See also: Road (homonymy)
A road is in the literal sense a terrestrial way arranged to allow the Circulation Véhicule S Roue S. This term applies rather to the important ways located in open country. In the vast and little populated countries, at the end of the 20th century of many roads were still tracks of stones or rammed ground. In Western Europe and France, in their near total, the roads are covered with a mixture of Bitume and fine gravels (binder bitumen), of one or more layer (S) of aggregates sealed with a bitumen binder (dressing surface) or of a concrete flagstone… In a majority of country - including developed as with the the United States or the Canada - the highway network is at the same time made up of surfaced roads and unsealed roads.
EtymologyThe word “road” derives from the Latin ( via ) rupta , literally “broken way”, i.e. dug in the rock, to open the way.
HistoryThe first roads are related to the invention of the wheel, the tank and the charriots. The Chinese had a vast network of roads. The “Silk route” is a very old commercial axis. The Romans developed the first great highway network paved by slaves. The majority of old the Roman ways always exists.
In the past the roads were maintained by the Corvée, the tax in kind, in the form of imposed services of work or material contributions (stones, flint, lime). At the beginning of the XXe century, with the rise of the automobile traffic but also with the development of the bicycle, which needed roadways of better quality, one covered these last, packed beforehand with the road roller, of tar, bituminous paving stones or asphalt, as that was already done for the pavements since the beginning of the XIXe century. Downtown, in the majority of the countries the residents must always maintain pavement and gutter.
An important part of the taxes is still used with construction, the maintenance and the road lighting.
TypologyThe roads can be classified according to various
criteria The administrative statute
- international Statute: Continental roads, like the Roads European S, or the roads American inter-states north (Interstate highway S), or the Transamazonienne
national Statute: typology depends then on the organization of each country.
Some examples of classifications:
- In France : Highway S, Trunk roads - Roads secondary S - communal Ways and country lanes
- In Quebec : Highways - trunk roads - collecting roads - minor roads (see: Provincial roads of Quebec)
- In Brazil : Federal roads and local roads (see Roads of Brazil).
FunctionalityThe roads of large bound its, like the Autoroutes, The roads of Transit, for which the function of traffic flow of transit with average or long distance is privileged, The multipurpose roads , This classification is that which is used as reference to the design of the roads (for France, to see Typologie of the roads for their design in France)
- the urban roads,
- the interurban roads,
- the roads of close-cropped countryside, are another denomination of the interurban roads.
- the forest roads are located in forest.
The type of usersThe reserved roads with certain categories of users (cyclists or pedestrians) have specific denominations:
- the network “Véloroute and green lanes” must in Europe allow the circulation of the bicycles at the less risk.
- the roads or malls or ways pedestrians are reserved to the pedestrians.
Strategic importancestrategic roads can be conceived with fine soldiers, in order to be able there to circulate quickly with military vehicles.
The Roman ways rectilinear could have preceded them, as well as the first highways in Germany.
Les Autoroute S is a category of roads with strong traffic, from which the two directions of circulation are separated by a quay level, and not having any crossing on level with other roads, without access for the residents. One circulates there more quickly. The accesses (straps) are generally uneven exchangers.
Mode of exploitation
- Roads managed by a public service ,
In France, the Autoroutes are generally enclosed and paying (conceded at private companies) whereas the other roads are of free access. Some free Autoroutes is managed by the State (A75, A1 skirting of great agglomerations…). Their linear represents a little more of the quarter of that of the paying highways (conceded).
The nature of the coatingOne will distinguish the surfaced roads from the overland routes .
Among the surfaced roads, there are the surfaced roads out of bituminous mix and the concrete roads.
Impacts of the roads on the environmentThe impacts are many and complex. They vary according to the context and are attenuated or on the contrary amplified according to the way in which the road is positioned, built, managed and especially according to its secondary impacts. They are taken into account and only imperfectly and recently (the French Law on the impact studies goes back only to 1976).
Types of environmental impactsThe construction of the highway networks has many impacts on the species and their habitats:
- Consumption of space via the aggregate careers and the transport of materials, then destruction of habitats by the occupation of road space, earthworks, the drainage, or by induced modifications of the use of the ground (regroupings, delocalization of activities.);
- Consommation of fossil energy the bituminous mix is composed of 4 to bitumen 6% whose manufacture requires a heating with 140°C with 170°C (700 MJ/tonne, according to the USIRF). 1 km of highway 2 X 2 ways covered with a bituminous mix of 20 cm (low average) consumes 35 tons of bitumen and 10,8 tons of oil equivalent for its manufacture. One recently tests for the bituminous mix a vegetable binder and a bituminous mix usable at less temperature, consuming 20 to 25% of energy in less.
- degradation of the medium by the induced Pollution S (by the manufacture and following the traffic of the vehicles, but also by the pesticides and salting dependant on maintenance and operation, or following accidental pollution);
- mortality of fauna by collision with the vehicles (see the detailed article Roadkill);
- ic modifications Microclimate above and in edge of the roads;
- luminous Pollution bearing reached with the Biological diversity by disturbing the fundamental rates/rhythms chronobiologic synchronized by alternation day/night. Moreover, road lighting is a mortal trap for certain species or, on the contrary, it pushes back the species “lumifuges” .
The impact on the Biodiversité comes especially from the loss of éco-landscape integrity induced by the increasing fragmentation of the landscape. This parcelling out is a recent and new phenomenon in the planetary history of the Alive one.
Its effects are complex and dubious on the means and long terms, but one observes already, inter alia, of the effects of “barriers ecological” , of insularisation écopaysagère (reduction in the size and the number of the “spots” of nature + increase in the distances between these “spots” ), etc, with the detriment of biological diversity.
Whereas the road berms (and human displacements and of vehicles) support the diffusion of some species ubiquists invasive (Renouée of Japan, Colza, possibly transgenic for example, in Europe), most of fauna and part of the flora undergo a genetic impoverishment or ends up disappearing because of the ecological Insularisation induced by the roads and agriculture. One observes a reduction in the rare species, endemic or specific to a medium with the profit of common species, ubiquists or becoming invasive.
Une road and its bottom-of-layer constitute an insuperable barrier for the near total of fauna, including often for species able to fly, and more still for the organizations of the ground. Indeed, while modifying very locally but strongly certain conditions of the medium such as temperature, hygroscopy, luminosity, exposure to the wind and predatory, peace, nature of the ground, etc) each road and a completely hostile medium for the majority of the species.
Circulation disturbs bordering fauna and the migrations of other species that the birds. The noise (of which ultra and infrasons inaudible for the human one), the vibrations, the odors or lighting trap, alert or make flee many species among the reptiles, the Amphibians, the bats, etc For the animals which dare to cross the roads, mortality by collisions is also a big factor of loss of biodiversity.
Secondary impactsBy their induced effects, the road infrastructures upset the landscapes. The roads are indeed often followed Remembrement S or encourage an intensification of agriculture, the periurbanisation or the rural migration, leading to an increasing artificialisation of the territory, with the detriment of the ecosystems or traditional agro-systems.
Roads consuming materialsThe construction and the maintenance of the roads, even with the technique of cuts/fill consume materials for its underlayer (toxic waste more or less quite inerted sometimes), of the aggregates, of derived from oil (bituminizes, fuel, pesticides.), of hydraulic lime and/or cement like binder for the travelling layer, or works of art, etc Their production, their transport and implementation by heavy machines, the earthwork the installation of the layers consume great quantities of energy, and emit pollutants in the air, water, the grounds and generate waste (to some extent which may undergo beneficiation and more or less developed). Agreements, decrees or exemption make it possible certain industries (Métallurgie, Incinérateur S and thermo plants in particular) to recycle certain waste (sterile, filths, blast-furnace slags, ashes.) under or in the roads, with sometimes certain regulations (produced inerted, out of the floodplains, wet or inhabited)
Hydraulic impactsThe road infrastructures are generally impermeable. The lower part of the modern roads is rammed is stabilized by mixture of ground and lime and cement, constituting a thick sole almost as hard as of the concrete. The road and its sole thus stop the infiltration of water towards the tablecloths and sometimes the horizontal circulation of them of streaming but also of the surface tablecloth. The water moreover is polluted in its course on the roads and with their accesses, of which by salt and lead relictuel of the time when the gasoline was rich in lead. The roads often were the subject of earthworks, accompanied by a drainage and creation by ditches which also modified natural or former hydraulics of the sites concerned, as well as flows upstream-downstream. The roads often exacerbated the floods and drynesses. Certain roads or the deforestation which they imposed or allowed responsible for are flow mud, collapses or landslides. Crossings of river formerly gauged on the centennial rising , but husbandries and perhaps the climate changes exacerbated the frequency and the gravity of raw which the roads and bridges always do not resist.
Route and sustainable developmentThe development continuous and privileged highway network seems to reach its limits in particular with the clogging of the great urban centres and the interurban main roads in the whole world. This model " routier" is presented more and more like incompatible with the Sustainable development. It is the subject of investments much higher than those set up for the train, the water way. (N.B. In the French case, it is not obvious that the amount of the investment in the road field is " very supérieur" with that devoted to railway) the
En spite of the raising of prices of energy and the time wasted in the congestions, the alternatives to the “all-truck driver” have pained to develop in a world for 50 years conceived to support the car and the truck, where truths economic costs, social and environmental of transport are not measured. The road still represents in 2005 a big part of the displacement of the goods and people, sometimes without short-term alternative. An economic part of the world regards it as necessary to economic development (the third pillar of the Sustainable development).
A considerable part of displacements do not seem possible short-term by other means of transport, in particular if one refers at the cost of the infrastructures necessary. On the other hand, of progress are made and can continue in term of Intermodalité, of urban transport, or control of the periurbanisation and support for the bicycle. Projects of cities HQE, cities or districts without car, or public transport free are locally tested or in project, but remain rare.
It should be noted that the road in it even is not always to blame, but it is also the use which one makes that it is necessary to re-examine: public transport by bus requires a road and is however one of best in term of " rendement" energetics. The Covoiturage could also be a practice to be developed…
Impacts on health and safetyTens of thousands of people die killed on the roads each year in the world. The Pedestrian S, cyclists, children, elderly are particularly vulnerable.
The driving license, the speed limits, the fight against the Alcoholism, controls, the progress imposed to the manufacturers and of the improvements of design of the highway network aims at improving the Road safety. Automobile and road pollution is in addition a probable cause of the increase in certain cancers. The children who grew near a attended road are likely more to develop certain pathologies later. The plombemy of the inhabitants quickly decreased in the countries which prohibited the Plomb in the gasoline, which is not the case in China, and in certain countries such as Nigeria where the gasoline remains very leaded. Elsewhere, the Benzene (mutagen and carcinogenic) which replaced lead, or toxic metals of the group of platinum lost by the catalytic pots were sources of new chronic pollution.
Roads and landscapesThe road maintains an ambiguous relation with the Paysage which is a concept which evolved/moved much. It transforms it and splits up it, for doing best to discover. At the 18th century, the road created an new approach of the " paysage" with the creation of " roads pittoresques" , mountain roads… One since created the highways of the estuaries, the wine trails, etc by putting in scene for the traveller the space which was offered to him. Locally, one lights of night of cliffs, the rocks or the trees. Elsewhere they are displays of plat bands and rounds flowered points or " paysagés". According to the time or its originator-developers, the road slices, is posted or melted in the landscape which would be the product of the nature and/or the work of the man: rice plantations, terrace cultivation, scrap-metals and sunken lanes, " haies" if expensive with in love with nature… For some modern roads " défigurent" the landscape, for others they are an element become impossible to circumvent, including add the ecologists for the animals which find there a network growing of barriers ecological.
OutlinesThe road development grew in an exponential way on the Earth since the end of the 19th century, factor of a development which does not seem durable because generating serious problems of Climate warming, Air pollution, Santé and Sécurité. In the emerging countries, the roads are factors of deforestation, poaching and on their edges the animals of pack and the cattle are often victims of collision with vehicles. Without that being the intention of their originators, the roads contribute in fact to the plundering of the natural resources and in particular to the exhaustion of the Pétrole.
Il is very rare that roads are destroyed, but a concept of roads HQE (environmental High-quality) seems to emerge, after some operations of ecological defragmentation by construction of écoduc S (sometimes vainly) tried to reduce their impact. These measurements are still rare and compensatory, rather than restauratoires.
the Silk route
- the road 66 in the west of the the United States
- the Large Trunk Road, of the India to the Afghanistan
- the ways of Saint Jacques
- the Via Appia, the Via Domitia and the Via Clutched, Roman ways
- the Trunk road 7 in France
- the Route Napoleon in France
- the Route 128 which girdles the town of Boston
- the royal Route (Louis XIV)
- European Road
- Fragmentation écopaysagère
- luminous Pollution
- Road HQE
- Roadway system | Highway
- Road accident
- Highway code
- Road map
- '' 4 Pages IFEN '' on the impact of the roads in France Page IFEN on the impact of the roads in France]
- shortened history of the roads
- Diagram; cross of a road
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