Richard Milhous Nixon , (1913 - 1994) is the thirty-seventh President of the United States of America. He is elected for two four years mandates in 1969 and 1973 but resigns in 1974. Its presidency is marked by the Guerre of Vietnam but, for its contemporaries, the scandal created by the business of Watergate which will bring its resignation remains probably the major event.
Childhood and education
Richard Milhous Nixon is born the January 9th 1913 with Yorba Linda, California. Its back grandfather was killed during the Bataille of Gettysburg during the Civil war. His/her parents, Francis Nixon and Annah Milhous, are Quaker S practitioners and if his/her father manages the grocer and the station of family gasoline, his/her mother educates it in the spirit Quaker (not alcoholic drinks, not of dances and defense to use swearwords) and wants to make a missionary of it. Wire junior, Richard Nixon will have 4 brothers of which one, Arthur, died at the 7 years age: Harold (1909 - 1933), Donald (1914 - 1987), Arthur (1918 - 1925) and Edward (born in 1930)
Its brilliant secondary studies enable him to obtain a purse offered by the Université Harvard but his/her parents do not have the means of ensuring its maintenance apart from the house. He thus attends Whittier College (a Quaker school) where he finishes second of his promotion, then receives a purse which enables him to make its studies of Droit to the Université Duke in North Carolina.
During the Second world war it engages in the Navy whereas its religion would have enabled him to be exempted. It is used on a ship as supply and finishes the war with the rank of Second in command and the regard of his superiors who regard it as a good officer and a born leader. It is as during its military service in the Navy as he learns how to play Poker and that he quickly becomes an excellent player; the noise runs that it would have gained nearly 10.000 dollars, a considerable sum at that time.
A group of Californian business men (The Committee off 100) requires of him to become candidate for the Room of the Representatives at the end of his military service.
Beginnings of its political career
Nixon climbs the political levels quickly making known itself like a farm anti communist. He is member of the Committee of fight against the carried out anti-patriotic ones (“House Un-American Activities Committee”) and takes part in the lawsuit of Algiers Hiss (defendant to be a communist spy, he was condemned to five years of prison for false witness).
In 1950, Nixon beats the candidate Helen Gahagan with the senatorial elections , by showing it to have sympathies to Communism. It is during this last electoral campaign which a small newspaper gives him a nickname that it will preserve all its life, “Tricky Dick” (Richard the crafty beggar) .
Vice-presidencyNixon is elected vice-president Dwight Eisenhower in 1952. It does not have whereas 39 years.
He is re-elected with the vice-presidency in 1956.
One of the outstanding points of its countryside is the use of the Télévision, an innovation at this time. Richard Nixon is shown to be financed by a black case and it uses television to ensure itself its defense in a speech intended to move the public opinion (Checkers Speech). It is then submerged of supports what makes it possible Eisenhower to keep it on the republican ticket . As a vice-president, Richard Nixon travels in South America and receives praises for her determination, facing the opponents of the foreign politics of the United States.
During its vice-presidency, he takes up with three recoveries the duties of Head of State, when the president Eisenhower falls ill: at the time of the heart attack of Eisenhower of the September 24th 1955, of that of June 1956, and that of November 1957
This famous confrontation sees the two leaders discussing respective merits of the systems capitalist and communist in a model of arranged American kitchen presented to the exposure.
The election of 1960 and after vice presidency
At the time of the presidential election of 1960, he is the principal candidate of the republicans, but he loses accuracy vis-a-vis John F. Kennedy. The majority of the observers agree to say that the crucial factor which made rock the countryside is the first televised debate of the presidential election.
In spite of an incipient beard (the debate taking place in end according to midday), Nixon refused that it is made up, moreover, it sick and was tired by many displacements of countryside. He hoped to gain voices thanks to his knowledge in foreign politics, but the Americans saw only one man badly at ease, perspiring much and carrying a gray costume which merged with the decoration. Moreover the surveys showed that the listeners who had followed the debate to the radio considered that Nixon was the winner whereas the televiewers chose Kennedy.
Tuesday November 6th 1962, it loses a new election: that for the station of Governor of California. In its closing speech, Nixon affirms that it was its “ last press conference ”. During its crossed desert , de Gaulle receives it, gesture which the future US president will not forget.
Presidency 1969-1974Its defeatism does not last. He moves with New York where he becomes an eminent lawyer.
In January 1969, Richard Nixon becomes the 37e president of the United States.
Among the fact outstanding of its presidency, let us note:
- establishment of diplomatic relations with the Popular republic of China (1972), and the improvement of the relations with the Soviet Union. Its Secretary of State Henry Kissinger played an important role in this policy;
- the creation of the agency for environmental protection ( Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)) ;
- the creation of the Agency of fight against drug ( Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA));
- the “vietnamisation” of the War of Vietnam: progressive withdrawal of the American troops of Vietnam by replacing them by South Vietnamese combatants;
- In the framework of the war of Vietnam, the bombardments on the territory of the neutral Kampuchea, then inversion of the mode in place.
- the launching of the construction schedule of the Space shuttle.
During the electoral campaign, as during its presidency, Nixon rests on those which it calls the “silent majority”: preserving America which does not like the Hippie S, the counter-culture and the anti-war. Nixon promises a “ peace with the honor ” in Vietnam thanks to her “ plane secrecy ”. It is known today that there was no secret plan but the stratagem functioned.
The Nixon administration secretly begins a massive bombardment campaign against Kampuchea in March 1969 (code name: “ Finely ”) to destroy what they believed being the general headquarters where would be found many soldiers of the National front of release of Vietnam. The bombardment campaign remains secret only for the American public opinion. The military effectiveness was quasi null, the bombs having just killed of the thousands of Kampuchean peasants. By ordering these bombardments, Nixon realized that it managed from there to extend an already unpopular war while violating the official neutrality of Kampuchea. It also understood that the war was politically and militarily hopeless. The details of these bombardments remained secret even for eminent personages. The not very orthodoxe use of the executive powers at the time of the bombardments of Kampuchea east one of the reasons of the procedure of Impeachment launched against Nixon (this load was finally forgotten).
The July 30th 1969, Nixon makes a visit surprised in the Vietnam of the South where it meets the president Nguyễn Văn Thiệu and the commander-in-chief of the American armed forces. The war finishes during its presidency, but after four years of massive bombardments, tramplings on the ground and by the withdrawal of the troops of the Vietnam of the South.
The November 4th 1970, whereas the Chilean president, Salvador Allende is elected, president Nixon does not send any message of congratulation and its ambassador with Santiago does not attend the ceremony of nomination. Victory of Allende threat to make oil spot in the entire continent. “ It is necessary to crush this wire of p as soon as possible… ” Richard Nixon repeated with whom wanted to hear it well.
The January 5th 1972, Nixon orders the development of the construction schedule of the Space shuttle. This decision was going deeply to modify the manner of exploring and of using space in the decades which followed.
The presidential election of 1972 is the dedication of Richard Nixon. Indeed, with more than 60% of popular votes, it gains 49 of the 50 States against the democrat George McGovern (only the Massachusetts escapes to him).
See the detailed article: Scandal of Watergate
Nixon was implied in the preparation and the dissimulation of the burgling carried out with the seat of the Democratic party, in the building of Watergate. This burgling is one of the scandals implying the committee of re-election of Nixon. In fact the secret recordings of the White House reveal details on its implication in the business. It loses any support after the “massacre of Saturday evening” ( Saturday Night Massacre ) during which it returns Archibald Cox (defender of the public ministry in the business) as those which were expressed against this reference in its own team. The Room of the Representatives lance a procedure of Impeachment against Richard Nixon the May 9th 1974. Threatened of dismissal, he prefers to resign, the August 9th 1974.
End of its life
In her last years, Richard Nixon manages to regild her image, and to gain the respect of the wise people as a on the plan of the foreign affairs.
Nixon written of many works during its political retirement, of which its memories.
He dies the April 22nd 1994 with New York at the 81 years age, following complications of an cerebral vascular accident. He is buried at the sides of his wife (Stalemate Nixon) on his grounds in his birthplace of Yorba Linda, California.
Notable members of the Nixon administration
- Gerald Ford - Vice-president (1973-1974)
- Henry Kissinger - To advise for the national security, then Secretary of State (as from 1973)
- James Schlesinger - Secretary with defense (1973-1974)
- George Shultz - Secretary with the treasure (1972-1974)
- John Mitchell - Attorney General (Minister for justice) (1969-1972)
- Caspar Weinberger - Secretary off Health, Education, and Welfare (1973-1974)
- Richard Helms - Director of the CIA (until 1973)
- J. Edgar Hoover - Directing of FBI (named before Nixon, in station of 1924 to 1972)
Nixon on television, with the cinema and in literature
- Born Again
- The Cayman Triangle
- Forrest Gump
- Hot Shots! Leaves Two
- Secret Honor
- Simpson (where the character of Milhous his first name draws from the second first name of Richard Nixon)
- Nixon in Clouded
- Watchmen (cartoon)
John Luther Adams wrote a Opéra entitled Nixon in Clouded in 1985.
- “You will not have to cut a suit with Nixon any more. ” - with the journalist Richard Berholz in a last press conference following its failure in the elections of California
- “You see: homosexuality, drug and immorality in general - they are the enemies of the strong companies. This is why the Communists and the gauchists push the schmilblick; they try to destroy us. ”
- “I am not a gangster. ” - in its speech following Watergate
- History of the United States
- Nixon, the president cursed by Catherine Durandin, historian.
- Declaration of Richard Nixon on the convertibility of the dollar in 1971 (extracts)
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