See also: Rome (homonymy)
Rome (in Italian Roma ), is the capital of the Italy. It is on the the Tiber, in the area of the Latium, in the center of the country and to 22 km of the Tyrrhenian Sea. With 2 705 603 inhabitants established on 1 285 km ² (4 ' 253 ' 450 with agglomeration), Rome are the most populated commune and most extended of Italy (nearly 8 times Paris); its agglomeration is on the other hand less important than those of Milan and Naples.
Rome was in the Antiquité the capital of the Roman Empire. It was called then usually Urbs (" Ville" par excellence). It is called sometimes the city with the seven hills (Aventin, Cælius, Capitole, Esquilin, Palatin, Quirinal and Viminal).
The catholics regard the bishop of Rome (the Pape) as the successor of holy Pierre and the town of Rome as the center of the Chrétienté or all at least the Catholicisme.
Name, nicknames and symbols
According to the Roman Mythology, Rome owes its name with its founder, Romulus. Remus, the brother of Romulus, was killed by this last. Actually the name of Rome would come from the word Rumon which means " the city of the fleuve". Rome has also several nicknames, of which Urbe , Caput Mundi (capital of the world), the Eternal City , and Limen Apostolorum (with the threshold of the apostles).
On its blazon its official colors are reproduced, gold and the red crimson, as well as initial SPQR. Those date from ancient Rome and mean S enatus P opulus' q' ue R omanus : " The Senate and the people romain". Rome has two festivals which are clean for him, April 21st (Christmas of Rome), and the June 29th, its patron saint being holy Pierre and holy Paul).
There exist also several proverbs on Rome, of which In Rome, act of Romain , All the roads lead to Rome and Rome was not built in one day.
Foundation of Rome to the Empire
See also: Foundation of Rome
The mythical date of its foundation is the April 21st -753, starting point of the Roman Calendrier, cash ab Urbe condita , “since the foundation of Rome”. This date is confirmed by the Archéologie and today the historians consider that indeed a Synœcisme took place at that time between the various villages of shepherds established on the hills. The city is controlled by kings of Etruscan origin until in -510, year during which a revolution bursts and founds the Roman République. Thanks to its military conquests, to the assimilation of close civilizations and its commercial power, the Roman domination extends in Europe, especially on banks of the Mediterranean. After one crisis period and civil wars, Auguste founds the Roman Empire, which knows a long prosperity which benefits the city: its population exceeds a million inhabitants.
Rome of Flaviens
Under the Flaviens, Rome is the most important city of the Mediterranean basin. It was born in the area around the the Tiber called Latium which is as a whole declining. On the contrary, Rome is a prosperous city which incarnates the model of the cities of the Empire: one finds there to eat, with drinking, of what to have fun, of the shops…
One cannot really know which was the manpower of the population of this city which first of all developed on left bank of the the Tiber. The island Tibérine separates it from Right Bank, i.e. of the known Étrurie for its wine and its oil. In times more moved back even, the city was victim of a lava flow, which, thanks to time and thus to the erosion, gave rise to seven baptized hills Palatin, Capitole, Aventin, Esquilin, Caelius, Viminal and Quirinal. The Capitole and the Palatin are the most known hills. The first, not far from the Champ de Mars, shelters temples like the Temple of Jupiter Capitolin with its triad capitoline (Junon/Jupiter/Minerve); the second being the hill of the rich person often senators where Auguste made build his domus not far from a temple dedicated to Apollon. Néron then Domitien will make there build their clean Domus .
In the beginning, the Aventin is a hill where the poor take refuge but in front of their turning into a desert, the rich person come to populate it. Rome is divided into two districts: one official and the other monk (Capitole + Champ de Mars). The official district is consisted the Palatin and the Forum which is an old political district of the republican time and which formed a place where the citizens could speak each other easily. To live in Rome offers the freedom from tax. As a whole, the richnesses of the Italy flavienne unequally are distributed since very developed in North with Milan and Vérone which is textile cities and the Italy of the South much less rich.
Decline and revival
After a long hegemony on the Mediterranean world, Rome loses its statute of capital to the profit of Milan then Ravenne, and is exceeded in prestige by Constantinople after the Division of the Roman Empire, then the fall of the Roman Empire of Occident. The establishment of the papal capacity makes nevertheless of Rome the center of the Catholic church. During the Early middle ages, the city do not count any more but: 20000 inhabitants and his size is reduced considerably. In 756 Pépin the Brief gives to the Pope the temporal power on Rome and the futures Papal States. The city becomes a site of important pilgrimage and the Rebirth and the time baroque make of it a center of the cultural activity and artistic. Its population reached: 100000 inhabitants with. In 1871, after the Italian unification, Rome becomes the capital of the new kingdom. Benito Mussolini seizes the capacity after the Marche on Rome of 1922. It is one period of fast increase in the population, which, of: 212000 inhabitants in 1871, passes to: 1000000 inhabitants at the beginning of the Second world war, during which the population stagnates and the city undergoes several bombardments. After the war, Rome extends with creation from new districts from suburbs in the years 1950 and 1960, because of industrial growth and of the administrative needs for the capital.
Rome is located in the area of the Latium, in the center of the Italy, the junction of the Aniene and the the Tiber. The downtown area is located at approximately 24 kilometers of the coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea, but the municipal territory extends until this one, in particular on the level of Ostie. Altitude varies from 13 meters to the top of the sea level (on Piazza del Popolo) to 120 meters.
The historical center of Rome is dominated by the seven hills: Palatine Capitole, , Viminal, Quirinal, Esquilin, Caelius and Aventin. The Tiber crosses the city in direction of the South. It includes/understands the Île Tibérine. The ancient city was surrounded by walls: the Mur servien builds in -390, then the Mur of Aurélien, an enclosure built by Aurélien in 270 to protect the districts which had developed apart from the wall servien. This part of Rome covers approximately 4% of the surface of the modern city and is divided of 22 rioni . In spite of its apparent smallness, the old center includes/understands approximately 300 hotels, more than 200 palates, 300 churches, eight parks, the principal monuments of the city, the government institutions and of the thousands of stores, offices, bars and restaurants.
The remainder of the city is divided into 35 quartieri urbani which contain the majority of the modern buildings. The whole is surrounded by the Grande Raccordo Anulare (G.R.A), the Roman peripheral. With beyond develops new districts gathering the tertiary sectors, and the new residential districts overflowing largely the peripheral (Torrenova, Acilia), and themselves girdled by the new peripheral of the highway A1 Milan - Naples.
Cité du Vatican
See also: Vatican City
The Vatican City is an off-shore enclave including the Basilique Saint-Pierre, as well as other Roman buildings. It constitutes the State of the city of the the Vatican. The Pèlerinage of Rome is, with those of the Holy Land (Jerusalem in particular) and of Compostelle, one of the three principal Pèlerinage S Christians. One arrives at the city by the Via Francigena; in Rome, the pilgrimage generally includes the four Basilique S major (Saint-Pierre, in the Vatican, Saint-Paul-out-the-Walls, Saint-Jean-of-Lateran and Holy-Marie-Major) and often three other minor basilicas, constituting the " Turn of the seven churches ".
Rome profits from a Mediterranean Climat characteristic of the Mediterranean coasts of Italy.
The specialists consider that Rome was more the big city of the world at the time imperial, cash from 1 to 2 million inhabitants. Today, the city counts of it approximately 2,7 million, and its urban surface about 4 million on: 5352 km ². : 156833 residents of the common are foreign nationalities, which accounts for 6,2% of the total.
Monuments of the city
See also: List of the monuments of ancient Rome
From its very old history, Rome is a Ville very rich in monuments, museums and point of view. It is thus the second city most visited in the world after Paris (with which it is twinned besides) with approximately 12 million annual visitors. The downtown area is classified since 1980 with the World heritage of the humanity of UNESCO.
Rome preserved many ancient monuments, whose Colisée is one of most famous. In this Amphitheater which could accommodate until: 60000 people took place of the combat of gladiators and animals. Built between 70 and 80, it is the work of the emperors Vespasien and Titus. Another example of monumentality, the Circus Maxime, which knew its apogee at the 3rd century: it was then 600 meters long for 200 meters in its greater width, and nearly 250.000 spectators could attend its horse-races.
The district of the Roman Forum and Colisée, heart of the ancient city, is dominated, inter alia, by the Arc of Constantin, is set up in 315 to commemorate the victory of the Emperor Constantin over Maxence, the Arc of Titus, the Arc of Septime Sévère. The imperial Forums, the Capitole and the Museums capitolins, the the Pantheon, the Thermal baths of Dioclétien and Caracalla and the eleven Aqueducts of Rome, the catacombs are as many other famous monuments.
Rebirth and Rome baroque
Rome was a major center of the Renaissance, which deeply marked the city. One can quote the Place of Capitole of Michel-Angel, at the top of the Capitole, which includes/understands the Palazzo Senatorio , seat of the government of the city. The time is also marked by the construction of large residences by the aristocratic families close to the Quirinal, and of palate like the Palazzo Venezia , the Palais Farnèse, the Palazzo Barberini , the Palazzo Chigi (current seat of the Italian government), the Palazzo Spada and the Villa Farnesina . Rome owes with its great places, often decorated Obélisque S, of which most representative and most famous is the Piazza Navona. The Baroque art is also represented by the Fontaine of Trevi of Niccolò Salvi. This artistic effervescence answers the wishes of the popes who call upon the most talented artists of Italy to decorate the city, with a point of organ at the time of the High Rebirth.
The monument in Victor-Emmanuel II, so known under the name of “Furnace bridge of the Fatherland” and called the “Typewriter” by the Romans, is the neo-classic building most known of the city. The Law courts, conceived by Guglielmo Calderini, located on the place Cavour, are an example of eclecticism. It is pejoratively called Palazzaccio by the Romans.
The fascistic architecture appears especially in the district of the EURO, built in second half of the Années 1930. The Expositione Universale di Roma (World Fair of Rome), which was to with it to be held in 1942 gave its name to the district, but it was cancelled because of the Second world war. There to date remains one of principal testimonys of the fascistic architecture inspired by the neoclassicism.
See also: Pilgrimage of Rome, List of the churches of Rome
Rome counts several hundreds of churches and places of worship. The churches of the pilgrimage of Rome are the Basilique Saint-Pierre, with the the Vatican, which contains the tomb of Saint Pierre, the Basilique Saint-Paul-out-the-walls, on the Ostienne way, where the tomb of holy Paul is, the Archibasilique Midsummer's Day of Lateran, cathedral of Rome and the world, the Holy-Marie-Major Basilique, containing a relic of the Crib, the Holy-Cross-in-Jerusalem basilica, which keeps the relics of Passion, the basilica Saint-Laurent-out-the-Walls and the Saint-Sebastien basilica, on the Appienne way, above the catacombs.
See also: List of the bridges of Rome, List of the fountains of Rome
Rome counts several bridges and of many famous fountains, like those of Trévi, Barcaccia and of the Four-Rivers.
Rome is the capital of Italy and is the seat of the President of the Italian Republic, whose official residence is the Palais of Quirinal. Rome also accommodates the Italian Parliament and the whole of the ministries.
The territory of the commune is divided into 19 Municipi .
Rome contains two enclaves: the the Holy See which control the the Vatican and certain buildings of the center of Rome, and the Ordre of Malta, although this last does not have a true territory. Rome thus accommodates foreign embassies and of Italy and the Vatican.
Ostie, Ostia Antica, Acilia, Vitinia, Infernetto, Trigoria, Piana LED Plate, Casal Palocco, Manor house di Leva, Villaggio Prenestino, Castelverde, Corcolle, Storta-Olgiata, Massimina, Valle Santa
Albano Laziale, Anguillara Sabazia, Ardea, Campagnano di Roma, Castel Gandolfo, Manor house San Pietro Romano, Ciampino, Città del Vaticano (SCV), Colonna, Fiumicino, Cast iron Nuova, Formello, Frascati, Gallicano nel Lazio, Grottaferrata, Guidonia Montecelio, Marino, Mentana, Assembles Porzio Catone, Monte Compatri, Monterotondo, Palestrina, Poli, Pomezia, Riano, Sacrofano, San Gregorio da Sassola, Tivoli, Trevignano Romano, Zagarolo
Rome counts many museums, of which: the National museum of Rome, the Museum of Roman civilization, the Etruscan National museum of the villa Giulia, the Museums of Capitole, the Gallery Borghèse, the museum of the Castle Saint-Angel, the national Gallery of Modern art and famous the Museums of the Vatican, visited by million visitors each year.
During the Antiquity, the ancient Roman Religion is the principal religion of Rome. Nevertheless, the city being very cosmopolitan, other worships are represented there, of which the Judaïsme, which is confined thereafter with the Ghetto of Rome under the popes. The Christian religion is established quickly and become to with it in 313 a legal religion, then the official religion of the Empire in 380. The importance of the Christian community in the city and the tradition according to which Saint Pierre and Saint Paul was martyrisés there, makes of Rome the capital of the Christians: the bishop of Rome ends up becoming pope of all Christendom.
These last years the Islamic community grew in importance, major part because of immigration since the North Africa and the countries of the Middle East. Rome accommodates largest Mosquée of Europe, a work of the architect Paolo Portoghesi inaugurated on June 21st, 1995.
Rome is a national center on the level of the higher learning. Its first university, Sapienza, founded in 1303, is largest of Europe and the second of the world on the level of the number of students. Among the other public universities, one can quote Tor Vergata (1982) and Rome III (1992). Rome includes/understands several universities and pontifical institutes placed under the authority of the the Holy See, it acts of the Gregorian pontifical Université, founded in 1551, of the pontifical Université of Saint Thomas d' Aquin, inter alia. Among the private universities are " LUMSA" , the catholic University of the Sacred Heart, " LUISS" , l'" Istituto Europeo di Design", the John Pooch University , l'" Istituto Universitario di Scienze Motorie", the American University off Rome , the " Campus of Malte" , the " S. Pio V University off Rome" and the " Università Bio-Medico" Campus;. One also finds in Rome the " Loyola University Chicago Rome Center" Loyola University Chicago.
Rome accommodates the Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia (founded in 1585), which occurs, inter alia, in recent the Parco della Musica , one of the musical complexes most important of the world. Rome has also its opera, the Teatro dell' Opera di Roma .
The city was the host of the Concours Eurovision of the song 1991 and the MTV Europe Music Awards 2004 .
Rome has its great complex of cinematographic studios, Cinecittà, the capital of the Italian Cinéma, where are turned of films with large budget. Recently, Martin Scorsese chose them to film off Gangs New York . The series Rome of HBO/CBC was turned there.
The principal radio stations are Radio Capital, Radio CNR, Radio DeeJay (center), Radio Dimensions Suono, Radio Dimensions Suono Roma, Radio Globo, Radio Italia, Radio Rock'n'roll, Radical Radio, Radio Radio, Radio Vatican and Radio 24 (center).
Rome was the host city of the Olympic Games of summer of 1960. It is officially candidate to receive the Olympic Games of summer of 2020. In 1998, the city accommodated the third world equestrian Jeux.
Today Rome has a economy dynamic and diversified in technologies and the communications. The service sector is prosperous. It produces 6,7% of national GDP (more than any other city in Italy). Rome annually increases +4,4% and continuous to develop witha higher rate in the remainder of the country. The economic growth of Rome started to exceed that of its rivals, Naples and Milan. But a traditional competition persists with Milan. The Tourisme is inevitably one of key industries of Rome, with its many museums. Rome is also the center of the Italian industry of film, thanks to Cinecittà studios. The head offices, the centers of conference, the stages and the museums international are located in the districts of Rome: Esposizione Universale Roma (EUR); Torrino (of other south of EURO); Magliana; De Medici-Laurentina de Parco and alleged the Tiburtina-valley along the antique via Tiburtina.
According to a study of the real group Knight Frank and of ISIC Private Bank, Rome is it the tenth most expensive city of the world with regard to the prices of the real estate of luxury, (: 12500) euros per square meter.
Rome is served by three airports, whose the two principal ones, the Aéroport Léonard-in-Vinci Rome Fiumicino and the Aéroport of Ciampino, are managed by Aeroporti di Roma. The airport Léonard-of-Vinci, located at the south-west of Rome with Fiumicino, is the main thing of the country. The airport of Ciampino, in the south-east of Rome, is used at the same time by commercial and military transport. As for l'" Aeroporto dell' Urbe" , it is a small airport dedicated to the private flights. In the east of Rome l'" is; Aeroporto di Centocelle" who is used by the Aeronautica militare and is not opened with the public, nevertheless it is currently in reconversion as a public park.
The central station Termini or Roma Termini , located close to the Esquilin, is one of the largest stations of Europe. Opened in 1863, entirely rebuilt between 1939 and 1951, is managed by Grandi Stazioni and is served by Trenitalia. Roma Tiburtina, the second station of the city, is in the course of work to accommodate the trains at high speed. The other important stations are Roma Ostiense, Roma Trastevere, Roma Tuscolana, Roma San Pietro, Roma Nomentana and Roma Casilina and Roma Nomentana.