A roleplay (abbreviation: JdR ) or roleplay on table (because it is often practiced around this piece of furniture) or ludic roleplay (sometimes used by certain forumeurs of the Net and other rolists to differentiate it from the psychological roleplays) is a Board game in which several participants create or live together a history by the means of Dialog S, each one incarnating a character. The support of the imaginary is very important and the dice, of paper and the pencils constitute the main part of the accessories necessary to play. The players are called rolists (Néologisme created in the Années 1990) for the Interprétation of the role which they make of their character.
The roleplays are distinguished from the other board games because there is generally neither gaining nor loser. They are an interactive form of Conte, based on social relations and collaboratives rather than on the competition. The end of a part does not indicate one inevitably gaining single. The goal of the play is simply the pleasure which one tests to take part in a history, to interpret a role and to make evolve/move its character for the rejouer in a future part.
The roleplays join together a Meneur play - called also main of play (MJ) - and one to six or eight players. With beyond: it is reasonable to separate the table in two groups… The frequency of the meetings of play is very variable (days, weeks, month…), these last generally lasting several hours following the desire and the availability of the participants. The tradition play-with-rôliste wants that a good part of play measures herself into four to eight hours, even twelve hours and more, decorated pauses, of course. All depends on the length of the aspect simulationist of the rules and/or the capacity of the players to be returned in environment. A good meeting of play can reveal a level of satisfaction reached by its players (e.g.: to finish a combat, to reveal an intrigue, to neutralize the " méchant" …) A bad meeting or incomplete can end in another next meeting.
Everyone (or almost) in the life already made roleplay, at least in its form known as “primary”: in fact, the children in the schoolyard who challenge kind - “One would say that you are the nice one and me the malicious one! ” - makes what one could call a simple form of the roleplay.
One can describe the roleplay like a virtual reality without computer. But one can almost compare it with a history told with the corner of fire if each participant tells his history by it adding to the central screen and if they play without any support (dice…) during the meeting. One can also make the analogy with the theater of improvisation, where a judge gives elements imposed on actors.
Limits and interactions of the roleplay
To gatherThe roleplay gathers a Master of play (shortened in MJ) and several players around the same table, asides being possible between players or the MJ and one or more players. However, for practical reasons (the Master of the play managing the whole of the universe external with the characters), it is necessary that the players are gathered most of the time, which leads so that their characters often act in concert. It is one of the principal limits of the roleplay: the incarnated characters must upon the departure forming a group having shared interests. This limitation can pose problems with the players wishing to interpret strong personalities, which do not have necessarily their place in a group, but that precisely brings an interesting side: the management of the conflicts within the group, being able to balance several manners (death or withdrawal of a character, change from point of view,…).
No limits? A little, much, not… of imaginationThe roleplay wants to be ludic and good child. It may be also that it is immersif to a certain extent. Part of JdR always has a programmed beginning and an end in real-time: one assoit around a table between friends to spend one good moment the time of one evening. The immersion (more or less important, according to the plays and the personality of the players and the leader of play) in the character and the narration of a history takes place between these limits well.
Richness of JdR: interactionsPart of roleplay is thus an interaction between the participants. It is about the collective construction of an imaginary history which proceeds and takes form progressively advance of the part. It is not a question of the construction of an account or of a spectacle, the object of the roleplay is the pleasure of the participants to live in the moment the history in construction.
There exist two kinds of interactions:
- the " roll-play " (literal translation: to launch the dice ) or the méta-play , also called the Rational play : the participants use to them Rationalité of player to cause interesting situations, they implement strategies starting from knowledge that cannot have the interpreted characters (for example: the knowledge of the rules of the game); they will be able to thus act according to what they anticipate of the motivations of the other players and their character; this position implies an analytical distance with the imaginary one.
- the " Roleplay " or the Interpretation of the role, also called theatrical play : the participant concentrates on his imaginary character, endorses the rationality and the emotions of this one; he puts side what he can include/understand as a player to adopt a subjective proximity with the imaginary one.
According to the practices of roleplay, each one of these levels can have importance more or less. Certain rolists stick more to the rational play while seeking for example to make progress the statistics of their characters or to solve a enigma, which can be done by completely excluding interpretation from the role. Contrary, the interpretation of the role can be of for other rolists a considerable importance, the emotions of the character being the only center of interest for the participant. Many rolists constantly articulate the two levels to found a kind of dialog between them. The rational play makes it possible for example to build situations interesting to live in roleplay . Contrary, the roleplay can be used to give depth to the character and to make more convincing successes of the play rational.
A historical polemic: JdR with or without SHistorically, the first orthography was “roleplay” (without S with role), corresponding to the orthography used in psychology. In the middle of the Years 1990, the magazine Dragon started to write “roleplay” (with a S with role). Currently, the two orthographies are used, the orthography without S is majority in the publications, the orthography with a S is especially used by the editor Asmodée (it is besides amusing of reading the orthography without S in version 3 of Donjons and Dragons and of reading the orthography with a S in edition 3.5).
Holding of the S justify that one plays several parts. Grammatically, the change is not pain-killer:
- without S , “role” is the Complément of the name “play”, the role is thus the nature of the play;
- with a S , “role” is the circumstantial Complément of means (as in “Card deck”), the role is thus an accessory of the play as well as the pencils or Des.
In this article, we use the “historical” orthography.
See also: Play with roles.
See also: Lexicon of the roleplay
As of the beginning, the practitioners of the roleplay, the rolists , developed a technical jargon containing Franglais, the first plays being available only in the language of Shakespeare. Certain terms, created by groups of friends in clubs, were spread with the favor of conventions and by the specialized newspapers.
Systems of play
See also: Systems of roleplays
All JdR associate a system or driving of play , charged to translate the ideas of the players into actions of the characters and reciprocally, as well as a universe generally different from the real-world and more or less elaborate.
In practice, the system cannot give an account of the totality of the real-world or imaginary. This radical insufficiency is one of the major causes of the expansion of JdR, each one regulating with its way this difficulty by
- the avoidance,
- the development,
the avoidance : the play assumes a certain focusing on certain aspects, and adapts the universe consequently. It is the most general strategy, which explains why it is rare to find the same system in several plays. The rules are regarded as interpretative, the paramount good sense of the players remaining even if a certain heroic latitude is admitted (allowing for example athletic performances significantly beyond the world records).
the development : the play assumes some incomplétude, and, following the example software package, it lets the players give him truly body. In practice, that is used more for the part world , or a scenario, with load for the players to stick a system of their choice to it. But several systems however were created with a universal idea, in particular the BASIC Role Playing System of RuneQuest, GURPS (General Universal Role Playing System) which fixes only the " rules physiques" inherent in the system thus leaving a total freedom of interpretation on the choice of the universe of the play (medieval, contemporary, anticipation…), or the system of the series Rolemaster and Spacemaster .
fusion : radical solution and sometimes presented in a very elegant way, it consists in making system the universe: there is nothing in the universe but what the system can translate. That makes it possible to the player to assume his nature of player until in the universe of the play. It is generally the solution for the data-processing plays, it is rarer around the table.
Wargame with the roleplayThe beginnings of the modern history of the roleplay merge with the extreme popularity of the Wargame S, the plays of simulation of military battles, the end of the Années 1960. Gary Gygax created in this mobility a new type of wargames related to the publication of the Seigneur of the Rings in 1966 with the the United States. This wargame, called ChainMail, brought into play for the first time of the fantastic creatures and the magic. The innovation which was to allow the passage the roleplay was an optional rule: a section allowed the combat “against one” (what one names now “subtactic scale”); indeed, never before a figurine had not represented a individual, but rather an army or a unit of combat. The player could thus be identified there. The success of this innovation near the players made snowball.
In collaboration with Dave Arneson, regarded as the Co-creator of the roleplay, they published in January 1974 the Dungeons & Dragons , most famous and oldest of the roleplays, proposing to the players to evolve/move in a medieval-fantastic world with the Tolkien by exploring the undergrounds of the disaster Donjon of Blackmoor . They created the concept of roleplay while wanting to make live their soldiers apart from the battle fields.
The thousand artisanal specimens of this first edition found taking quickly. A new edition, improved, was born. Other editors of wargames decided to put themselves at these new handsets, of which some like The Chaosium and Games Designer Workshop will have a durable success.
The topics diversified after being concentrated on the Medieval-fantastic ( Tunnels & Trolls in 1975): initially Metamorphosis Alpha , kind of keep in an immense spaceship which brought only little of innovations, but especially Traveller , first true roleplay of Space operated .
1983: the Ultimate test .
The success of Keeps and Dragons and other roleplays was important: of 1974 with 1982, more than two million and half of specimens of Keeps & Dragons were sold. In 1988, the sales went up to 8 million units for this only play, figures ever reached by the wargames at the origin of the roleplays.
Since, very many plays made their appearance in all the countries. Some approach the majority of the expensive topics to works of fiction such as the Medieval-fantastic , the horror, the Science-fiction, the Cyberpunk. Others are inspired more history or topicality, and some propose strange topics such as the toons , characters of cartoons.
A French exceptionAgainst any waiting, in the Years 1980, the translation of the Call of Cthulhu gains a broad success in France. Whereas it had only little success in the United States. A priori, the explanation is due to the fact that the players are not held with their characters, make an investigation the time of one evening, the whole bathing in the atmosphere of the novels of horror of H.P. Lovecraft. In short, catching on the wrong foot all the pillars like Keeps and Dragons .
In the same way in France, the emergence of the roleplay in the middle of the Années 1980 must much with the magazine Jeux & Stratégie , which published in 1983 into out of the ordinary the roleplay MEGA , sold in kiosk, and with the editor Folio Junior who marketed '' Livres of which '' '' are to YOU the Hero '' with the format pocket (the editor Gallimard took again their edition to date). If they are not roleplays, they nevertheless constitute a good introduction to its principles. The most known series is certainly Solitary Loup. Folio also published, always in pocket format: Grounds of legend and the black Eye which constitute roleplays with whole share. And which has a strong notoriety in France, still to date. Of course, it does not exceed that of D&D, which always had the preference of the public.
In 1991 Vampire is published: the Masquerade, a play more centered on the characters, their personality and their interpretation by the players. This play introduces the concept of “narrative” approach of the play (one is there for a history, therefore more environment, less jets of dice), and is focused more on the sets of interests between opposite factions and less (here still!) over the progression of power of D&D. This concept gains an lively interest and much rolists are diverted D&D to go on plays which they consider more mature. A revolution was moving and much of plays adopted the same step later.
BreathlessnessIn 1993 arrive of other leisures which shake the small world of the roleplays and simulation: the card decks to collect (JCC), the first being Magic: the assembly , a card deck to fantastic topic Medieval . In parallel, the Video game adapted the idea of roleplay (often indicated by the English acronym RPG ), easier of access and leaving the good share to the principle of accumulation of power (points of experiments and objects magic) to the detriment of the play of actor. The arrival of these plays coincided with certain breathlessness of the roleplay which remains difficult to estimate. This is why they have a role of scapegoat. But, that is not also simple to define the causes of this decline: certain rolists turned to them but they also attracted with them of many young people players, of which a part evolved to the roleplays. The phenomenon became such extensive that Wizards off the Coast, the creators of Magic, repurchased TSR, the most important company producing of the roleplays, of which Donjons and Dragons .
The role of the paper mediumAt the beginnings of the roleplay, all the books of JdR were printed in black and white with illustrations semi-amateurs (cf " Chainmail ", " Rolemaster ", etc). Today, the public rolist was acoutumé with the clean models, stitched well and printed in Quadrichromie on glazed paper with the adequate grammage, the whole with Photomontage S of great quality. Factor of decline for one or Progress for the others, the paper medium played its part in the evolution of the roleplay.
Knowing that the profile-type of a rolist is a teenager without Revenu fixes, and with little money, and knowing that the rolists of the the Eighties aged, it is today more difficult to find roleplays cheap (except on the Net). Therefore, the target Marketing of JdR unquestionably evolved with time to an older public, and excluding from the blow the first target: i.e. young people.
The requirement in quality for the books for JdR and a Standard for impression for the editors enlarged exponentially progressively years; the cost of the Imprimerie increased during this time. This also has concourru with the fall of the sales of JdRs vis-a-vis a general public accustomed more and more to works of great quality with Illustration S, recognized images of Artiste S and complex photomontages: the book of JdR became either only one book of the rules, but an object of Collection which proudly owes trôner on the racks of a well provided library: there too, the mania Commercial E of the editors to make JdR either in only one book but to divide it into several supplements did not arrange the whole.
The passage of the format “carton” with a pretty illustration color which contained several booklets of rules in black and white with the passage to the format “delivers” single rules was done gradually in the Eighties, with hard-bound covers, a reinforced booklet, the illustration of the cover of face being always present and representative of a play. This evolution shows a desire of reduction of the costs on behalf of the editors but also of price in the French case where VAT is not the same one for a book that for one limps of play. This change marks also end the one time or a play comprised a booklet for the leader of play and another booklet for the players (even a scenario in supplement); what made it possible to make the economy for the players to buy the supplement which is now classically reserved for them in the form of the “Guide of the Player”, “Perfect handbook of the Player”, etc
The rate/rhythm of Translation or publication of the works is important if not essential in success commcercial or not of a range of a roleplay. One considers that JdR “died” commercially, as from the moment or the editor does not make of it any more the follow-up, i.e. that its rate/rhythm of publication is blown or disappears completely. On a general level, the rolists ignore JdR, even do not buy it if they see “that there is no more commercial follow-up” around. Of or a strategic and commercial reinforcement of the large publishers able to support financially JdR today. And the difficulty for a small house of edition of producing new JdR, and of supporting it financially afterwards over a more or less long period.
Therefore Internet takes an increasingly dominating place in the marketing of JdR. The format pdf, standard of the Web and the impression of current books was essential nowadays. It makes it possible to do without the cost of printing works “to even test” a play before buying it in its form paper. Some plays manage “to live again” by this means thanks to subscriptions of Internaute S (example: Evil spells).
This (ux) which remains (ent)The health of the roleplay really is not improving: there is today a clear regression of this ludic leisure where, now, those which know it or which speak about it more - at least, in its form " vidéoludique " - are players of MMORPG, a system of video games in line which is a world success. However, this system does not have the same possibilities as those offered by the roleplay on table : the phenomenon of immersion is not the same bus not-recluse. The traditional publishers of JdR, they, stop their ranges the ones after the others, or the " put in sommeil" both in the United States, cradle of JdR, in France. Always more than in the past, on a market which was always reduced, these publishers are numerous, but produce less and less; in addition, one attends a rather dynamic development of the productions amateurs, from now on very easily diffusables by Internet. These media now establishing the link between the old ones and the new rolists, as Casus Belli did it at one time, very regretted magazine of JdR. The population rolist being dispersed there really does not exist of means of estimating its size with reliability.
Today, the roleplay on table is a ludic leisure which east can be in the process of disappearance but it undoubtedly marked and influenced its time for multiple reasons. Amongst other things, the exit of film of the Seigneur of the Rings coincides with the apogee of the knowledge of the fantastic kind Médiéval . JdR doubtless contributed to the development of the kind. One feeding the other. In the same way, it is much easier to explain the roleplay with the general public , just by quoting its two most known references: the Lord of the Rings and Keeps and Dragons .
- 1967: Ernest Gary Gygax organizes a convention of plays in its city, Lake Geneva; it is the first Gen Con , which attracts 50 people
- 1968: Gygax, creates the Castle and Crusade Society ( C&C ) of which the goal is to recreate medieval battles with figurines; it writes a named newsletter The Doomsday Book , which will be the base of Chainmail
- 1971: E. Gary Gygax and Jeff Perren create Chainmail , a Medieval-fantastic play of combat with figurines, at Guidon Ranges
- 1973: creation of TSR
- January 1974: first edition of Dungeon & Dragons . Gygax also founds The Strategic Review , the ancestor of Dragon Magazine
- 1975: Ken St Andre written Tunnels & Trolls , medieval-fantastic roleplay, published by Flying Buffalo
- edition of Traveller of Marc Miller at Ranges Desigers' Workshop (GDW), first “true” roleplays of Science fiction ( Space operated )
- edition by Tactical Studies Rules (TSR) of Boot Hill first roleplay treating of the world (Hollywood) westerns
- 1976: TSR publishes Metamorphosis Alpha of James Mr. Ward, a transposition of Dungeons & Dragons in the espace
publication of the first edition of Chivalry & Sorcery at Fantasy Games Unlimited (FGU) by Edward Simbalist and Wilf Backhaus, first historico-medieval roleplay fantastic which makes it possible to leave the traditional framework of the keeps
- 1977: publication of Advanced Dungeon & Dragons (AD&D), advanced rules of Dungeon & Dragons (D&D).
- Publication of the first test of rule with like topic the world of the super heroes Superhero 20044 .
- Publication of the first post-apocalyptic roleplay Aftermath by FGU.
- 1978 : publication of RuneQuest of Greg Stafford, Steve Perrin and Ray Turney by Chaosium (republished in 1985 by Avalon Hill); it is the first fantastic medieval play without class of character.
- 1979 : Creation of the first French shop specialized in the plays of simulation, the Descartes Plays, which will become a store chain.
- April 1980: François Marcela-Froideval and Didier Guiserix creates Casus Belli , the first French newspaper of roleplay, published by Excelsior Publication ( Science and Vie , Jeux and strategy )
- 1980: FGU publishes Space Opera (republished in 1997) by Edward Simbalist, Mark Ratner and Phil McGregor. It is the roleplay of the most general-purpose SF of the moment which makes it possible to play as well in the universe of Star Wars as in that of Fulgurs of E.E. Smith.
- the first play on the topic of published espionage, Secret Top '' is born thanks to TSR.
- Dallas , the first roleplay resulting from a series television éponyme leaves thanks to SPI.
- 1981 : Chaosium publishes off Call Cthulhu , the first contemporary-fantastic roleplay, and the roleplay moreover sold in France after D&D
FGU leaves Bushido , historical roleplay having for backdrop Japan médiéval.
Hero Games publishes to it first succeeded and playable rules treating world of the supermen with Champions . Many competitors will follow.
- 1982 : First rules published on the topic of piracy, Pirate & Plunders , published by Yaquinto Publication, a company having gone bankrupt since.
- 1983 : publication of the Ultimate Test and Legends (with its famous Angoumois Charter), first French roleplays.
- publication of James Bond 007 at Victoria Ranges, first roleplay using a single table of resolution.
- To Challange Tomorow is the first published generic system of rule.
- 1984 : publication of Mega (Roleplay of initiation, out of the ordinary of the magazine Plays and strategy, sold with 60.000 specimens).
- 1985 : publication of Evil spells , the first “best seller” of the French roleplay.
- publication of the first version of the rules of Dream of dragon , another enormous sale of the French roleplay.
- publication of Bitumen , first post-apocalyptic roleplay published on account of author per HOOK, which will create later Siroz Production
- 1986: A review, Chronic of In addition to World (COM), publishes in its first number, in October Trauma , roleplay in the contemporary world.
- Behind Steve Jackson' S GURPS , hides a generic system of play, making it possible to manage any time, any context.
- 1991 : publication of Vampire: the Masquerade , most popular Gothic fantastic roleplay.
- 1996 : creation of the French federation of roleplays (FFJDR).
- 1997 : Repurchase of TSR, the most important company producing of the roleplays of which Keeps and Dragons by Wizards off the Coast , publishing the card deck Magic: the assembly .
- 2006 : Fusion of White Wolf (number 2 of the roleplay paper) and of the developer of video games CPC, especially known for its space MMORPG EVE Online.
Obviously, this history is not an exhaustive chronology (there are hundreds of rules published to date), but wants to be a panorama of first times, and gives an outline of different the " mondes" (context) of play, and the last basic currents which agitate the roleplay.
The success of the ludic roleplays brought the appearance of other forms of leisure from which certain elements of it are derived, in particular:
- Organized in sessions of a few days, on a site supporting environment (old a strong Castle, for example), they privilege the setting in scene and the play of actor. The amateurs of the kind can devote as much or more time to the preparation of their costumes than to the play itself. This form also gave place to evening-investigation.
The Soirée inquires or the Murder party
- the players meet the time of one evening, each one has a card describing its role, its goals. The setting in scene is in general simpler and does not comprise in general a combat. It is " Cluedo life size " to some extent.
The '' killer ''
- At the time of these parts, being able to be held over several days, each player must simulate the assassination of another appointed player in an inoffensive well heard way. Each time a player “assassinates” another player, it recovers its “mission” and must find and “kill” this victim. There exist more elaborate killers, with a scenario.
- These are books whose paragraphs are numbered; at the end of the reading of a paragraph, the reader has the choice between several possibilities (actions of the character), which return in various paragraphs. Thus, the paragraphs are not read in the order of the numbers, and each reader will not read the same paragraphs (since it will not make the same choices). The book can thus generate “several stories” (even if in general there are obliged “points of passage”).
- the reader does not play of role since it does nothing but choose among imposed possibilities, however, the described worlds, the type of adventure and the mechanisms of play approach the roleplays. The universe of the series of book-plays Solitary Loup was adapted besides concerned of role by Mongoose Publishing. French
- , the most active collection in the end of the year 1980 and the beginning of the year 1990 was the Livres of which you are the hero (ED. Folio Junior), with several under-collections of which Solitary Loup forms part. Folio Junior, on his impetus, also published two roleplays, the Grounds of legend in 6 volumes and the black Eye (French translation of the German play Das Schwarze Auge ), some of the scenarios having the same format as the book-play.
- the reader does not play of role since it does nothing but choose among imposed possibilities, however, the described worlds, the type of adventure and the mechanisms of play approach the roleplays. The universe of the series of book-plays Solitary Loup was adapted besides concerned of role by Mongoose Publishing. French
The Video game
They take again certain concepts of the roleplays : The interactivity and the universes developed in the roleplays also gave rise to other products, in particular data-processing, called wrongly roleplays , since the “role” is reduced in fact to the execution of actions already envisaged and only little share to the spirit of improvisation and the play of actor leaves (even if the richness of certain plays makes it possible to give a certain illusion of freedom). However, the possibility of network games (plays multijoueurs) reintroduced this concept of role, since the actions of the other characters are not programmed (they are directed by other players) and that there is a real possibility of dialog.
the Jeu of adventure privileges the scenario, the choices suggested to the player, even if they is often limited compared to a roleplay.
the video game of role , privileges to him the management of the character, his forces and its weaknesses, and fidélise the player by giving him the means of making the character increasingly more powerful.
the Multi-User Dungeon , or MUD : appeared at the beginning of the Years 1980, it is among the first attempts to join together tens, even hundreds of players in the same environment. MUDs are based on the protocol telnet and are accessible to whoever has of a terminal in text mode or an emulator of terminal. The exemption from payment and the accessibility of the code-sources of MUDs made it possible those to quickly develop and evolve/move.
the Online game massively multijouor (or Massive MMORPG for On-line Multiplayer Role-Playing Range ): Appeared at the end of the Years 1990, it is the evolution of the plays on computer, and its adaptation on the fabric. The heritage of MUDs is also with many regards perceptible. Built around persistent universes (the virtual world exists and evolves/moves permanently, independently of the player), it brings back the social dimension which the play on computer had lost, while allowing thousands of players to make coexist their characters.
the teaching roleplay : pedagogs set up this form of play as I lived at the XVIIIe century (CNDP).
The roleplay by correspondence
That they is by mail, email or forum, it rests on the same principle as the traditional play, except that instead of communicating directly, the players, each one in their turn, describe their written actions. The leader of play starts with a text of launching, then awaits the reaction or the action of each character before continuing the history, by taking account of the interventions of each player and according to the result of their actions. In general, only the leader of play carries out the jets of dice which determine the success (or the failure) of these actions. The leader of play in question is not essential with the good progress of the play.
List of roleplays
Black Box : the small last of the magazines devoted to the roleplays. The publication is two-monthly. As its name lets it suppose, it is published by Black Book Editions (publisher of roleplays, in particular Black Pavillon).
- Dragon magazine (now, the title Dragon was taken again in France by a newspaper devoted to martial arts)
- White Dwarf : it is the official body of Games Workshop. To date primarily directed towards the sets of figurines of range GW, one finds there any more no article on the JDR. Those were replaced by councils of paintings, of model making, as well as a significant development of the universes of these plays ( background or fluff ).
- RPG magazine : a semi-monthly magazine created recently by impassioned. It treats at the same time video games, board games, JDR on table…
There exists a great number of Fanzine S published by associations of players.
; Disappeared magazines
- Casus Belli disappeared in 1999 to be begun again a few months later. It will not be published any more after the number of October 2006, but in the month of September 2006 one still does not know if it will be taken again.
- Magnus was not devoted solely to the roleplays “on table,” but also to the other plays which divide the same imaginary base (video games, charts, etc); ceased appearing at the beginning of 2006
- D20 magazine
- Fantasy.rpg (new grinding of Backstab in 2005)
- Chroniques of In addition to-World (COM)
- Radiant Dragon
- Jeux & Stratégie (J&S): treated many types of plays, not only of roleplays, but contributed much to their popularity from his broad audience (initially affiliated with the group Science & life ); it also published the first two versions of Mega in the form of numbers except series
- Information-plays magazine
Editors of roleplays
See also: List of editors of roleplays
There exists a great number of editors of roleplays, of all nationalities.
Works around the roleplays
A certain number of works are inspired of the roleplays, either by taking again universes developed specifically in roleplays, or by putting in scene roleplays in work. These creations are often the fact of people themselves players. There can simply be a common inspiration between works and the universes of play, we will thus limit ourselves here to works having a direct bond with the roleplays.
Band-drawnIn the Cartoon, we already quoted the series Donjon . the Master of play of E. Corbeyran and G. Charlet (ED. Delcourt), puts in scene rolists in an intrigue mixing a sordid revenge and a terrible secrecy of family. The gags of Kroc the bô , character of Casus Belli created by Knight and Ségur, were published at Delcourt. Irremediable the of Casus Belli was also published. The Chroniques of the Black Moon are the setting in drawings of the parts of JdR of François Marcella Froideval, personality typical of French JdR. Other humorous cartoons directly put in scene the rolists during their parts of roleplay. Among the most known, one can quote off the Knights of the Table the Salon of J.R.Blackburn, or the series of comics Dork Tower of John Kovalic. In more diverted way, the Roleplay also inspired the characters of many cartoons as Of Cape and Hooks or Gorn.
LiteratureConcerning the literature, in addition to the novels having directly inspired of the roleplays (like the Lord of the Rings or the Company of the ices ), there is also a great number of novels which were written in conjunction with roleplays, derivative products to some extent. Let us quote Lancedragon ( Dragonlance ) according to the countryside of Donjons & Dragons .
FilmsOne counts on the other hand few films, primarily Donjons & Dragons of Courtney Solomon (2000). In films general practitioners, the most known scene introducing participants in a roleplay takes place at the beginning of the film E.T extraterrestrial the whereas the brother of Elliot and his friends take part in part of what seems to be Donjons & Dragons . One can also quote Quintet of Robert Altman (1979), which, fifteen years before the exit of the play Killer of Steve Jackson Games, a murder party described; even if in film, the goal is really to kill, the engine is well the play contrary with other police intrigues like Ten small negros of Agatha Christie.
SoundtracksA sound saga diffused in MP3 and inspired by their format of the Two minutes of the people of François Pérusse, the Keep of Naheulbeuk, takes again in a humorous way them through parts of roleplay through the adventures of a group of adventurers in the disaster above mentioned keep. The Keep of Naheulbeuk was also adapted as a cartoon. In the same vein, let us quote Reflets of Acid, of which the authors are those of JdR amateur, Reflets of steel.
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