The Romania (Rumanian România ) is a State located at the south-east of the Europe, member of the European Union and NATO. Having a Latin heritage, this country is surrounded by Slavic countries like the Bulgaria, the Serbia or the Ukraine and by the Hungary. It is bordered by the Black Sea in south-east. In the North-East, a small country also with majority roumanophone, the Republic of Moldavie, does not form any more part of Romania since 1944. Romania, which is the 7th country more populated European Union and 9th by its surface, is also a strategic country for the European Union, considering its close relationships with the countries of the Black Sea.
The creation of Romania dates from the 19th century, its current territory of the 20th century, and results, as in the case of the Italy or the Germany, of the meeting of old medieval principalities: Valachie, Moldavie (1859) and Transylvania (1918). But the Roumanians, who are readily identified with their language Latin E, are considered more readily the heirs to old the Dacie (country of Thraces of the north, conquered by the Roman Emperor Trajan in 109) or to the Roman Empire. Another component of the identity enracine in the Roman Empire of the East known as “Byzantine Empire” which the Roumanians inherited their faith, orthodoxe with 80%. It is however the France Lumières which inspired the creation of modern Romania with its ideals of emancipation and progress. Several less democratic influences marked the country thereafter: that nationalist of the Years 1930 and that communist of the Soviet Union in second half of the 20th century until in 1989.
For the transitional period which led to its adhesion with the European Union on January 1st 2007, Romania became one of combined the United States in the fight against terrorism. For this period of contradictions, the Rumanian company was upset in the policy fields, economic and cultural between traditional currents and modern currents which were sometimes Western inspiration, sometimes coming from the interior, and often a mixture of both. One can in particular notice the appearance of a big number of companies and contractors, who all are not resulting from the Nomenklatura , and even if the majority of these companies are not very competitive with international, the development is visible: flourishing trade, construction explodes (as well as the number of cars), routes transportation improve (even if one can regret the choice of the all-truck driver to the detriment of the rail), the equipment of the households is modernized…
The Rumanian , of Latin syntax, counts approximately Slavic 18% of words come from the languages S neighbors, but 75% of the lexicon are also of origin Latin E. The Roumanians include/understand 80% of the Italian spontaneously (and even more the Napolitain) even without to have learned it, and more than one quarter of the Rumanian population includes/understands and speaks the French. Romania is thus a country Francophone, it accommodated besides XIe Sommet of the Francophonie in 2006.
Etymology of the name
See also: Etymology of the name “Romania”
România , the name of this country, is connected to Rome, old capital of the Roman Empire and with the Byzantine Empire whose official name was Ρωμανία ( Romania ). It is known that the Greeks with the Middle Ages were defined themselves as Ρωμαίοι (Romées) or Ρωμιοί (Romioi) and not Έλληνες (Hellènes, word which did not indicate whereas the ancient Greeks) and even less Βυζαντινοί (Byzantine, word reinvented in 1557). In fact all the inhabitants of the Roman Empire of the East were defined as Ρωμαίοι (Romées), which they were Albanian, Armenian, Aroumains, Greeks or Roumanians. It is after the disappearance of the Byzantine State at the 15th century that the Greeks, always qualified of “Roumis” by the Turks, will indicate themselves like Έλληνες (Hellènes), while Rumanian and Aroumains will be indicated like “Valaques”. The name Român by which the Roumanians were identified, did not indicate with the Middle Ages a nationality, but simply a common origin. The roumanophones were identified by their geographic origin: moldovean (Moldavian), ardelean (Transylvanian), muntean (of Valachie power station), oltean (of Olténie), maramuresean (of Maramures), Banat ean (of Banat) or Dobrogea N (of Dobrogée). They are Emile Ollivier, Elisee Reclus and Edgar Quinet, inventors of the politically correct principle according to which one must designate people by the name that it gives itself, which imposed in the foreign languages the Rumanian term of “” on the place of “Valaques”, “Moldo-Wallachian”, “Moldaviens”, “Vlachs”, “Volokhs”, “Wallachiens” and other “Romounes” become besides fuzzy and sometimes pejorative (see Origine of the Rumanian people).
See also: History of the Roumanians
The populations which will end up constituting the Rumanian have a long story, since the appearance of the first Daces (Thraces of north), conquered by the Roman Empire, whose domination will last 150 years before being withdrawn in the middle of the 3rd century. In the south of the Danube on the other hand, the Roman domination lasted six centuries. The populations latinophones of the Danubian basin and Balkans, prone or of the Roman Empire of the East (in the south of the Danube) or of the “cruel” kingdoms (in the north of the Danube), will not have a State with them before 1186, date of the foundation of the Regnum Valachorum (Kingdom of the Valaques) by the Deleanu dynasties, Caloianu and Asen. Populated for half of Bulgarian, this kingdom located at horse on two banks of the low-Danube lasts only 63 years before being replaced by of Tzarats Bulgarian (in the south of the Danube) and by vassal Rumanian banats of Hungary (in the north of the Danube). The fusion and the independence of the north-Danubian banats give to the 14th century the principalities of Moldavie and Valachie which, after four centuries of autonomy under the Othoman influence, amalgamate in their turn in 1859 to form the Vieux Kingdom of Romania, whose total independence compared to the Ottoman Empire will be recognized in 1878.
The end of the First World War sees the Transylvania (Hungarian since 1867 within the monarchy Austro-Hungarian) joining Romania, followed Bucovine, Bessarabia and of part of the Banat: the Grande Romania replaces the Vieux Kingdom. At the beginning of the Second world war Romania is pro-Allied with its king anglophile Charles II which makes shoot at the fascists from the Garde from iron, judge and carry out their chief Corneliu Zelea Codreanu, and to guarantee the borders of the kingdom by England and France. By the Black Sea, Romania transfers the army and the Polish government in British territory, in Alexandria. Hitler regards it as a hostile power, and obliges it has to return Transylvania to Hungary and Dobrogée to Bulgaria. Romania preserves only half of its territory of 1918. Thereafter, the iron Hitler and Guard reverse the king and replace it by the “Rumanian Pétain”, the marshal Ion Antonescu, who follows the same policy that its French counterpart and is made guilty of the same kind of crimes (he is considered and carried out at the end of the war). At the time the Operation Barbarossa, Ion Antonescu engages Romania at the sides of Germany in June 1941; it is reversed by the king Michel in August 1944, and Romania declares the war with the Axis, engaging: 550000 soldiers against Germany. The March 6th 1945, a communist coup d'etat puts an end to the government resulting from resistance, and the king Michel is forced to abdicate: the communist dictatorship falls down on the country until December 1989, making 2 civil million deaths (official figure) in 45 years. At the end of 1989, the communist president Nicolae Ceauşescu and his wife are shot by a “revolution” handled by old the will nomenklatura with an aim of safeguarding his privileges.
See also: Political of Romania
Historical eventsThe Roumanians had a policy of survival in margin of the interests of the great empires (Roman, Byzantine, Mongolian, Othoman, Austro-Hungarian) and the USSR.
The Communists arrived at the capacity in 1945, whereas the country had begun its modernization under the various liberal governments. Like consequence of resistance to collectivization of the grounds, but also in the mountainous regions, repression was bloody in certain rural regions. Communism in Romania knew three periods, corresponding to three generations of Communists:
“revenge” (on the former middle-class democratic society, but also on Fascism), violent phase of terror, of massive arrests, where the minorities of the country were majority with the Party;
- “standardization”, phase of development of the will nomenklatura , where the opportunist resulting ones from the rural orthodoxe majority make career, marginalizes the comrades resulting from the minorities (of which much leaves the country) and carries the Party to three million members;
- the “national-Communism” which results in a stressing of popular misery, a refusal of the Perestroïka and a cut between the “conservatives” of the mode and the “reformers”, who aspire to finish some with Communism and rest on Gorbatchev and France to reverse Ceauşescu in 1989. After which, “conservatives” and “reformers” make block within the FSN again (Front of national hello) and keep the capacity until in 1996.
The elections of 1996 swept the will nomenklatura political power (but not of the economic capacity), with the profit of a coalition of the democratic parties (CDR or Rumanian democratic Convention and USD, social democrat Union). The president Emil Constantinescu was then the first Rumanian president to officially condemn the crimes committed by the mode of Antonescu against the Jews. The FSN, renamed PSD (Left social democrat), returns to the capacity in 2000, but undergoes a new defeat in 2004 vis-a-vis Alliance D.A. (primarily made up of the successors of CDR, the Democratic party and the liberal national Party).
In December 2006, a few days after the ceremony of entry in the European Union, the president Traian Basescu was the first Rumanian president to officially condemn the crimes committed by the Communist regime.
Internal policyThe president Traian Băsescu of the democratic party was elected president in 2004 vis-a-vis the socialist candidate Adrian Năstase. At the Parliament, the Alliance D.A. ( O.U.I. Rumanian - Dreptate Adevăr meaning Droitesse/Justice Truth) between the Democratic party and the Parti national liberal could be maintained in place with the goal posted to make adhere Romania to the European Union.
Since the summer 2006, confrontations between Călin Popescu Tăriceanu, first liberal minister, and the president ended in April 2007 to the bursting of alliance, when the Prime Minister excluded from the government the Democratic party. According to him, alliance could not function any more “because of the democrats” and a “president who made pass his personal political interests in front of the interests of the Roumanians.”
April 3rd, 2007, the Parliament voted urgently, with 302 votes for and 27 votes against, a minority government accounting for 22% of the members of Parliament and formed between the liberals and the representatives of the Hungarian minority. The social democrat Left, in the opposition, supported this government for one limited time and only in order to allow the exit of the political crisis. The Parti large Romania announced to vote against because of the presence of Hungarian alliance in the new government. The short-term loser is the Democratic party, which should enter in opposition and which since 2006 fact call to the anticipated elections.
In parallel, the Parliament launched an impeachment of president Băsescu for violation of the Constitution. April 20th, the Parliament voted the suspension of the president, who is confirmed by the Constitutional court. At the time of the Referendum of May 19th, 2007, the Roumanians choose to 75% to maintain Băcescu in its functions.
Policy relating to NATOThe will nomenklatura always maintained good relationships with all the states of the Tiers-monde, including with those which the the United States classify like “State-hooligans”. The successive governments of Romania did not have any reason to change policy, but the concern caused by the Russian and Ukrainian imperialism at sea Noire pushed Romania to join NATO in 2004.
The interests of Romania are not always the same ones as those of the historical partners like the France and this implication in Iraq had made react France. According to the president Traian Basescu, “the democracy cannot be protected without NATO and the EU” and alliance with the United States do not call into question European engagement of Romania. He as declared as NATO would remain, after the adhesion of the country to the EU, the principal means of maintaining the safety of the country.
Policy in the European UnionRomania is the first east and Central European country which established relationships to the European Community, since 1974. After its adhesion with the European Union the 2007, at the same time as the Bulgaria, the majority of its members of Parliament joined the group of the European Libéraux (which see their number thus increasing by 17%) and the parties of center-droite; a less number joined the socialist group, and some, the European extreme-right-hand side which thus could be constituted in group. The majority of these euro-deputies, whatever their current engagement, have a communist past.
According to the Rumanian president, the extension and the deepening of the EU can proceed simultaneously, and Romania will very strongly support the partnerships with the République of Moldavie and with the States of the Balkans of the West (Albania, country of ex-Yugoslavia). Romania will give free visas for the citizens of Republic of Moldavie and for those of the Serbia.
The Prime Minister Italy N Romano Prodi and its Rumanian counterpart Calin Popescu-Tariceanu signed the January 16th 2007 with Bucharest a common political declaration. Taking into account the excellent relations between these two countries, they engage so that their governments coordinate the steps within the framework of the European Union, in particular with regard to the constitution and the integration of the countries of the west of the Balkans. This declaration is made whereas the two countries celebrate 10 years since the signature of the common Strategic partnership . Italy is the preferred destination of the Roumanians (in front of Spain), approximately: 300000 Roumanians worked in Italy in October 2006, without counting the clandestine workers. Italy is the principal investor in Romania and the largest importer (19,4% of the imports) and exporter (15,6% of exports).
Romania wishes to be in the middle of the energy strategy of the European Union. From now on, of the oil countries like the Kazakhstan and the Azerbaïdjan are near the maritime border of the EU. The Black Sea is seen with Bucharest as a priority which can make it possible to reduce the energy dependence of the European Union, Balkans Western and République of Moldavie with regard to the Russia. So Romania should make it possible the EU to better negotiate the future energy agreement with Russia from which the discussions began in 2006.
Romania proposes to be a regional leader, declared president Traian Basescu during the debate “European Romania, Romania the euro-Atlantic, Romania in the sphere of the international relations” organized by Association George C. Marshall and the presidential Administration.
The first election S to elect the 35 euro-members of Parliament must take place the May 13rd 2007. The Prime Minister Calin Popescu-Tariceanu, who however had supported this date at the beginning, proposes a carryforward of the election. Its political opponent, the president, thinks that it is more possible to delay it considering only the money to organize it was already spent.
See also: Geography of Romania
Romania is in the south-east of the continent of Europe. It covers a surface of: 238391 km ² and have borders (: 2508 km) with the Hungary (443 km), the Serbia (476 km), the Bulgaria (608 km), the Moldavie (450 km) and the Ukraine (531 km), as well as a maritime frontage on the Black Sea (225 km).
Coordinated geographical: 45° 00 ' NR, 25° 00 ' E.
- Total: : 238391 km ²
- Ground: : 231231 km ²
- Sea: : 7160 km ²
Information ecology: Romania is the first country of the world to have signed the Protocole of Kyoto.
the Transylvania (in Rumanian: Transilvania ) made up of:
- the central Transylvania, (in Rumanian: Ardeal ) in south-east;
- the Crisanie (in Rumanian: Crişana ) in the west;
- the Marmatie (in Rumanian: Maramureş ) in north.
the Moldavie (in Rumanian: Moldova ) of which only the western half currently forms part of Romania, between Carpates Eastern and the Republic of Moldavie (which is half is).
the Valachie (in Rumanian: will ţara Româneasca ) made up of:
See also: Subdivisions of Romania
The administrative subdivisions used today are the 41 judeţe ( judeţ , in the singular of Latin judicium , or “judges”) which are detailed in the Leitartikel. Moreover, the capital, Bucharest, account also like autonomous administrative subdivision, but since 1997 it is included in new a judeţ , the Judeţ de Ilfov, while keeping its autonomy. The Roumanians call this subdivision “the Municipe of Bucharest” ( municipiul Bucureşti of Latin municipium ).
See also: Demography of Romania
; Evolution of the population (censuses)
- 1859 -: 8600000 (Valachie and Moldavie without the Bessarabia and the Bucovine)
- 1912 -: 12923600
- 1930 -: 18052896 (Large Romania; 71,9% Roumanians)
- 1948 -: 15872624 (current territory of Romania)
- 1956 -: 17489450
- 1966 -: 19103163
- 1977 -: 21559910
- 1992 -: 22810035
- 2002 -: 21698181
- 2007 -: 22350000 (is. The CIA)
See also: Economy of Romania
The Rumanian currency is the leu (the technical appellative is RON, 1€ = 3,11 RON at July 3rd, 2007). In July 2007, the monthly average wages were of 430€ rough (1402 leu) and of 319€ Net (1040 leu). The minimum wage guaranteed by the law is of 274€ for the executives and 137€ for the other categories. The income tax is of type proportional (also called Impôt atsingle rate) to 16%, and the average amount of the retirements is of approximately 116€ at January 1st, 2007 (except retirements of the farmers).
GDP of Romania (117 billion euros at the end of 2006) depends on the services for 55,2%, industry for 34,7% and agriculture for 10,1% for an quasi-equal population in the three sectors. Economic growth rate was from + 7,7% in 2006 (envisaged to 6,7% in 2007). Inflation in annual rhythm in July 2007 is to 3,80%, the budget deficit envisaged into 2007 of 2,6%% of the GDP and the debt of the State is to 25% of the GDP.
The classification published on September 16th, 2006 by UNCTAD locates Romania at the 24e place (on 141 countries) in comparison with the attractivity for IDE and the national debt represents less than 20% of the GDP. Five companies of Romania have a turnover higher than a billion euros: Petrom (group OMV), Rompetrol, Mittal Steel (old Sidex, group Arcelor - Mittal), Subway Romania (group Subway AG) and Automobile Dacia (group Renault).
After one decade of stagnation and a slow takeoff starting from the end of the Years 1990, the Rumanian economy is in very strong growth since the year 2001 (4 to 8% per annum). The the IMF envisages for 2007 a growth of the GDP of 6,5-7% and 7 billion euros of IDE. The Rumanian economy was declared functional market economy by the European commission in October 2004. Its GDP in purchasing power parity (202 billion dollars) place Romania with the 47e world rank at the end of 2006, the level of the Portuguese, Danish GDP or chilian.
The majority with the capacity set up an economic policy of liberal inspiration , aiming to reduce the number of the government enterprises (still around 30% of the GDP in 2006 according to an estimate of Deutsche Bank), to attract more Investissement S foreigners (7th destination in Europe in 2006 according to Financial Times), to reduce the Fiscalité and the Chômage (5,2% at the end of June 2007 and 1,8% in Bucharest, but with an unemployment rate of young people definitely higher with 21,4% at the end of 2006) to be able to face competition inside the European Union.
The newspaper Le Monde notices that in 2005 and 2006, “Romania attracted 15 billion euros of investment (foreign), more than the 14 billion euros which the country had attracted of 1990 to 2004”.
See also: Development of Romania
Tourist resorts of the Black Sea
The stations of the littoral are spread out over a coastal fringe energy of the south of the town of Constanţa to the Bulgarian border . They profit from a long sunning and a moderated heat, the average being of 25°C in summer. : 250254 tourists attended them in 2006, and the forecasts for 2007 are even more optimistic.
Tourist resorts of mountain
the delta of the Danube The Delta of the Danube is a single place in Europe, declared natural reserve by UNESCO.
It is difficult to speak about Romania, without speaking about the famous count Dracula popularized by the Irish writer Bram Stoker and about tens of works of American cinema industry. Thanks to him, the image of Romania east associated with the myths with the Vampire S and this Dracula, legendary figure associated to the historical character of the prince of Valachie Vlad III Empaleur ( Vlad Ţepeş ), and the medieval city of Sighişoara or the Château of Bran, that this one would have attended, became important tourist destinations, with the detriment of other more authentic richnesses.
Since the end of the Communist regime, the country knows one period of obliteration of its presence on the international sporting scene, perhaps due to its economic difficulties.
See also: Culture of Romania
The Roumanians often describe their country like a “island of Latinity in a Slavic ocean”, with a flat on Hungary which does not form part of the Slavic countries. About 15% of the Rumanian population include/understand and speak the French, partly thanks to the Latin heritage common to both languages, but this language is in clear lose speed especially near young people because of the omnipresence of the English and the quasi-disappearance of the productions in French on television Rumanian. Romania belongs to the International organization of the francophonie.
The Rumanian music is a synthesis of the various cultures which influenced it. In addition to this music, there exists another type of music, the Colinde. In addition to the traditional musics, the Roumanians adopted the style Western (rock'n'roll, hip hop, techno, pop) but also a clean modern style, at the same time very discussed and very popular, especially among the less educated and rural categories, the Manele or music of the type Mani.
Among the Roumanians and other ethnos groups which live in Romania, 87% are orthodoxe, 6% Catholique S and 7% Protesting S. the orthodoxe Church made a return in strength since the fall of Communism, religious holidays are followed with assiduity and more than thousand new churches were built in the country.
Rumanian great names:
- Mihai Eminescu, “national poet” of the Romania and the Republic of Moldavie;
- Georges Enesco, type-setter, violonist, leader and pianist;
- Lucian Blaga, writer and philosopher;
- Mircea Eliade, writer, essay writer and historian of the religions.
- Sergiù Celibidache, leader and phenomenologist of the music
- Emil Cioran, writer and philosopher - known under the name Emile Michel Cioran in France;
- Eugen Ionescu, playwright - known under the name Eugene Ionesco in France.
CodesRomania has as codes:
- CV, according to List of prefixes ICAO of registration of the aircraft, now uncommon code,
- RO, according to the international Code list of the number plates,
- RO, according to the standard ISO 3166-1 (code list country), code alpha-2,
- RO, according to the Code list countries used by NATO, code alpha-2,
- ROMANIAN, according to the Code list country of the CIO,
- ROU, according to the standard ISO 3166-1 (code list country), code alpha-3,
- ROU, according to the Code list countries used by NATO, code alpha-3,
official Gate of the Rumanian government
- official Gate of the president of Romania
- official Gate of the Senate
- official Gate of the House of Commons
- official Gate of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs
- official Gate of the ministry for Tourism
- Card country with statistics and charts
- Jurispedia/Le Rumanian right
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