See also: Paraná
The Fleuve Paraná runs out of the high plateaus Brésil iens towards the Argentine to throw in the Atlantic Ocean. With its Affluent S, it constitutes the hydrographic third network world, after those of the the Amazon and the the Mississippi.
Length of: 4099 km, this river impress as well by the impetuosity of its course higher as by the width of its average and lower Argentinian course. Its width in its mesopotamic part is at the origin of its name. Paraná means " indeed; relative of the mer" in Guarani, giving thereafter its name at the Brazilian State, as with the capital of the Argentinian province of Between Ríos which it crosses.
Of its source to its confluence with the Río Paraguay, it is typically about a river of plate with cascades S and Rapide S by place. Starting from this confluence, it becomes a broad river of plain which curves slowly by feeding collateral arms, pond S and marsh S, and many formant island S.
Cours du river
Río Paraná is formed of the junction of two powerful rivers, the Rio Paranaíba and the Rio Grande in southernmost Brazil. At this place the river must still traverse 2.739 kilometers before reaching the Atlantic (the distances and the kilometers are calculated until Buenos Aires). After this confluence the river runs in direction south-south-west on approximately 619 km before meeting the town of Saltos del Guaira in Paraguay. It was the place where the falls of Sete Quedas were, where Paraná was engulfed in series of seven enormous cascades low height but powerful flow. It was said that this site competed with famous the Chutes of Iguaçu southernmost. But since then, these falls were absorbed by the construction of the Barrage of Itaipu entered in service in 1984.
During the 190 following km, Paraná runs right towards the south and forms a natural border between Paraguay and Brazil, to its confluence with the Rio Iguaçu. It is little before this confluence that the river is barred by the impressive dam Itaipú, which created an immense artificial lake behind him.
After the confluence of Iguaçu, Paraná becomes the natural border between Argentina and Paraguay. The river continues its general walk towards the south on approximately 468 km, before gradually turning towards the west on a new section of 242 km, after which it meets the largest affluent of all its course, the Río Paraguay. But before this confluence, the river passes by one second major hydroelectric realization, the Barrage of Yacyretá, project united between Paraguay and Argentina. The gigantic tank created by the stopping was the source of many problems in this extremely populated zone. It was especially the case of the residents and the poorest tradesmen who lived the low-districts of the city of Encarnación, more the big city of the south of Paraguay, located at the border at this place. After the completion of the project water assembled strongly and flooded broad sections of the low parts of the neighborhood cities.
After its confluence with the Río Paraguay, Paraná again carries out a turning, abrupt this time, towards the south, for an approximate way of 1.240 km through the Argentine, finishing its race by a soft curve towards the east, close to the large city of Rosario, this for a final sector of less than 500 km, before mixing its water with the river Uruguay and thus forming the Río of Plata which constitutes a gigantic mouth in the Atlantic Ocean. In the last part of its Argentinian course, downstream from the town of Set with diamonds, it is divided into various arms and form it Delta of Paraná, a long easily flooded plain which reaches 60 km broad and has a surface of 17.500 km ², is half of that of the Netherlands.
Length of the river
One often provides variable figures for his length, this being due to the inaccuracy of the place of his source, considering which it has two main branches. It is a problem for several large rivers of South America and in particular for the the Amazon. As for this last, it is of rigor to take the source of the branch the longest mother like source of the large river. In fact it is the Rio Grande Brazilian. One will thus retain the 4.099 kilometers length figure for Río Paraná between his source and Buenos Aires, for what it is still necessary to add a few 250 kilometers for the Río of Plata.
From the point of view of navigation one divides the river into four sections.
Subdivisions and affluents
The surface of its basin is estimated at 2.582.672 km ². Without the basin of Río Paraguay, it still has a surface of 1.600.000 km ² roughly.
Its course includes/understands 3 well differentiated sectors:
- high Paraná, since its birth to the Argentinian island of Apipé, i.e. with the foot of the dam Yaciretá (thus in the north of the province of Corrientes). This higher course is redivisé in two under-sectors: high Brazilian Paraná, and high frontier Paraná.
- average Paraná since Apipé to the town of Rosario where it reaches a width of more than 2.000 meters.
- and low Paraná which goes since Rosario to its mouth in Río of Plata.
The two principal branches of its delta are the Paraná of mow Palmas and the Paraná Guazú .
Its principal affluents are inter alia, the rivers Rio Tietê, Rio Paranapanema and Rio Iguaçu, in Brazil, the Río Paraguay in Paraguay and the Río Salado, the Río Corriente and the Río Carcarañá in Argentina.
Brazilian sector of high ParanáThe basin of high Paraná is quasi completely located at Brazil, and extends on areas among densément populated Country. Its surface is of 891.000 km ², that is to say 34,5% or one large third of the total basin of the river.
Shortly after the formation of Paraná by the junction of its two main branches, the river is barred by the Barrage of Ilha Solteira (with the km 2.671 compared to Buenos Aires), then by the Barrage of Jupiá (to the km 2.617), which is to 21 km downstream from the mouth of the Rio Tietê. Two other stoppings follow: Ilha and Oporto dam Primavera (km 2.350) Large (km 2.120). Lastly, the last of the Brazilian stoppings on Paraná, the Dam well-known Itaipu (km 1.950).
In the Brazilian sector of high Paraná, the river receives many affluents, as well of right-hand side as of left.
Among the affluents of left, come from the east, the main thing is the Rio Tietê, become almost entièremant navigable thanks to a true chain of stoppings and locks. Rio Tietê crosses the megalopolis of São Paulo, as well as the state of São Paulo, right through, which gives an idea of its importance for the Brazilian economy. Other flow of left important, the Rio Paranapanema, which has a basin extended in the states of São Paulo and Paraná, and is equipped in its lower course with three power stations related to the dams Capivara, Taquaruçu and Rosana.
Like other affluents of left, one can still quote Rios Ivaí and Piquiri, and especially the Rio Iguaçu with the abundant flow (1700 m ³ /seconde) and celebrates for his falls, undoubtedly most beautiful of planet.
The affluents of right-hand side of high Brazilian Paraná all resulting from the Mato Grosso C Sul are much less important. However Rio Sucuriú, Rio Verde, Rio Pardo, Rio Invinhema and Rio Amambai deserve to be mentioned, more especially as they have each one, in their lower course, therefore communicating with Rio Paraná, an extremely useful navigable section, especially in rain season.
See also: Hidrovia Paraná-Tietê
ModeFor including/understanding the mode of Paraná well, it should be known that the three-quarters of the flow are brought by high Brazilian Paraná.
The essence of the remainder is due to the contributions of Río Paraguay, therefore mode of precipitations of the Pantanal (itself especially Brazilian), wet part of the republic of the Paraguay (i.e. the Eastern half of this country), and Yungas Southerners, Argentinas especially, but so Bolivian.
Argentina contributes rather little to the final flow. Indeed, in addition to the yungas of the North-West from which one comes to speak, the wet areas of the basin likely to bring a notable contribution there are reduced, and are limited to the Western part of what is called the Mésopotamie Argentina and a narrow fringe on Right Bank of the Argentinian course of the river (more or less 210 000 km ² on the whole).
It is thus important to know the mode of precipitations of the three great areas forming the basin of the river, namely:
the basin Brazil IEN of high Paraná (891.000 km ²).
- the basin of Río Paraguay including Yungas argentino-Bolivian Southerners (1.095.000 km ²).
- the basin of Argentinian Paraná which one will subdivide in:
- Eastern Argentinian basin including/understanding the affluents mésopotamiens river in Argentina.
- incidentally the Western Argentinian basin (almost entire in the areas of the south Chaco and the northern part of the Pampa).
Mode of high Brazilian ParanáThe basin of high Paraná is crossed by the tropic of Capricorn the climate of the basin is tropical of mountain to wet north, and sutropical in the south. Almost everywhere precipitations abundant, but are concentrated over the period of summer as it is often the case on the level of the tropic (in particular in Africa, with the Katanga and in Angola). The presence of the sun to the vertical in the sky activates the mode of the rains. With Brasilia, in the northern zone of the basin, one raises more 1 500 mm of mean annual rains (tropical climate of typical mountain).
To that is added on the oriental party of the basin especially, but elsewhere also, an effect of monsoon of summer comparable so that one notes in Africa with the same latitudes, with the Mozambique, in South Africa (province of the KwaZulu-Native ) and with Madagascar, in Australia (on the level of the Queensland) or in Asia on the level of the China, which makes that masses of maritime air fresher and in charge of moisture precipitate towards the west, and are engulfed on the overheated continent, creating turbulences favorable to precipitations. Thus in São Paulo, one raised 1 325 millimetres of average precipitations and with Curitiba, city very close to the Atlantic, 1 614 mm with very a maximum Net of summer. More in the west these precipitations decrease somewhat, quite simply because the masses of air come from the ocean were already lightened on the one hand of their moisture. Finally precipitations are reinforced as always when the masses of air meet rises somewhat notable (it is the same phenomenon as in Europe, on the level of the the Alps, the Massif of the Jura, the the Vosges or the Ardenne for example).
Precipitations thus concentrate, and this is valid for the entirety of the basin, during the summer months, i.e. from October at March. The first times, the desiccated grounds and the abundant vegetation are gorged gradually with water, and a part thus largely infiltrates in the ground conribuant to feed the gigantic subjacent Guarani aquifer. Then, quickly water of the rivers inflates everywhere simultaneously involving the rising of higher Paraná. The rising of the river begins in December, the flow reaching its maximum between March and May, and it can be very important (more 50 000 cubic meters a second in Itaipu and Yacyreta).
Basin of Río Paraguay
Half is basin of the Paraguay has a mode of precipitations extremely similar to that of close Brazilian Paraná, i.e. abundant rains concentrated in summer (period from December to May). On the western half on the other hand further away from the ocean, the rains are done rarer though falling at the same period. The climate becomes increasingly dry north towards the south (reduction in the tropical rains of summer) and of is in west (reduction in the impact of the monsoon of Atlantic summer of origin). It is thus very logically in the south-western part of the basin that one will observe the minimal flow, which corresponds to the areas of the Western Chaco (western of the Paraguay, south of the Bolivian department of Santa Cruz, is province of Salta and west of that of Formosa in Argentine).
In addition, very large majority of the confluent river towards the Pantanal, enormous natural marshy tank where water on standby stagnates to be evacuated by the Río Paraguay towards Paraná. However the bed of Paraguay presents an extremely weak declivity. It was calculated that water put nearly six months to arrive since Cáceres at the Brésil until the course of Paraná. This is why the risings of Paraguay are largely shifted compared to the rain season in the essence of its basin and occur March at September, after the southern summer.
Particular case of precipitations on Yungas of the west of the basin
Yungas are consisted the Eastern slopes of the Andes. Just as for the other areas of the basin of Paraná, precipitations in these places originate in the Atlantic monsoon of summer. The masses of Atlantic air being obliged to climb the first Eastern slopes of the Andean mountains, cool abruptly, which involves the condensation of the remainder (important) of their moisture, so that these areas are entitled to precipitations often very abundant. Those quickly will form two powerful rivers and sometimes devastators, the ríos Bermejo and Pilcomayo. Water of the latter flowing towards the lower course of the Río Paraguay, will be the first to express their rising on the level of the confluence of Paraguay with Parana, and this with short but intense pushes. Río Bermejo is the large specialist in these jolts. Its name means vermilion river and this color comes from the grounds which it tore off in the cordillera. As water mixes badly after the confluences, it happens that he manages to color the right half of Paraná on hundreds of kilometers. One calculated that it is responsible with him only for moist alluvia which one finds in the Río of Plata, vis-a-vis Buenos Aires.
The basin of Argentinian Paraná
It is the least extended area of the three great sectors of the basin of Paraná. It comprises two principal zones of precipitation, determining two types of affluents to the extremely different modes.
Zone mésopotamienne or Eastern
This zone includes/understands the slope paranéen Mésopotamie Argentina, plus a narrow wet band moreover or or less 60 000 km ² bordering western bank of Paraná of north in the south since the " confluence" (usual name of the Paraná-Paraguay confluence) until Río of Plata. In Mésopotamie Argentina, precipitations are abundant all the year, but with a maximum of pronounced summer, following the effect of monsoon of summer already announced, and which extends on the major part of the 2 southern thirds of the continent. The area being located out of the tropics, it has there no more tropical rains of summer (related to the summer solstice - as it is the case in the Brazilian zone of the basin of Paraná). The zone is subdivided in a series of small basins related to small rivers, which have all the same mode: believed of summer with maximum from December in May.
However low surface of the zone (more or less 200 000 km ², including the wet areas of the west of the bed of Paraná) made that these risings extremely marginally influence the mode of the large river.
Western zone or chaquéenne
Let us note that " chaquéen" mean " who refers to Chaco".
In the west of the river, precipitations gradually decrease at the point to become rare little before the Andes cordillera (provinces of Salta, of Santiago del Estero, west of that of the Chaco). One will find there areas with flow exclusively endorrheic, made of potential affluents not reaching the river and which are thus excluded from this article. There is even an important arrheic zone (without river) of some 130 140 km ² (is province of Santiago del Estero, west of that of the Chaco and the North-West of that of Santa Fe). The monsoon of summer already gave what it could give at the time of its passage above the Eastern areas, closer to the Ocean.
However these precipitations exist, about 300 to 700 millimetres of annual average, and as elsewhere concentrate during the summer period (December at March). Their weakness however, related on a strong evaporation and the important infiltrations makes that the risings of summer are marginal and without significance on the mode of the river.
In the south of this zone however, precipitations increase. One enters indeed the area of the Pampa, already near to the Atlantic and thus wetter. It is the case of the lower basin of the Río Carcarañá.
Particular case of Río Salado and CarcarañáThe high basin of Río Salado, is in the Andes and includes/understands the yunga area of Salta. There, as in all the Yungas Southerners, of the torrential rains of summer can occur and transform the river into a powerful river which, flooding all on its passage, street towards Paraná with height it big city of Santa Fe. The scandalous deforestations operated in these superb yungas, throughout the XXe century, worsened the problem. Witness the serious floods from which Santa Fe suffered in April 2003. The river, whose medium flow is currently of 170 m ³ /seconde, passed to a flow of some 4 000 m ³ at the time of this episode.
More in the south, the Río Carcarañá, the tributary last of right-hand side important, has its sources within the Sierras of Córdoba and present of this fact of the characteristics similar to those of the Río Salado, but in more attenuated.
Mode resulting from Paraná
In the lower and average courses of Paraná, the first water to express their action is those of the well sprinkled areas closest, i.e. those of the zones more sprinkled Argentinian area, sutout the Mésopotamie. Water of the river thus starts to go up very early, as of October-November. Then the important floods of High Brazilian Paraná occur, most abundant and fast in addition. This water causes the beginning of the large rising in December. The river widens then gradually in the Argentinian downstream. The rise of the level of bottoms and average Paraná can reach more than seven, even eight meters, and the broad alluvial plain of Argentina covers gradually water between Yacyreta (little upstream the " confluence") and the delta.
In April the level starts to drop and this fall pousuit slowly in May - June. But a serious reinforcement occurs at this time, as of July. It is due on progressive arrival of water of the Río Paraguay which, seen the slowness of the course and the length of the way, spent several months to arrive at the " confluence". At this time Brazilian Paraná (high Paraná) passes by an important low water level, but water of Paraguay is abundant and supports the flow of the large river.
Once finished this rising of Paraguay, the flow of Paraná reaches its minimum of the year, i.e. in August - September.
As it is seen the difference in timing between the arrival of Brazilian water and Paraguayan contributes to regularize its flow. There is only one small two months low water level (August-September) and the minimal flow in the lower course seldom goes down under the 10 000 cubic meters.
Lastly, it is remarkable to note that length and vast Delta of Paraná (close to 15 000 km ², beginning shortly after the town of Paraná) play a very effective part of sponge. Its multiple arms, ponds and marshes absorb the water of raw and restore it very gradually, so that at the end of the course, not very front Buenos Aires, the risings are very little perceptible.
FlowA first remark is essential. One notes a succession of long cycles, alternatively dry and wet, one duration of several decades. For the wet period 1971-2001, the medium flow of Río Paraná was of 18.500 m ³ /sec. The medium flow, all confused periods is about 16.800 m ³ /seconde.
The basin of Plata, formed by Río Paraná and Uruguay, is most abundant of the southern cone of and South America especially Argentine. It forms integral part of the system of load and discharge of gigantic the Aquifère Guarani and, to a lesser extent of the Aquiferous Puelche. The sector of the high Paraná , (on the level of the Dam Yacyretá) brings a flow of more or less 11.800 m ³ /s. A little later the Río Paraguay, which, also, has its sources in Brazil to him (Mato Grosso) a medium flow of 4.300 m ³ /s. It has forces Paraná with an abrupt change of management towards the south and a great quantity of sediments brings to him (come essentially from its affluent the Río Bermejo).
The Río Paraguay, receives on its right-sided the Pilcomayo, which forms the border between the Argentinian province of Formosa and the Paraguay, and brings to him a flow of 167 m ³ /s. Pilcomayo is born in Bolivia and loses part of its water in the crossing of the Gran Chaco because of the ponds and the channels artificial, but especially by infiltration. Río Paraguay receives also the Río Bermejo which brings 400 m ³ /s. more or less to him. this last suffers from the same problems of reduction in flow as Pilcomayo, at the time of the crossing of Chaco, in the sector of its course called Teuco.
After the confluence with Paraguay, Río Paraná, in its sector called average Paraná , runs very peacefully between a high left edge with escarpments to the city of Set with diamonds in the province of Between Ríos, and a low and easily flooded Right Bank. Its flow decreases in this section, passing 16.800 m ³ /s in Paso of Patria in province of Corrientes, just after the confluence of the Paraguay, to only 15.300 m ³ /s with height of the town of Paraná. It feeds by infiltration the famous Aquifère Guarani. Its medium flow thus lost 1.500 cubic meters. With Rosario however, it already recovered 1.000 more or less of them. The precise reasons of this fast recovery are not known.
In this sector, Paraná receives affluent at least often not very abundant right-sided. On the left, let us quote the Río Corriente (which is the emissary of the ponds of Iberá); on the right the Río Salado del Norte, which is born in the province from Salta collecting water from a series from valleys from the Subandines Sierras, but brings only 176 m ³ /seconde on average to the large river (given collected of 1970 to 2002).
From Set with diamonds, the lower Paraná , is subdivided in several arms (Delta). Most important of them are:
- Paraná Pavón, which after having received on its left the Río Gualeguay, becomes Río Ibicuy.
- Paraná Guazú
- and Paraná of mow Palmas, which is the principal arm.
In this sector, Paraná receives inter alia like affluents, the Río Carcarañá, born from the junction of the Río Tercero or Ctalamochita and Río Cuarto or Chocancharava, which drain partially water of the southern zone of the sierras of Córdoba. Paraná also recovers at the time of this course part of the water lost by infiltration in its middle price, so that on the whole, with its mouth in the Río of Plata, it reaches a medium flow of 16.800 m ³ /s.
Believed historicalThe greatest risings of Río Paraná were the following ones:
Source: Entidad Binacional Yacyretá (EBY)
IchtyofauneWater of the river is extremely rich as well in flora as in fauna. One counts for Argentinian Paraná more than one hundred of fish species, of which much edible and certain is very appreciated gastronomes. There exists in Argentina an important fishing industry in Paraná (in particular in Victoria, opposite Rosario).
The creole eel of Paraná (or Symbranchus marmoratus or pirá mboí ) is a typical fish which has nothing to do with its European or North-American colleagues.
The Bagre S are fish cats of the kinds Pimelodus and Rhamdia , all fish of the family of the Pimelodidae . There is not less than 20 species. The majority have the dorsal fins and pectoral equipped with pointed and poisonous spines. Their flesh is delicious.
It is the same for two other species of fish cat of very big size and very required: the Surubí or pseudoplatystoma and the Manguruyú or paulicea huetkeni . Both are famous. They are called the kings of Paraná. The manguruyú can weigh more than 120 kilos.
The lines of rivers belong to the kind Paratrygon of the dasyatidés . There are 4 species. They are equipped with toxic spines on the back of the tail, which causes rebellious ulcers of the skin.
The sábalo or curimata ( prochylodus lineatus ) spends its time filtering the mud of the bottom of the rivers of the basin of Paraná. It has a protractile mouth and a made toothless palate perfectly adapted to its activity of suction. He also is very appreciated for the quality of his flesh, but its fishing is prohibited, because it is about a species in danger. It can reach a weight of more than five kilos.
The dorado or pirayú is mets famous in all the area. Equipped with a decorated enormous mouth of conical teeth, it is a frightening predator for the sábalo of which it made its favorite menu, but it is also caught some with other species. Poisson celebrates in the area, it is the subject of an important sporting fishing. He can reach more than one meter of length and 25 kilos. It was called Tigre of the river , his true name being Salminus brasiliensis or maxillosus .
The pacú or piaractus mesopotamicus , also called pez chato , mbirarí or piraí , is typical of Paranà. It reaches 45 centimetres length and a weight of twenty kilos.
The boga is a fish which reaches 10 kilos and lives in the top and average Paraná, in deep water zones.
The will tararira is a voracious hunter reaching 3 to 4 kilos and taking refuge in winter in deep water. It has teeth on the palate and approaches bank to devour small fish. Its mandible acts like a clipper.
Are present also, but making the object of no fishing, the Piranha S or pirañas, of the species Serrasalmus marginatus inter alia (called locally palometas ). Migrating Poisson, prisoners between the stoppings of Itaipu and Yacyretá, they proliferate in the section ranging between two reserves, where they pose problem. One finds some in summer until Santa Fe. Another species of piraña that one finds there: the Pygocentrus nattereri, dangerous and attacking the man in period of dry season. He is present as far as Argentina in his higher course and especially in his large affluent, the Río Paraguay.
In the Delta of Paraná, salt water a very important fish species like fresh water, comes to seek refuge and clear during the winter. It is the odontesthes bonariensis or '' pejerrey ''. Its very appreciated flesh, its robustness and its very good economic profitability made that one established it a little everywhere in Argentina and even elsewhere (lake Titicaca with the Peru). In the delta it is the subject of a sporting fishing to the considerable economic consequences.
- Fauna of Paraná (in Spanish)
- Description of the piraña Pygocentrus nattereri (in French)
- migrating Poisson of the basin of High Paraná in Brazil (in English)
Economic use of the river
Let us say initially that the large basin of Paraná, including its " affluent" , the Uruguay gathers nearly one hundred million inhabitants, and two megalopoles, Buenos Aires and São Paulo, and the great majority of the areas " fortes" from this continent. Paraná and its tributaries thus constitute a massive basin which includes an enormous part of the south and center of the South America, i.e., all the Paraguay (of which Paraná constitutes the lung and the window towards the world), by far the most populated half and richest of the Argentine, the very large majority of the southern and south-eastern part of the Brésil (the most industrialized by far), the great south-east of the Bolivia (the most developed area), and the major part of the Uruguay. Paraná is an essential component for the life of the Mercosur, the South American Common Market which grew rich into 2006 by a novel member, the Venezuela.
In this great unit the network of the rivers of the basin of Paraná serves a big number of big cities: Buenos Aires, Asunción, Brasilia, São Paulo and Campinas, Curitiba, Goiânia, Rosario, Montevideo, and well of others still, less important it is true.
Paraná and its large tributaries are also an important source of revenue and of daily livelihood for many fishermen who exploit the abundant resources of the large river and live on his banks. Certain fish species (like the Surubí and the sábalo) important and are commercially exploited for the consumption of mass as well inside as to export.
Most of the course of Paraná is navigable and is used like sees water connecting the continental cities of Argentina and Paraguay to the Ocean. An example: without the possibility of using this water way, the Paraguay could not exist at least like modern state. The river is marked out relatively deep ports serving many cities which border it.
Finally the construction of massive hydroelectric stoppings, whatever criticisms in their connection, had a considerable economic impact. As opposed to what some believe, they did not block circulation in certain places of the river, because they are equipped with locks (except the Barrage of Itaipu but it seems that the problem is being studied), and having been built in sectors of cataracts, they on the contrary improved the conditions of navigation.
Thanks to the stoppings of Yacyretá and Itaipu (and soon undoubtedly of Corpus), small Paraguay, one of the countries most largely underdeveloped continent, succeeded in becoming the first world exporter of electricity.
It is on the higher course of Río Paraná, at the border between the Brésil and the Paraguay which was built in 1974 the largest hydroelectric Barrage of the world of the time, the Barrage of Itaipu (km 1.950 compared to Buenos Aires). By after, began construction from a second gigantic stopping, the Barrage of Yacyretá (km 1.455) located at 182 km in the east of the town of Corrientes.
Projects in Argentina
In project since many years, the Stopping of Corpus (km 1.597), at the argentino-Paraguayan border, an about sixty kilometers upstream of that of Yacyretá. The last meeting concerning the planning of this project took place in March 2006, at the time of a meeting between the presidents Argentinian Nestor Kirchner and Paraguayan Nicanor Duarte.
It is also necessary to announce two Argentinian pharaonic projects dating from the years 1970: two enormous stoppings on average Paraná, the stoppings of Chapetón (km 630-635) and of Patí or Machuca Cué (km 915). Being given the immense ecological repercussions, which were hardly taken into account at the time, but about which one worries more and more today, these projects have little chance to be born.
Below a table taking again the main features of the locks marking out the course of the river, as well as mileage compared to Buenos Aires. The stopping of Corpus was integrated. It is indicated in italic to stress that it is yet only one project, which certainly has many chances to see carried out being given the world energy crisis and Argentina which takes shape. The dam Itaipu does not have a lock, and is not thus currently passable. It divides the basin of Paraná into two separate navigable basins.
The mileage indicated like is always calculated compared to Buenos Aires.
Current conditions of navigation
The access of the oceanic boats to Río Paraná depends on the state of dredging of the principal channels, Miter and Martín García in Río of Plata, as well as arms Paraná of mow Palmas and Paraná Guazú , which has depths of 8,7 and 9,1 meters respectively.
From Buenos Aires the navigation of oceanic boats having a displacement of until 12.000 tons is possible, to the towns of Rosario (km 416) and of Santa Fe (km 580), with depths of 6,3 and 6,1 m respectively. It should be stressed that the depths indicated are minimal depths and refer at least observed.
Since Santa Fe to the confluence with Río Paraguay (km 1.240), the minimal depths are of 3,60 m, which allows the navigation of oceanic ships of small tonnage (1 500 tons).
From the confluence and until Ituzaingó (km 1.455), the navigation of rather important pushed convoys is possible, since the depth reaches 1,80 Mr. on this level.
De Ituzaingó with the dam Itaipu (km 1.950), navigation was formerly less favorable. But the construction of the Dam Yacyretá (km 1.455), having drowned the rapids of Apipe and Carayá, increased the depth to 3 meters to the town of Posadas (km 1.583). From Posadas, navigation profits a 2,40 meters depth, the majority (90%) of time. These conditions are maintained until Ciudad del Este (km 1.932) and Itaipu near.
Currently, the navigation stopped by the stopping, continues beyond on the Brazilian network of the Hidrovia Paraná-Tietê. After the stopping, until the junction of the ríos Paranaiba and Grande (km2 739) and even beyond that, navigation is possible all the year for boats of until 3 m with draft.
See also: Hidrovia Paraná-Tietê
The Hidrovía Paraná-Paraguay is the great inland waterway, in continual improvement these last years, connecting the Brazilian cities of Cáceres and Cuiabá in the state of Mato Grosso to the Río of Plata and the port of Buenos Aires, i.e. with the Atlantic Ocean, and making it possible thus to connect by inland waterway five countries of South America, the four countries of the Mercosur (except the Venezuela of course) and the Bolivia.
See also: Hidrovía Paraná-Paraguay
Principal cities located on its banks
On his banks one meets the following cities:
In BrazilFew cities are located along Paraná, the river never not having been used economically or politically in the history of the country. Directed parallel to the coast, it constituted an obstacle more than another thing in the long story of the lusitano-Brazilian penetration inside the continent. However, some of its affluents border or cross very large cities, the such Rio Tietê which crosses the megalopolis of São Paulo.
Let us quote:
- Very Lagoas in the state of Mato Grosso C Sul;
- President Epitácio and Panorama in the state of São Paulo;
- Guaíra and especially Foz C Iguaçu in the state of Paraná.
Ciudad del Este and Encarnación, two of the three larger cities of the country.
Puerto Iguazú and Posadas in the province of Misiones;
- Barranqueras in the province of Chaco;
- Ituzaingó, Corrientes, Bleated Vista, Goya and Esquina in the province of Corrientes;
- La Paz, Santa Elena, Paraná, Victoria and Set with diamonds, in the province of Between Ríos;
- Reconquista, Santa Fe, Puerto San Martín, Rosario and Villa Constitución in the province of Santa Fe;
- San Nicolás of los Streams, San Pedro, Zárate, Campana and Tiger in the province of Buenos Aires.
Connections through Río Paraná
The Argentinian course of Paraná is crossed by several important bridges and tunnels. Here, while starting with the upstream:
- Bridge San Castling González de Santa Cruz, between Posadas, capital of the Argentinian province of Misiones in and Encarnación, capital of the department Paraguay in Itapúa
- General Bridge Manual Belgrano between Resistencia (capital of the province of Chaco) and Corrientes (capital of the province of Corrientes).
- underwater Tunnel Hernandarias, which runs under the river between Santa Fe (capital of the province of Santa Fe) and Paraná (capital of Between Ríos).
- Bridge Rosario-Victoria between Rosario, province of Santa Fe, and Victoria, province among Ríos.
- Bridge Zárate-Brazo Largo between the town of Zárate, province of Buenos Aires and Brazo Largo, in the Between Ríos.
Moreover one bridge between Reconquista, in province of Santa Fe and Goya, in province of Corrientes is being studied.
Also since 1998, within the framework of the IIRSA, the joint studies are carried out by the governments of Uruguay and Argentina for the construction of a giant bridge (more than 40 km length!) between Buenos Aires and Colonia LED Sacramento with the top of the estuary of the Río of Plata (cost estimated in 2004: 800 million US$).
Source: Site of the I.I.R.S.A. concerning the bridge with the top of Río of Plata
Associated chartsExternal bonds allowing to better locate the various Argentinian places cities:
detailed Chart of the province of Between Rios
- detailed Chart of the province of Santa Fe
- Chart of the province of Corrientes with the dam Yacyretá
- detailed Chart of the province of Misiones
- Information and chart of the basin of Paraná (in English)
- Study of the navigable rivers and the works of equipment in the basin of Paraná and of its affluents, including the projects (in Spanish)
- Variability of the modes hydrological of Ríos Paraná and Uruguay (in Spanish)
- Flow and believed in the basin of the río Salado (in Spanish)
- Cuencas Hídricas Superficiales of República Argentina - surface hydrous Basins in Argentinian Republic
- FAO - Summary of the meeting of the work group on the resources pêchières (in Spanish)
- Fauna of Paraná (in Spanish)
- Migratory fishes off the Upper Paraná To rivet basin, Brazil (in English)
- Pirayú or salminus brasiliensis (in Spanish)
- Encyclopedia the Million - Editions Batelière Barn - 1974-75 - volume 14 (pages 178/181, 319/320 and 356/358)
the List of rivers in the world
- the List of the longest rivers
- the film León of Santiago Otheguy which occurs on an island from the river.
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