The safety is the state of Esprit of a person who feels quiet and Confiante. It is the feeling, founded well or badly, to be safe from all Danger and Risque; it associates calm, Confiance, quietude, serenity, peace, Assurance, Sûreté.
From a collective point of view (" Management of entreprise" for example), safety consists in guaranteeing the perenniality of the company by the recourse to means making it possible to reconcile the contradictory Exigences of short term and long run.
safety comprises a psychological aspect and an objective aspect. One speaks consequently about subjective safety and objective safety.
- the objective approach of safety is interested in the causes (English: security ) and with the effects (English: safety ). " Security" being the measurements taken against the acts made by ill will (flights, arsons, attacks etc), and " safety" the measurements taken against the accidental, natural phenomena (storms, escapes of water etc)
- It is a step which can apply to multiple fields (Legal security, Mechanical engineering,…),
- From the methodological point of view, the step of safety is, like the quality, a transverse step, which one can find in the Ingénierie S complexes, in which the Loi of Pareto becomes a tool of very first plan.
- One distinguishes sometimes the Sécurité passivates (very related to the field of the Prévention), of the safety activates .
The concept of safety connects the technical and human mediums: it directly touches the Formation of the people.
- safety increases with the Connaissance and decreases with the Ignorance.
- the insecurity increases with the Ignorance and decreases with the Connaissance.
Fields of safety
The safety is a concept which touches all the fields. One can quote some of them, with the organizations or services intended for to prevent a Danger.
Safety is considered on the collective level of the protection of the population against the threats: Terrorism, attacks military,…
In a system of weapon can exist a safety: the safety of a Firearm is the device preventing the departure Accidentel blow.
See: Defense and safety
UNO is charged to take care of safety and peace in the world.
The Civil security
See also: Civil security
The civil security is the whole of the means implemented by a State to protect its Citoyen S, in time of war as in times of Paix. This term is synonymous with “civil protection” (protection of the civilians).
The Civil security consists in for example guaranteeing the safety of the Citoyen S against the various Menace S which can occur, for example the acts of Terrorisme, the Vandalisme,…
The civil security is a competence of Souveraineté , which concerns the Ministère of the interior.
Some aspects of the civil security:
The Internal security
See: Internal security
The Public health
An important shutter of the public health is the Food safety, but it is not only.
See also the treating whole of the articles of food safety
Food safety is the subject of an increasingly constant attention on behalf of the professionals of this Filière, because of the Risque S Sanitaire S and of the complexity of the Life cycle in the activities Agroalimentaire S.
It is necessary to be vigilant on this type of risk, and to implement measurements aiming at better a medical Qualité of food.
Industries Agroalimentaire S adopt more and more measures of Traçabilité.
The Legal security
See also: Legal security
In fact the methods have as an aim of protection the Citoyen S against the negative side effects of the laws, and which touch with the coherence of the codes, laws, and payments inside the Droit and of the legal structure of a country.
The economic Safety
One understands by economic safety the whole of measurements aiming at guaranteeing an economic environment sure, equitable, and dynamic, favourable with the innovations, the investments interior and foreign and a sustained high growth, which ensures the population a high standard of living and in constant progression.
The safety of the provisioning
The Sécurité of the provisioning relates to all the products which must be imported:
- the energy imported (Oil, Gas, coal, Uranium),
- the Raw materials for the Manufacturing industry,
- raw materials for the Agribusiness industry,
The safety of the provisioning includes in particular:
- the organization of strategic stocks;
- measurements of crisis and the corresponding legislation.
In Europe, the safety of the oil provisioning requires measurements of harmonization of the stock managements and legislation.
The industrial Safety
In the Management of the companies, safety consists in a general way guaranteeing the perenniality company, i.e. to reconcile in the short run the Exigences Rentabilité, with the safety requirements aiming at reducing the Risque S, on the plan Environnemental, Social, economic, generated by the line of business on more a long run, being able to affect its Recipients (see Social responsibility of the companies).
Industrial safety is moreover in complex, because of the increasing Interaction S of the human groups, with the associated factors Culturel S, and of the technical interconnections (industrial Control systems, Telecommunication networks…), as one saw with different Catastrophe S.
The Défaillance of a component can be propagated on nearby components (Effet domino), so that industrial safety must today be under consideration through the Interopérabilité of the systems, which comprises a component of Computer security very important.
It is necessary to define a Référentiel comprising the general rules of safety, making it possible to conceive integrated Filières.
Case of chemical industry
- upstream, the Raw materials (Oil,…),
- chemistry itself (development of the Chemicals,
- downstream, the End products.
The Directive REACH comprises Exigences of Sécurité, which are materialized in cards of data of safety.
See: Safety in chemistry
Case of construction
See: engineering of construction.
The financial Safety
Safety with work
Safety in company or local government agency (general advices, town halls…) became, with the awakening vis-a-vis the risks, a field impossible to circumvent. Each activity, of any nature that it is, generates more or less marked risks for the Man, his goods and the environment which surrounds it. In order to reduce to the maximum the occurrence of these risks (and thus to decrease the consequences which results from this) of new trades appeared.
See also: Hygiene, safety and environment with work
See also: Safety at the laboratory
See also: Information system security
They are the political and the procedures which make it possible to avoid the intrusions (confidentiality), the inconsistencies (integrity) and the breakdowns (availability) of the Information systems, and which defines the rules of Authentification.
The information system security is a particularly strategic field of safety, because, through the Control systems, the management systems, and generally through the Ingénierie of the systems, it must be interested in the Interopérabilité of the systems, and make so that safety is obtained through standards and from standards of description of the Structures of data.
See also: Data security
The Safety of transport
See also: Safety of transport
The safety of transport is an increasingly significant topic, because of the interconnection of the grid systems (Intermodalité) and of the Transport of dangerous matters.
The various types of safety correspond to the means of transport:
The social one
- the Social security,
- the Job security .
The penitentiary field
a district of high security (QHS) is a district of high surveillance in a Prison.
The private Safety: Prevention and safety in France
This activity includes/understands the Gardiennage, the Surveillance, the Transport of funds or the physical Protection of the people at the request and the benefit of private individuals or companies.
When the safety of the goods and people becomes a top priority within a company, one speaks about Sécuritarisme or sedentary spirit.
Principal concepts in safety
Active safety and passive safety
The security measures are actions intended to get or guarantee safety.
the active safety measures:
the passive Safety measures:
Elements intervening in safety
Standards of safety
In Computer security, one finds the standards following:
- common Criteria (ISO 15408), which are the basic criteria of the computer security.
- Third of confidence
- Profile of protection
- ISO 17799:2000, standard for the safety management of information,
- ISO 17799:2005, standard for the safety management of information.
A better safety can be obtained, on the aspects of Interopérabilité of the systems, by a better standardization of the Donnée S. This chapter is the subject of the Architecture of data and the Data security.
On the normative aspect, to see:
- the Standard S in general,
- the List of ISO standards by fields
- Law of orientation and programming for the internal security
- Information system security, Safety of information
- Data security
- Security policy
- general Reference frame of safety
- Prevention and safety in France, Monitoring, Guarding
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