Sir Robert Peel (1788-1850) was a British politician, Prime Minister for the the United Kingdom of 1834 to 1835 and 1841 to 1846, which supported the passage of its country to the system of free trade.
Born close to Bury (Lancashire), and wire of Robert Peel, industrialist and member of Parliament it makes his studies with the college of Church Christ of the Université of Oxford. The Peel young person makes his entry in policy at 21 years, conservative candidate, with the House of Commons for the “Rotten borough” (small district which one can control the electorate) Irish Cashel, in the Comté of Tipperary.
With only 24 voters registered in this town of pocket (see rotted Bourgs, it is elected without opposition. Its support for the election, in addition to his/her father, is Arthur Wellesley, future duke of Wellington. Its first speech with Common creates sensation, and is described by the announcer of the House of Commons like “the best first speech since that of William Pitt, the young person”. It enters to the government in 1811 in the capacity as under-secretary of State to the War and the Colonies. Secretary for Ireland of 1812 with 1818, it represses the agitation caused by the Irish catholics. Then, it chairs the committee charged to stabilize British finances after the Napoleonean wars. He is little by little regarded as rising star of the left Tory, and is named in 1822, Minister of Interior Department. He implements a series of important reforms of the British criminal law.
He resigns of the government when Lord Liverpool, struck incapacity in 1827, yields its place to George Canning. Canning, favorable to the catholic emancipation which grants to the roman catholics the political equality, finds in Peel a savage adversary. Canning dies less than four months later, and after a short Goderich cabinet, Peel turns over to the ministry for the interior in the government of its ally of always, the duke of Wellington. It becomes, at this moment, number 2 of the Tory party, behind Wellington itself. The pressures exerted on the new government by lawyers of the catholic emancipation are large and Peel gradually takes conscience of the explosive character of the Irish situation. It makes vote in 1829, the Acte of emancipation. Robert Peel, was firmly opposed since 1815 to the idea of emancipation (it causes in duel Daniel O' Connell, the most savage partisan of the emancipation), which allowed him, in 1817, to easily obtain a seat with the Communes in the “rotten borough” of the university of Oxford. Only, its reversal, obliges it in 1830, to change stronghold, another rotten borough, Westbury.
Under its ministry, in 1829, it proceeds to the reorganization of the metropolitan police force of London, whose members will be then called “bobbies”, of its first name. However, Wellington, opposed to any parliamentary reform, follows a policy reactionary which makes it call “iron duke”. Its refusal of any reform having started social disturbances, it is constrained to resign, in 1830, in favor of the liberals. The following years are extremely agitated, the proximity of the elections and the feeling that sufficient reforms succeeded, leads the king George IV to invite the Tory party in the formation of a new government, in 1834. Wellington declines the offer of the king and Peel is naturally selected like Prime Minister. Whereas it is in Italy, Wellington takes over temporarily the duties during three weeks. This new Tory ministry is a minority government whose existence depends on the liberal good will. Tory are beaten with the general elections of January 1835.
Peel sticks during the six following years to reorganize the Tory party attracting Disraeli and Gladstone in particular there. The Manifeste of Tamworth published by Peel during the countryside for the elections general of 1835 is regarded as the point from which the Tory party became Conservative party. In May 1839, the new monarch, the Reine Victoria proposes in Peel to form a new government. However, vis-a-vis in the majority liberal, Peel necessary another sign of confidence of the queen judges. Lord Melbourne has been a confidant of Victoria for several years, and several of the highest stations in the royal entourage are held by wives and parents of liberal leaders. Peel has the feeling that Victoria is very closely related to the liberal party. He proposes whereas part of this entourage is replaced by close relations of the conservative party, causing the Crise of Bedchamber. Victoria refuses the proposal in spite of the pleadings of the duke of Wellington, and counts on the supports of the liberals. Peel refuses to form a government, and the liberals keep the capacity.
With the elections of July 1841, the conservatives gain the majority and Peel is named Prime Minister of an exclusively preserving government. It makes vote the income tax and the revision of the British banking laws. In 1844, the law on work limits the time of Travail of the children and the women in factory, and fixed of the standards of safety for the machines. Initially opposed to the freedom of the trade and favorable to protectionism, it modifies its position under the influence of Cobden and obtains the abolition of the Corn Laws (laws on cereals), thus opening the way with free trade. This radical cut with the protectionism of the conservatives is started by the terrible Irish famine. This measurement supported by the liberals, not very effective vis-a-vis the humane disaster in Ireland is violently fought by the partisans of Derby and Disraeli, causes a scission within the conservative party and involves the resignation of Peel.
Thereafter, Peel continues to animate an hard core of the defenders of free trade, groups known under the name of Peelites, until being courted in 1849, by the coalition Whig/Radical. It continues to keep to its preserving commitments and refuses the proposal. Nevertheless, there remains influential on several important matters, in particular the promotion of the British free trade with the abrogation of the Laws of navigation. The June 29th 1850, Peel makes a serious fall of horse while going up at the top of the hill of the constitution in London, it dies three days later with old 62 years. Its partisans led by Lord Aberdeen and William Gladstone, after a first coalition in 1852, will end up joining the liberal camp.
- Biography on the site of the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
December 5th 1822 -->
Simple: Robert Peel
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