GeographyEurope, France, Rhône Alpes, Savoy, Valley of Maurienne, Valley of Arvan.
DemographyThe most former known inhabitants of the village are those discovered by the archaeological group of Viuz-Faverges (Mr. Duret and Mr. Brun) in 1976. Indeed, close to Sallanches, with the locality " On Roche" , five burials of the age of iron (500 to 450 before J.C.) delivered bronze bracelets, pearls, bronze rings, collars of amber pearls in position on the skeletons.
The first estimates of population of the village date from the end of the Moyen-âge (1561). The population does not cease increasing: in 1793, Saint-Jean-D' Arves, shelters almost as many inhabitants as St-Jean-of-Maurienne. The growth continues until 1848 when the figure reaches its maximum. But in second half of the XIXe century, the industrialization of the valley of Maurienne proposes in Arvins a surer life: a work with wages fixes every month of the year. Arvins succumb the ones after the others and the death of the village is profiled. When the living conditions were less hard in valley of Maurienne than in Arves, the villagers determined themselves gradually to give up their ground. The tourist attraction of the “white gold” made it possible to save the commune.
Life of Arvins1. Lifestyle
Before tourism, the economy of St-Jean-D' Arves rested mainly on agriculture and more particularly on the breeding. The winter, the cattle was kept with the cattle shed. In spring, it had left with height the first country cottages and it was carried out in mountain pasture during the summer. The large surface of the commune allowed a cattle many. This agricultural activity caused fairs (trade of bovines, sheep,…) considered. They were held with the hamlet of the Tower the June 10th, September 7th and 24th, October 15th,… These demonstrations largely exceeded the framework of the valleys around (Piedmont) and one thus needed inns to lodge the people of passage. Moreover, one valley populated well but with not very practicable means of communication at certain periods of the year, was to be able to be sufficed for itself. The craft industry there thus also was very developed (shoe-maker, clothier…). The agricultural activity induced also the characteristics of the traditional dwelling of the village. It comprised an opening in the upstream part of the thatch roof; thus the hay had returned directly in the barn located under the roof. The ground floor, face air-side, were used as cattle shed for the animals. The men lived on the same level or just above so as to benefitting from animal heat. Some times, a small construction separated, out of wood or stone, called “mazot” were used as attic. The life seemed sufficiently difficult to oblige a good part of the male population (household heads and wire) to an at least seasonal emigration (the small Savoyard chimney sweeper, logger…). This emigration, seasonal initially, became final with the industrialization of the valley of Maurienne. Even the Arvinches young people tried to find husband in the valley.
In 1860, very young people Arvins and Arvinches went in two elementary schools, located in the most central hamlets (the Tower for the big girls and Villaret for the big boys) during June, May, July. For the remainder of the year and the infants, the most important hamlets (Entraigues, Poingt, the Collet, Chambons, Villaret, Curiaz, Chal, Villard and Sallanches) had their school (usually a stable) mixed, “private” (paid and maintained thanks to givers) of which they appointed the Master and decided his remuneration. This operating process did not correspond to that recommended by the higher administration which refused to take account of the dispersion of the habitat, the weather conditions, the obligation to work for the majority of the children… In fact, this operation changed every year and the fastening of Savoy in France did not make it possible the situation to quickly evolve/move. In 1893, the common key of the subsidies for the construction of three “houses of school”: one with the Tower, with Entraigues, the last in Chambons. In 1817, Jean Baptiste Alex offered his house to found a “college” with Entraigues. It was about a “Latin school” for the “young and parish common people of Arves”. These children were lodged at the inhabitant. But following the fall of manpower, the “college” closed in 1871. As for the application of the laws Jules Ferry of 1882, it was necessary time so that they return in manners!
3. The religion
On the other hand, the religion was integral part of the life of Arvins. In 1498, was rested by Humbert and Pierre Fay, the oldest vault indexed: that of Saint-Sebastien located between the hamlets of Planchamps and Villard. The grounds, cultivated around, made it possible to maintain it. Then all the principal hamlets set up their religious building: the vault St-Antoine in Chambons in 1598, Notre-Dame of the Presentation in Chal in 1616, St-Laurent in Poingt in 1626, Co.-Bores in Villaret in 1661, St-Benoit in Sallanches in 1731, St-Claude in Vallonet in 1732, Co.-Brigitte with the Collet in 1737 and the oratory St-Claude on the way of the collar of Arves in 1775. Until 1834, there existed only one and single church, located at the Tower. Its date of construction is unknown but one of the five bells was gone back to 1497. In 1793, Saint-Jean-D' Arves disputed the French orders much to leave only one bell per commune but without success. Four bells from the church and the ten of the vaults of the hamlets are finally dismounted, broken and transported to Saint-Jean-to-Maurienne. In 1834, Saint-Jean-D' Arves knows his maximum population and certain hamlets are located at more than one hour of walk of the church of the Tower. The inhabitants of Entraigues and the close relations hamlets thus request the construction of a church from Entraigues. After demographic study of évêché, the project is accepted. In 1838, the first stone was bénite. But the “Arvins of in top”, fearing to see the village being divided into two, weigh of all their forces to make stop construction. The business goes even to king Charles-Albert. But the authorization is maintained and in 1844 the church of Entraigues is finished and blessed.
CatastrophesAt the time when the agricultural activity was the only economic sector, the inhabitants of Arves had living conditions to the image of their climate: hard, a fortiori so from the external elements came to worsen them. Many catastrophes intervened in the life of St-Jean-D' Arves.
- The plague appeared in Savoy as in the rest of Europe. The epidemics of 1588 and 1599 were reported by witnesses present. The accounts indicate that the syndic (the mayor) of the village called upon inhabitants of St-Sorlin-D' Arves n the other hand to bury deaths during the time of the contagion of a housing with firewood, money and pay in kind (bread, cheese,…). The last indexed plague date of 1720: in order to preserve his territory, the king Victor-Amédée II placed barriers severely kept at Saint-Jean-D' Arves.
- The fires were very current in Arves because of the thatched roofs. Most important in Saint-Jean-D' Arves seems to be that declared in Villard in 1865. It destroyed 52 houses, leaving 254 people in the distress.
- The floods make following torrential rains on the valley. Arvan leaves its bed and invades the bordering grounds. Many risings were announced: September 14th, 1733 then the following centuries 1847,1852,1859,1874,1903,1904,1905, etc… with, each time, of large damage in bottom of valley and in particular with the junction of the torrent with the Arc with St Jean-of-Maurienne. - The avalanches left few traces in the writings but much in the spirits. February 4th, 1978, an avalanche is descended from Charvin between the hamlets of Planchamps and from Villard, removing the life of Albert Féjoz and carrying the Saint-Sebastien vault.
- The wars, either, did not save the villagers. Time when Savoy was not French (before 1860), St-Jean-D' Arves suffered from his strategic situation: collar of the Iron Cross - > collar of Arves - > St-Jean-of-Maurienne… In 1589, the bishop of Maurienne entrusted the guard of the passage of Arve by the mountains of Olle and of the Pole to noble Pierre de Sallières, known as of Arve. This last installed a garrison in its " turn genevoise" to protect Arves and Saint-Jean-of-Maurienne. But in 1597, Lesdiguières, the general lieutenant of king de France into Dauphine, in its walk on Saint-Jean-of-Maurienne, passed by the collar of the Cross of Iron, Saint-Sorlin-D' Arves, conquered the Tower of Genevese and left there a garrison which plundered the valley. In 1598, the duke of Savoy took again the fortress. The guard was entrusted by it to the Jules knight of Costes of Saint-Jean-of-Maurienne. The behavior of its garrison was hardly more respectful of the population. In 1600, a new French incursion was carried out by Lesdiguières in Maurienne. A detachment was again posted in Arves. Arvins decided (or the French suggested to them) to destroy the strengthened tower, which brought more misfortunes to them than of safety. This fact was carried out without the agreement of the owners (Antoinette Constantin, widow of Pierre Salière of Arves, and his/her children) who carried the business in front of justice. The destruction of the Tower of Genevese and the absence of garrisons thus of engagements made the life quieter. The wars of the XXe century showed other aspects: 40 Arvins died with the field of honor between 1914 and 1918, far from on their premises. Between 1939 and 1945, the incursions of the Germans into the valley were rare in spite of the presence of resistant. But when they decided to go up, the danger was omnipresent as in May 1944 when the Germans set fire to a score of country cottages of mountain pasture in the sector of the Needles. They thought that men of the maquis had taken refuge there. Five of these houses belonged to the family of Joseph Bellet.
Definitely, the geographical location of Arves brought much additional concern to their inhabitants.
Arvins famousAmong these inhabitants, some are associated with the collective memory.
- The noble ones of Arves: The first indexed member of the family of Arves named Jean. He appears in a text of 1195. Between 1266 and 1270, one finds trace of Hugues-Sebastien d' Arve who had the title of knight and was in charge of military tasks. In XVe century, these noble of Arves had the load of mistral (vassal) of the mestralie of Arve (which was included in the Episcopal Earth): they dealt of the police force, justice and the tax on their territory. This same century sees the noble ones of Arves being combined by marriage in noble Salière. Indeed, Marie, oldest daughter of Jean d' Arve and Francoise de Luciane married noble Gaspard Salière (or Salt boxes), doctor in right before 1421. Thus was born the Salière family from Arves. In 1514, Pierre Salt box-with Arves passed recognition for the tower of Fournache to Saint-Jean-to-Maurienne and for half of the mestralie of Arves. Jean, his brother, obtained other half of the mestralie and the tower of Arves. The Salière family of Arves left Arves for St-Jean-of-Maurienne, in 1600, after the destruction of their Tower of Genevese by Arvins.
- The beginning XVIIIe century sees the birth of one named Dupre with Saint-Jean-in Arves (of other communes as Montvernier this man and its celebrity assert). Noticed by Gift Philippe, infant of Spain, during the Spanish occupation of Savoy of 1742 to 1748, it made its private secretary of it. It at the end of December 1748 led it to Parma after the treaty of Aachen. One knows nothing any more of this man afterwards.
- Célestin Bellet says “Landron”: its birth goes back to 1812 and its death at 1889. It was large hunter of the fauna of Arves and celebrates guide of high mountain. In 1845, during a hunting for the Chamois, he arrived at the top of the Central Needle (3513 m). He profited from a permanent hunting permit granted and signed by the king Victor-Emmanuel II. Indeed, during a shooting party in Maurienne, the king drew on a Ours which was only wounded. The animal sank on the king but, Landron was there: it cut down the bear and saved its king.
- Common of Savoy
- Sport in Country of Savoy
- Saint-Jean-in Arves on the site of the national geographical Institute
- Saint-Jean-in Arves on the site of INSEE
- Saint-Jean-in Arves on the site of Quid
- Localization of Saint-Jean-in Arves on a chart of France and communes bordering
- Plane on Saint-Jean-in Arves on Mapquest
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