time.
Old of a few weeks, the Alevin S are locked up in hermetic containers. They are nourished concentrates of vitamins and egg white whose amounts are carefully controlled by computer. Under the electric light, they fight unceasingly against a circular artificial current. This mode of forced stroke, the salmons grow bigger twice more quickly than in nature.
Here two baptized fish lists salmon. As it is often the case in fish, a name can be used for several species and the same species can receive several names. First is classified according to the vernacular name, the second following the scientific name.
List classified by vernacular names
Salmon silver plated : Oncorhynchus kisutch .
- Atlantic Salmon : Salmo salar .
- Salmon dog : Oncorhynchus keta .
- Salmon chinook: Oncorhynchus tshawytscha .
- Salmon coho : Oncorhynchus kisutch .
- Salmon of the Danube: Oncorhynchus masou masou ; Hucho hucho .
- Salmon of the Pacific : Oncorhynchus keta .
- Japanese Salmon: Oncorhynchus masou masou .
- Salmon keta : Oncorhynchus keta .
- Salmon masou: Oncorhynchus masou masou .
- Salmon nerka : or Sockeye or red salmon Oncorhynchus nerka .
- pink Salmon with bump: or Pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha .
- red Salmon : Oncorhynchus nerka .
- royal Salmon: salmon King Oncorhynchus tshawytscha .
List classified by scientific name
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha : pink Salmon with bump.
- Oncorhynchus keta : Salmon dog (Salmon-dog); Salmon of the Pacific ; Salmon keta .
- Oncorhynchus kisutch : Salmon silver plated ; Salmon coho .
- Oncorhynchus masou masou : Salmon of the Danube; Japanese Salmon; Salmon masou.
- Oncorhynchus nerka : Salmon nerka ; red Salmon .
- Oncorhynchus tshawytscha : Salmon chinook; royal Salmon.
- Salmo salar : Atlantic Salmon ; Salmon of fresh water.
The Norway is the first world salmon producer, the Fjord S of the countries rich in being salmonidés. The country exports 323.000 tons of them. The Chile and the the United Kingdom respectively occupy the second and the third position.
The France, the Canada and the Denmark are specialists in the manuring.
France is the second salmon consumer after the Japan.
In France the salmon consumption has increased for 10 years: it imports of 120 00 to 130.000 tons per annum, including smoked salmon 35%. 90% of consumed salmon come from breeding.
Half of salmon consumed in France comes from Norway.
For eggs, the main market is the Japan (3 to 4.000 tons per annum). Over there, the eggs are consumed either " way caviar" very little salted (will ikura), is very salted in the whole pocket (sujiko). In Europe, consumption is approximately 300 to 400 tons " way caviar" , in North America from 50 to 100 tons. Consumption in Russia fell considerably.
Eggs of salmon kéta: it is required. Their orange color is sunk at the beginning of season and clearer at the end of the season.
Eggs of silver plated salmon: they are a little smaller than salmon kéta eggs. Their color is red dark.
Eggs of royal salmon: they are slightly larger than salmon kéta eggs. Their color is identical to that of salmon kéta eggs. Their shell is thicker; under the tooth, the egg is more cracking.
Eggs of pink salmon: they are of a size lower than that of salmon kéta eggs. Their color is identical to that of salmon kéta eggs.
Eggs of red salmon: they are in general marketed in Japan.
- Atlantic Salmon with IFREMER
- Salmon breeding with IFREMER
- Produced fishing according to FAO
- Conservatory National of Wild Salmon
- Salmon Quebec
- Pollution and salmon breeding
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