See also: Putnam
Robert David Putnam , born the January 9th 1941 with Rochester, State of New York, is researcher in political sciences and professor at the university of Harvard. It was made famous for its writings on civic engagement, the Civil society and the Authorized capital . Putnam also developed a game theory according to which the international agreements will be negotiated successfully only if they bring also national advantages.
R. Putnam is probably one of the major contributors in the United States and in the world of the concept of authorized capital, in particular by the publication into 1995 of an controversial article “Bowling alone” (developed in 2000 in Bowling Alone. The Collapse and Revival off American Community ). However, it is advisable not to confuse the concept of authorized capital developed by R. Putnam with the concept of authorized capital used by the French sociologist Bourdieu. At this last, the authorized capital corresponds to the " notebook of adresses" who allows to consolidate or improve his social position. At R. Putnam, the authorized capital is in fact synonymous with social link. Indeed, it describes the authorized capital like relating to the " characteristics of the social organization such as the networks, the standards, and the confidence, which facilitate coordination and the co-operation for a benefit mutuel". R. Putnam supports that, since the Années 1960, the United States undergoes a collapse without precedent of its civic life, social, associative and political - is authorized capital, with dramatic consequences. It measures this decline using varied data, in particular the practice of the Bowling: the leagues of bowling knew a massive decline their members whereas, in parallel the number of people playing balls increased enormously.
R. Putnam establishes a distinction between two types of authorized capital: the capital bonding (bonding: formation of emotional ties in English) capital and the capital bridging (which creates bridges). The capital bonding is that which is created by a socialization between similar people: of the same age, of the same race, of the same religion, etc But in order to obtain peaceful companies in a multiethnic country, a second type of authorized capital is necessary. Bridging , it is what one does when one becomes friendly people who do not resemble to us, like the supporters of another football team. For R. Putnam, these two types of authorized capital, bonding and bridging, are reinforced reciprocally.
BiographyR. Putnam obtained its diploma of Swarthmore College in 1963, studied with the Université of Oxford, and obtained its doctorate with the Université of Yale in 1970. He taught with the Université of Michigan until his departure in Harvard in 1979, where he occupied various stations: senior of the Kennedy School. He is public professor in today policy (public policies?).
Its first work in the field of the authorized capital was Making Democracy work: civic traditions in Modern Italy , comparative study of the regional governments in Italy, according to which the success of the democracies depends to a large extent on the horizontal bonds which make the authorized capital.
In 1995, it publishes " Bowling alone: America' S Social Declining Capital" in the Newspaper off Democray . This article, had a broad diffusion and held the attention; R. Putnam was then invited to meet President Bill Clinton. It was however criticized, some affirming that R. Putnam had been unaware of the new organizations and the new shapes of authorized capital. In 2000, it published Bowling alone: The Collapse and Revival off American Community , a book which takes again its thesis, adding to it of new evidence and answering criticisms.
Since, it concentrates its efforts to be made revive the American authorized capital, in particular by the Saguaro Seminar , virtual seminar (http://www.bettertogether.org/) which makes meet academic authors, leaders of the civil society, commentators and politicians where one discusses the strategies to implement for reconnecter the Americans at their communities.
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