The Russia (in Russian: Россия, marked Rossiïa ) or, officially, Fédération of Russia (РоссийскаяФедерация, marked Rossiïskaïa Fédératsiïa ) is a populated country of 142 million inhabitants located at horse on the Europe and the Asia. Its territory of a surface of 17 million km ² extends on more than 8000 km of Kaliningrad to Vladivostok, makes of it largest Pays of planet. Although bordered by many seas and oceans, Russia is characterized by a continental Climat. It is also the country of the winter cold because most of the grounds is at Latitude S high.
Russia has mining resources (coal, iron, nickel, diamonds,…) and energy (oil, gas) abundant, which does one of the principal world exporters of them. At the time of the USSR a powerful heavy industry (Steel-works, Refinery S, Chemical industry) was built around the principal layers. The sectors related on the armament and aerospace were also strongly developed making it possible the country to play a pioneer role in the race with space. On the other hand, the light industry and of consumption just like agriculture, could not develop with the same scale.
Russia is most important of the 15 republics resulting from old the Soviet Union, which while bursting in 1991 formed as many independent republics. Russia constituted the historical core of it. It took again old world great power the 3/4 of its territory, more half of its population, the 2 thirds of its industry and half of its agricultural production. Principal heiress of the USSR, it occupies from now on her place in the international institutions, whose permanent headquarter with the Safety advice of the United Nations, but also assumed the financial liability of the old USSR.
Russia is a federation made up of 85 " sujets" having a political autonomy and economic variable. The cutting, which holds account inter alia presence of minorities, existed already in the old USSR.
Since the Péréstroïka (end of the year 80) the country chose a pluralist parliamentary mode and its leaders gave up the planned economy for the liberal economy. The reorganization of the economic apparatus rising from these decisions combined with the effects of the bursting of the USSR caused during the following years a collapse of the economy plunging most of the population in misery while a class of new rich person exit of old the Nomenklatura was formed. The areas, benefitting from anarchy in which the mode lasting was plunged the period Eltsine accentuated their political autonomy and financial.
The current Russian president, Vladimir Poutine, carried to the capacity in 2000 by an electorate in full distress, were given for objective to restore the control of the Russian state on the political apparatus and economic by the means of a strong presidential regime. The new president profited from the flight of the courses of the raw materials whose Russia is one of largest producers and who supported, combined with success structural reforms, a vigorous resumption of the economy. Measurements were taken in addition against the tax evasion what resulted in the arrest of certain oligarchs. Measures were taken to give again with the federal capacity the control of the areas by reducing the capacities of the local leaders, increasing the share of the taxes returning to the federal state and instituting a new administrative layer - federal districts - charged with controlling the regional administrations.
See also: History of Russia
The Russia kiévienne (Ruthénie) is the first state organized to be itself formed in the area occupied today by the Ukraine and part of Western Russia (862). Founded by Viking S (the Varègues in Russian) come from the the Baltic, it forms a state little structured whose subjects are the Slavic tribes living in the area and who will be gradually conquered. The princes varègues develop the commercial axis between the Baltic and the Black Sea by borrowing the river Dniepr. They succeed in being essential as a business partner on the Byzantine Empire by the force of the weapons. Russia kiévienne must fight the wandering people of the steppes come from the east. About the year 1000, Russia kiévienne converts with orthodoxe Christianity religion of the Byzantine empire. Russia kiévienne disintegrates in 1237 after one long period of civil war under the attacks of the wandering people. Russia kiévienne then makes place with about fifteen principalities located on the territories of current the Ukraine, Bielorussia and European Russia.
The principality of Vladimir-Souzdal and especially the République of Novgorod both located at the north of Russia kiévienne will benefit from their independence to develop. The republic of Novgorod, city-state equipped with system of an original, prosperous government thanks to its commercial exchanges with the countries of the Baltic. It on several occasions pushes back the attempts at expansion of the teutonic Chevaliers.
The Mongolian invasion
In 1226 new warlike wandering people come from Mongolia, called Tatars by the Russians, tackle the Russian principalities, because those are located on the road of Europe from which they intend to undertake the conquest. Between the 1237 and 1242 khan Batu grandson of Gengis Khan demolishes the ones after the others all the armies Russian and reduced of ashes the main cities of which Vladimir, Kiev and Moscow. The populations are massacred or reduced in slavery. Only Novgorod and to a certain extent Pskov, located at the North-East, succeeds in preserving a certain autonomy. Mongolian does not occupy the overcome territories but the Russian princes must pay tribute and recognize the suzerainty of Mongolian who founds a state in the south of the the Volga: the Horde of Gold. This vassalage will end later only 3 centuries.
MoscovieTo the 16th century, one of these principalities, the Moscovie (of which the capital is Moscow), directed by skilful princes, gradually annexes all the others to become Russia (from where the title of Tsar of all Russies carried by the sovereign of the Russian empire). Under the reign of Ivan III, Moscovie is released from the yoke of Mongolian whose empire is from now on fragmented in several khanats then absorbs the principal still independent principalities of which Novgorod. Moscovie must also fight the powerful kingdom of Lithuania which occupies mainly the current territory of Poland. Ivan IV known as " Terrible" , first prince to be made indicate under the title of tsar, completes these conquests while seizing principal the khanats Mongolian but it loses the access to the Baltic vis-a-vis a coalition of the Swedish Empire with the Poland and Lithuania.
The Romanov dynasty
The extinction of the dynasty of Riourik starts the time of Disorders until a new dynasty, the Romanov, assembles on the throne (1613). Several brilliant sovereigns go to 17th and 18th century to increase the size of the Russian Empire with the assistance of the Cosaques: Pierre Large the (1682-1725), at the price of a long war with Sweden, obtains an access to the Baltic and makes build Saint-Petersbourg; Catherine II of Russia (1762-1796), lit autocrat, completes the conquest of the steppes located at the edge of the Black Sea after having demolishes the Ottoman Empire and the Khanat of the Crimea and pushes back towards the west the borders of the Russian empire thanks to the division of Poland. The Ukraine and Bielorussia are from now on entirely in Russian territory. During all this period, the cossacks occupy Siberia gradually and reach the Pacific Ocean in 1640. Irkoutsk at the edge of the Lac Baïkal is founded in 1632, the area of the Bering Strait and the Alaska is explored in the years 1740.
Russia European great power
The Russian empire will play a decisive part during the Napoleonean Guerres which will transform it into European power. After having taken part in two coalitions against Napoleon and having wiped expensive defeats, Alexandre Ier chooses the camp of France but peace will last only 5 years (1807-1812). It benefits from this pause to attack Sweden and to annex the Finland. In 1812 the hostilities begin again. The large army of Napoleon manages to the price of fierce combats to seize Moscow but must set out again about it driven out by the fire of the city. The Russian armies then badger an enemy decimated by the hunger and the cold and in 1815 they occupy Paris. Alexandre will play an important role in the the Holy Alliance which wants to manage the destiny of post-Napoleonean Europe: he is opposed to the reconstitution of the Polish state and will take part militarily in the repression of risings against monarchies (Hungary).
The expansion in Asia
The Russian empire continues, under its reign and that of its successors, his expansion in the the Caucasus with the detriment of the empires Persian and Othoman: the Georgia voluntarily joined the empire in 1801, the Arménie, the Daghestan and part of the Azerbaïdjan is annexed in 1813 at the end of a 4 years conflict with the Persian empire. A last victorious conflict with the Ottoman Empire (1878) completes the conquest of the Caucasus. With the death of Alexandre (1825) of the officers reformists, the Décembristes, are raised in vain to require a reform of monarchy. This attempt initiated by members resulting from the leading class will be used as model with many Russian radicals during the next century. Nicolas I profits from a good economic growth but reinforces the repressive apparatus. It violently crushes a rising armed with Poland (1831). The decline of the Ottoman Empire, which pokes covetousnesses of the European powers, is at the origin of a conflict between European Russia and the other powers. Demolishes with Sébastopol (1856), Alexandre II, the successor of Nicolas, must yield the Bessarabia, and loses the right-of-way in the Mediterranean. It tries to learn the lessons from this defeat.
Attempts at reform
The country which, at the time, reached a surface of 12,5 million km ² and counts 60 million inhabitants, is handicapped by its antiquated operation. Structural reforms are warming-up by the tsar: abolition of serfdom (1861), creation of elected local councils them Zemtsvo S - (1864) equipped with being able on the businesses local and being able to raise Impôt S, reform of the legal Code and introduction of the procedure of charge and defense. The reforms in a paradoxical way will poke the violence of groups of revolutionists and Alexandre will end up falling under their blows (1882). Under its reign, the empire continues its colonial expansion in Central Asia: after the Kazakh annexation of the grounds of the S completed in 1847, the 3 Khanat S of the Uzbek territory (Kokand, Bukhara and Khiva) is conquered during the three following decades then annexed or placed under protectorate (1876). This projection places the Russian empire at the doors of the British Empire in India. The tension between the two countries will remain very sharp until an agreement is found in 1907 (Anglo-Russian convention). Poland will raise itself without success in 1863.
Alexandre III, when it goes up on the throne in 1882, follows in reaction to the assassination of his/her father a policy of Counter-Reformation. The mode continues to be authoritative: political parties and Syndicat S are prohibited, the right of circulation is limited, the press is censured. On the economic plan industry develops grace quickly, inter alia, with the overseas investments and the construction of a railway network which reaches 30.000 km in 1890. The Trans-Siberian which must disenclose the immense territories of Siberia east builds between 1891 and 1901. But agriculture always has a crushing weight: in 1897 Russia counts 97 million peasants for a total population of 110 million inhabitants. Those generally do not have the grounds which they cultivate (25% will be owners in 1914). The rate of elimination of illiteracy is very weak and infant mortality is high. The demographic surplus is absorbed by the cities of which the number believes quickly: the day before the First World War, the town population exceeds the 25 million inhabitants. Russia continues to increase its area of influence; in China and Korea it runs up against the Japanese interests. The conflict which follows finishes by a complete defeat (1905): the modernization of the Japan was underestimated and the distance of the battle field created enormous logistic constraints.
The Revolution of 1905
This defeat starts the first generalized rising of the Russian population against the mode. The revolution of 1905 is initially a country movement which touches primarily the area of the black cotton soils. The workmen unite with the movement thereafter. The honesty of the armed forces will save the mode. Nicolas II, which is assembled on the throne in 1894, is obliged to give pledges of opening. An assembly (Duma) elected is equipped with legislative powers. But the elections of two successive dumas give a vast majority to the opposition. The electoral law is then amended to obtain a House of Commons favorable to the capacity.
Russia enters in war against the Germany and the Empire Austro-Hungarian in 1914 to come to assistance of the Serbia, its allied. The Russian empire starts an offensive in Eastern Poland occupied by German but is severely beaten. The Russian troops must give up Poland. At the beginning of 1917 burst of the social movements, caused by the weight of the war on the economy, the losses on a face reduced to a defensive strategy, the instability of the leaders and the distrust with respect to the tsar. The refusal of the troops to repress the demonstrations, the lassitude of the leading classes oblige the tsar Nicolas II to abdicate; thus bursts the Révolution of February 1917 and Russia becomes a republic. A provisional government then is made up, chaired by Alexandre Kerenski. While outlining reforms this one tries despite everything to respect engagements of Russia with respect to its allies by continuing the war. The unpopularity of this last measurement is exploited by the party of the Bolchevik S which, on October 25th, 1917, reverses the government with Saint-Pétersbourg (then capital of Russia) by the weapons (Révolution of October). Peace is signed with the Germans at the price of enormous territorial concessions (Poland, part of the Ukraine, Baltic States,…). A civil war will oppose during three years the Russian white (republican or monarchists) assisted by the western powers with the Bolsheviks. After their victory, on December 22nd 1922 the Bolsheviks found the Union of the Soviet socialist republics, Russia becomes one of the republics of the Union.
As of the seizure of power, the new mode turns to the dictatorship savagely repressing any opposition even within the Communist party. The whole of the means of production are placed under the control of the state. At the end of the civil war in 1921 the country is exangue: the disorganization of transport, the agricultural requisitions start a famine which makes a million victims in the south of Russia and in Ukraine. Dissatisfaction gains and the mode must soften its program: it is the NEP which authorizes a limited form of private economy. In a few years the agricultural production and industrial is restored. Lénine deceased in 1924 leaves its open “succession”. Stalin will rise in a few years with the capacity by eliminating its rivals physically. The plan of Collectivisation is taken again with strength and the grounds are gathered within large co-operatives. The development of the economy from now on is planned in manner centralized in five-year plan . Those stress especially the development of heavy industry in particular in the east of the country. Stalin leads a policy of oppression which sends to the Gulag or to dead nearly 15 people million before the release of the Second world war.
Second world war
Stalin who made a pact with Hitler at the beginning of the second world war is surprised by the German attack which starts in 1941. The Soviet army under-equipped and disorganized by the Stalinist purgings moves back by essuyant losses which amount to million. The German advance is blocked in front of Stalingrad (January 1943). The Soviet generals take again the initiative gradually and the Soviet army supported by deliveries of allied weapons, reconquers the lost territories, releases the countries of Eastern Europe then returns victorious in Berlin (May 1945). Western Stalin and his allies concluded an agreement on a division from Europe in zones from influence which ratifies the part played by the USSR in the conflict (Conférence of Yalta). The countries of Eastern Europe and a fraction of Germany are seen soon imposing a socialist mode controlled by the USSR. The war bled the USSR (20 million victims of which a majority of civilians).
Collapse of the Soviet mode
At the end of 1991, the USSR crumbles and the republics which constituted it take their independence. Since, Russia reinforced the democratic institutions and its economy became liberal.
See also: List of the monarchs of Russia; Union of the Soviet socialist republics.
See also: Political of Russia
The constitution of 1993 adopted following the constitutional crisis of 1993 which had opposed the president Boris Eltsine and the assembly and could have been solved only by the intervention of the tanks, defines Russia as a Fédération and a presidential République in which the Russian president is the Head of the State and the Prime Minister the Chef of the government. The Executive power is exerted by the head of government. The Legislative power is held at the same time by the government and the two rooms of the federal assembly of the Russian federation.
The president is elected with the Vote for all for one 4 years period. Its Mandat is renewable only once. The last presidential election took place on March 14th, 2004 and the next one will take place in March 2008.
The legislative power is represented by the federal Parliament made up of:
- the Duma (Дyмa = the thought) or, more precisely, Duma of State , assembled of 450 deputies elected by the universal direct suffrage for 4 years. The Duma is chaired by Boris Gryzlov (2007).
- the the Council of the Federation (СоветФедерации), formed of 176 representatives of the subjects (areas) composing the Federation, often called “senators” (see Russie#Subdivisions). The Council of the Federation is chaired by Sergueï Mironov (2007).
The Russian constitution guarantees the equality of all the citizens in front of justice, the independence of the judges and their subjection to the only law. The lawsuits must be public and the right of defense is guaranteed to the defendants.
The areas have a certain autonomy but, since 2005, the governors of the areas are not any more elected but are appointed by the president.
The principal parties are the party of the president Putin Russia Unie (231 seats at the Duma with the elections of 2003), the Russian Communist party (51 seats), Rodina (37 seats), and the LDPR (37 seats).
See also : Géostratégie of Russia.
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The Russian Federation makes up of 85 prone equal in right:
- 21 Republic S,
- 8 Kraï S (territories),
- 6 Okroug S (districts),
- 2 towns of federal importance (Moscow and Saint-Pétersbourg),
- 1 oblast autonomous (oblast autonomous of the Jews, known as “Birobidjan”, of the name of its capital).
Strong of its 128 nationalities, the Federation cut out its territory in many legal pieces: according to nationality for the republics and the okrougs, according to administrative reasons for the kraïs and the oblasts. The Birobidjan guard a particular status: it had been envisaged by Stalin like a land of welcome of the Juif S of the USSR.
Each of the 85 subjects sends to the Council of the Federation two representatives. Each subject has its own legislation (a Constitution for the republics and a Statute for the oblasts, kraïs, okrougs and cities). The Douma represents the population of the Federation.
See the article Prone Russian Federation.
Cities in Russia
See also: Towns of Russia
Moscow, the capital of Russia
- Saint-Pétersbourg, in 1914 Petrograd , then Leningrad (until 1991)
- Iekaterinbourg, at the time Soviet Sverdlovsk
- Kaliningrad, in the past Königsberg
- Nijni-Novgorod, at the time Soviet Gorki
- Samara, at the time Soviet Kouibychev
- Togliatti, initially Togliattigrad then the Stavropol-on-the-Volga
- Volgograd, in the past Tsaritsyne , then at the time Soviet Stalingrad
- Perm, at the time Soviet Molotov
See: List of the towns of Siberia
See also: Geography of Russia
Russia has a surface of 17 million km ² which represents 2 times that of the United States and that of France. The country is with horse on Europe (25,3 %) and Asia (74,7 %). Stretching itself on 8000 km of west in is, Russia crosses 11 time zones. Because of its size, country present of many types of landscapes among which prevail of wide relatively punts covered according to the latitude of forests, meadows and steppes. Russia of Europe, definite in an arbitrary way like the part located at the west of the the Ural, successively presents while going from north to the south the following landscapes: in north the coldest part is the reign of the Toundra which succeeds while going towards the south the forests of Conifère S, then mixed forests (leafy trees and conifers), meadows, and finally semi-desert steppe (close to the Caspian Sea). The change of vegetation follows that of the climate. The Siberia - the part located at the east of the Ural - presents the same succession of landscapes but it is especially the Taïga, more or less sparse forest mainly made up of conifers, which prevails.
Russia has land borders with 14 country (in the inverse order of the needles of a watch, on the basis of more in north): the Norway 167 km, the Finland 1.313 km, the Estonia 294 km, the Latvia 217 km, the Bielorussia 959 km, the Lithuania 227 km, the Poland 206 km, the Ukraine 1.576 km, the Georgia 723 km, the Azerbaïdjan 284 km, the Kazakhstan 6.846 km, the China: 3645 km, the Mongolia: 3441 km and the North Korea 19 km.
The majority of Russia is consisted vast plains where the meadows and steppes in the south prevail the forest in north and the tundra along the shores of the Arctic Ocean. The principal mountainous solid masses are located along the southernmost border: it is the the Caucasus, whose point dominating, the mount Elbrouz (5 642 meters) is also the highest top of Europe and the mountains of the Altaï. In the east is the massive of Verkhoïansk and chains it volcanos of the peninsula of the Kamtchatka. The the Ural, which separates long a North-South axis Russia from Europe of Russia of Asia, massive mountainous is errodé rich in mining resources.
The enormous forest belt of a width of 1200 km broad in Russia d' Europe and 2000 km in Siberia constitutes the greatest forest reserve of planet. The surface cultivateds present 8,9% of the cultivable surface of planet.
The littoral of Russia has a length of: 37653 km: it primarily stretches along the Arctic Ocean and of the Pacific Ocean; it also includes/understands relatively small portions of coasts on the the Baltic, the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea.
The principal islands and archipelagoes include/understand in Arctic Ocean the Nova Zembla, the Archipel François-Joseph, the archipelago of New Siberian Islandss, and in the Pacific the island Sakhaline and the archipelago of the Kouriles of which the southernmost islands are asserted by the Japan.
More than 100.000 rivers sprinkle Russia from which some appear among most important of planet. The the Volga, which drains a river Bassin of 1,4 million km ², is the longest river of Russia d' Europe (3350 km) and played an important role in the history of the country. The large Siberian rivers appear among the giants of planet: they are the Iénisséi (medium flow 19.600m2/s), the Ob, the Léna and the Amour all characterized by enormous flows and particularly violent Débâcle S when the arrival of the summer gives moving the water taken in the ices. The principal lakes are the lake Baïkal, which constitutes the greatest soft water reserve of the planet (20% of the total), the Lac Ladoga and the lake Onega.
The climate of Russia is continental and cold (the average temperature of the country is of -5,5°C). The major part of this very massive country (the majority of the grounds are at more than 400 km of the coasts) is indeed far away from the lenitive influence of the oceans. More half of the country situee in north of the 60° of latitude while only a weak part is in the south of the 50° of latitude. The mountains which close the southernmost borders (Altaï,…) prevent the increase of the masses of hot air come from the southernmost areas; on the other hand the plains which dominate in the north of the country let penetrate far inside the grounds the masses of air cooled by the Arctic Ocean.
In practically all the country, there exist practically only 2 seasons: the winter and the summer; spring and the autumn are generally of very short duration and the passage of the hottest temperatures at the coldest temperatures is extremely fast. The coldest month is January (on the coasts February). The winter temperatures are dropping at the same time south to north and west in the east (much more continental): one thus records an average temperature in February of −8°C with Saint-Petersbourg located at the extreme-west, −27°C in the plains of Western Siberia, and −43°C with Iakoutsk located in Eastern Siberia about at the latitude of Saint-Petersbourg. The record of the cold is held by the town of Verkhoïansk (- 70°C raised). Wind of the south generated by the Anticyclone which stations in winter on the major part of Russia, reduced the differences in temperature between the areas located at different latitudes. In summer the hottest month is generally July (the average temperature in Russia east of 20°C). The temperatures can be very high in the continental areas (until 38°C in the south). The amplitude of the temperatures is generally extremely high. The summer can be very hot and wet including in Siberia. A small portion of the coast of the Black Sea close to Sotchi has a subtropical climate.
The continental climate strongly limits the Pluviométrie. So in the west annual precipitations are of 600 mm in the areas the Baltic and 525 mm in Moscow, they fall to 425 mm to Novossibirsk (in Siberia).
The duration of the winter, the intense cold and the sharp variations of temperature have an enormous impact on the lifestyle of the population and the operation of the economy. In the coldest part of the country the basement never thaws out: one speaks about Pergélisol (English permafrost); water stagnates on the surface and creates gigantic marshes recurring landscape of Siberia; the presence of the cold basement generates very expensive constraints on the method of construction of the buildings and the infrastructures. The large rivers are generally taken by the ices from October/November at April/May blocking any river circulation; in spring the Débâcle of the ices often involve catastrophic floods on the largest Siberian rivers.
See also: Economy of Russia, List of Russian companies
The Russian Federation is, in 2006, the 9th worldwide economy with a GDP of 1226 billion dollars. (Total GDP 2007, World Bank)
Structure of the GDP: primary 7 % - secondary 37 % - tertiary sector 56 %
- national Debt: does not exist any more , it was entirely refunded in (2006)
PIB/habitant : : 8630 $ (2007)
- Unemployment rate: 6.6 % (2006)
- Population in lower part of the Poverty line: 14 % (August 2006)
- Growth rate: 6,7 % (2006)
- Growth rate means 1999-2005: 6,4 %
- Rate of inflation: 9.7 % (2006)
- energy Deposit rate: 157,7 % (2002)
- Exports: 303,9 billion $ (2006)
- Imports: 164,7 billion $ (2006)
- Direct foreign investments: 28,8 billion $ (2006)
- Currency: Russian Rouble (100 RUB = 3,8 € at June 25th 2007)
- Fund of stabilization: 132,91 billion $ (September 3rd 2007) (52,1 billion $ in 2005)
- Monetary reserves: 422,5 billion $ (September 21st 2007)
See also: Armed forces of the federation of Russia
The current Russian Army, formed in 1992, is the Red Army heiress of old the (which was the army of the the USSR of 1922 to 1991, year of the dislocation of the USSR and the Soviet block), of which she inherited the near total of the armament and the equipment.
Russia is one of the five countries recognized officially by the Traité nuclear non-proliferation (NPT) like having the nuclear weapon. Besides it has the vastest nuclear arsenal in the world. After the fall of the USSR, in spite of the fall of Manpower and the Budget the Russian army remains an army of very first plan on a worldwide scale.
- Effective: : 1140000 soldiers and: 2000000 reservists
- Budget: 70 billion $ (2006)
See also: Demography of Russia
- Population: 143,4 million, of which 73 % live in urban environment
- Âge: 70,4 % between 15 and 64 years
- Density: 8,5 hab. /km ²
- Index of fruitfulness: 1,35
- Birth rate: 10,4 ‰
- Death rate: 16 ‰ (is. 2006)
- Life expectancy: women: 72 years - men: 59 years (source INSEE)
- Age of retirement: 55 years for the women and 60 years for the men
The population of Russia is established to 143,4 million inhabitants, with a strong rate of urbanization (73 % of the population).
The Russian big cities are also those which receive the most subsidies of the Federal state. There exist 12 cities with more than one million inhabitants in Russia; of west in east: Saint-Pétersbourg, Moscow, Rostov-sur-le-Don, Nijni-Novgorod, Volgograd, Samara, Oufa, Kazan, Perm, Iekaterinbourg, Tcheliabinsk and Novosibirsk.
Russia sees its population dropping continuously since 1970. This phenomenon is explained by the consequences of the Second world war, which were not compensated by a baby-boom, contrary to the countries of Western Europe. The life expectancy of the men is today 58,8 years (source: economy and statistical n°383-384-385, INSEE, 2005). Russia counts 13 million handicapped people, almost 9 % of the population, which represents a very heavy load for the federal budget.
Russia noye in alcohol
It is a true epidemic which devastates Russia. This epidemic mortal, it is alcoholism. These three last weeks, more than 2500 people fell sick and more than 100 died after having consumed adulterated alcohol, a plague which kills each year 42.000 Russians. In the particularly touched area of Pskov, in the North-West of the country, the local government issued a mode of emergency. A measurement which makes it possible the police force to carry out unexpected inspections in the alcohol sales outlets. In Russia a man on three and one woman out of seven are alcoholic, alcohol responsible for died for 30% of the men.
Since the years 1990, the population declines in Russia: birth rate drops (8,4 per thousand), death rate grows (14,7 per thousand). They are the most touched men: a twenty year old man out of two can hope to live up to sixty years (for an American they is nine chances out of ten); the life expectancy of a man is better in Guatemala, in Indonesia, in Iraq, in Mexico, in Philippines… that in Russia. And the situation worsens.
Poverty is the best allied one of alcoholism, at the most stripped all is good to drink, of the brake fluid to antifreeze, while passing by the solvent… Here it is not even question of vodka, the preferred drink of the Russians, here one is poisoned. Former president Gorbatchev even estimates that its country commits suicide.
In the years 1980, Mikhail Gorbatchev had attacked the plague of alcohol: of State, prohibition production ceiling of clandestine distillings and the domestic production, raising of prices, obligatory medical care for the alcoholics… But Boris Eltsine reintroduced what Russian caricaturists called “the general alcoholization of the people”: disappearance of the state monopoly on the alcoholized products, multiplication in the urban centres of open huts with alcohol day and night without interruption. From 1988 with today, the alcohol consumption per capita and per annum passed from less than 11 liters to more than 14 liters, and as “edible” alcohol is too expensive for many Russians, one counts in 2005 36.000 dead by ingestion of alcohol adulterated, who are added to the 46.000 suicides, 40.000 died by traffic accident and 35.000 victims of murder.
Today it is more than four hundred people who were poisoned by an alcohol ingestion adulterated in the area of Pskov, in the North-West of Russia, and fifteen died; in September, the news came from the South and the West from Moscow, five hundred patients, seventeen died for the same cause. In Belgorod, the South of the country, 912 patients, 44 dead. In Irkoutsk, in Siberia, 559 patients, 19 dead. During last weeks, 2500 patients, 101 dead. Each year, they are 42.000 to die poisoned, according to the Russian official statistics.
Adulterated alcohol, one manufactures it with the means of the edge, an alcohol mixed gross with methanol, an industrial alcohol whose consumption is “strictly prohibited” with the human being, a mixture of cola and domestic product (the “frémok”), etc Of the very pathogenic receipts, often mortals.
According to a study undertaken recently by a specialist in gynecology of the Academy of Science of Russia, Vladimir Koulakov (study strongly disputed by its pars), Russia loses each year 700 000 inhabitants. With a birthrate of 10,3 ‰ and a mortality of 16 ‰, Russia faces a “demographic ditch”. Mr. Koulakov does not blame the economic conditions, which do not encourage the young couples to procreate, and notes the fact that, according to him, on 39,1 million women in age to procreate, 6 million are sterile, partly because of the conditions of the clandestine abortion under the Soviet mode (under the USSR, contraception was prohibited; since the end of the USSR, the number of abortions strongly fell). But these data are very contestable, because the standard of living increases each year and the economic growth of Russia is quite higher than that of the Western countries; it is however less important than that of China.
Russia mobilizes itself around depopulation and should adopt a concept of demographic policy aiming at damming up this one by the protection of health. The annual birthrate is approximately 1,4 million people, but a Russian deputy, nearly 2,3 million people die every year in Russia. These figures are however distorted, since the characteristic of the Russian civil statue consists in recording only the births of the Russian citizens and the deaths of all the inhabitants (even those which do not have Russian nationality), and the variation is enormous: between 38 % and 42 %. Immigration covers to the 15  maximum; % of this fall.
Russia is the second country in the world which accommodates the greatest number of immigrants (after the the United States). According to the experts, the realization of the demographic doctrines suggested by the Duma (Lower House of the Russian Parliament), which aims reducing mortality and at encouraging the young couples, would allow to raise the population to 200 million inhabitants from here 2050 (it was of 143 million in 2005). Moscow wishes to currently restrict the number of nationals of the countries of CEI to six million against eleven million.
In his speech with the Council of the in May 2006 Federation, president Vladimir Poutine confirmed the installation of a policy aiming at increasing the number of births. It would make it possible in particular to the mothers to profit from a considerable “premium of maternity” (250 000 roubles, is 7 350 €, for the birth of a second child and 300 000 roubles (8 825 €) for the third). Moreover, since February 2006, “certificates of birth” were introduced into maternities: filled during the birth of a child, they make it possible the mother to touch her “premium of maternity”, and the midwife to profit from a “premium of assistance” from: 10000 roubles (294 €) for each newborn in his service.
EducationThe rate of elimination of illiteracy is very high, among highest in the world: 99,5 % (1999). The populations not belonging to the Russian ethnos group are often bilingual (example: Russian and tatar, Russian and oudmourte, Russian and iakoute).
See also: Culture of Russia, Russian Literature
- Christian orthodoxe: 55 % (" Old man-Croyants" included/understood)
- Moslem S: 15 % (mainly sunnites)
- Protesting S: 8 % (mainly Lutherans and Baptists)
- Jewish S: 3 % (only orthodoxe and hassidic)
- Catholic S Romans: 1 %
- Buddhist S: 1 % (of tradition Tibetan)
See also: Economy of Russia
The official statistics of the Russian Federation recognize three forms of farms. The Firm Agricultural organizations, private and small holdings. The potato and corn culture represents its principal activity. The porcine breeding and of poultry is also very widespread. On the other hand, the breeding of bovines is primarily intended for the dairy production, the red consumption of meat remaining very limited in Russia.
The climatic conditions of the Federation allow him a setting in culture of its grounds only over one relatively short period (approximately 7 months of the year). The dimension of its useful agricultural Surface and the climatic factor undoubtedly make it possible to explain why its agriculture is extensive rather than intensive (as it is the case in Western Europe), and than it rests on a Monoculture.
CodesRussia has as a code:
- RS, according to the Code list countries used by NATO, code alpha-2,
- RU, according to the standard ISO 3166-1 (code list country), code alpha-2,
- RUS, according to the standard ISO 3166-1 alpha-3 (code list country),
- RUS, according to the Code list country of the CIO
- RUS, according to the international Code list of the number plates
- RUS, according to the Code list countries used by NATO, code alpha-3,
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