Richard Francis Burton
See also: Burton
The Captain Sir Richard Francis Burton , KCMG, born the March 19th 1821 with Torquay, deceased the October 20th 1890 with Trieste, is a scholar and British Polymathe . It was military officer in turn, fencer, exploring, writer and Poète, translator, linguist, orientalist, Master soufi, ethnologist, hypnotizing, diplomatic and impassioned experimenter of the majority of human perversions.
Blazing character, it carried out a romantic life and travelled inlassablement in all the continents. Polyglot extraordinary, it knew 29 languages and 11 dialects and controlling the Arab , was one of the first Westerners to reach Mecque, disguised in pilgrim. He brought back of them in particular sketches and measurements of the Ka' Ba.
During its military career and diplomatic, it initially served in India in quality of Capitaine of the army of the English Compagnie of the Eastern Indies, then briefly during the Crimean War. It directed then the forwarding of the Royal Société of Geography which was to lead to discovered of the Lac Tanganyika in 1858. It was later consul of Great Britain to Fernando Po of 1861 with 1864, Santos of 1865 with 1869, Damas of 1869 with 1871 and finally with Trieste of 1871 until its death which has occurred in 1890.
In addition to its official functions, he was the author of quantity of books and article devoteds to on the most various subjects: voyages, Fencing and Ethnography. One owes him in particular the first not expurgée translation of the Thousand and One Nights and of the Kâmasûtra. Member of the Royal Geographical Society, it was made Chevalier Ordre of Saint-Michel and Saint-Georges in 1886.
Burton was of sound living the object of sharp controversies and could pass as well for a hero as for a scélérat. Many a Biographie S reported its disproportion, of which recent “wretched fellow” of the historian Fawn Brodie.
Youth and education
Burton was born with Torquay, in the Devon (the United Kingdom), with 21:30 the March 19th 1821 (in its autobiography, he claimed to be born in the house of family of Barham House, with Elstree in the Hertfordshire). His/her father was the captain Joseph Netterville Burton, an officer of the British armed of Irish origin . His/her mother, Martha Baker, was the heiress of a fortunate squire of the Hertfordshire. There were two other children in the phratry, a sister, Maria Katherine Elizabeth Burton and a brother, Edward Joseph Burton. He is baptized the September 2nd 1821 in the church of Elstree located at Borehamwood.
Its family went on many journeys during her childhood. In 1825, the family moves with Tours in France then during the years which follow moves between the England, the France and the Italy. Its first education is lavished to him by the many tutors employed by his/her parents. Showing an early gift of the Langue S he quickly learns the French, the Italian and the Latin , like various Dialecte S like the Napolitain. During its youth, rumors say that it had a connection with a young person gipsy, and that it learned with her the rudiments from the language rromani. Some in one makes a possible explanation of the almost supernatural facility with which it was later able to control the Hindî and others related Indian languages, because the language of the gipsies belongs to very the linguistic family. Nevertheless much of the Indian languages which it assimilated is as Indo-European born in their structure as the English, the French or the German . The peregrinations of its youth could have supported the individualism of Burton. Like he says it itself in a poem of Kasidah: “Make as your humanity orders it to you, do not await applause of anybody except yourself”.
Burton enters to the Trinity College of Oxford to the autumn 1840. In spite of its intelligence and its capacities, it alienates soon its professors and his comrades. As of its first half of the year, it would have caused in Duel another student who had made fun of his Moustache. Burton continues to appease its passion of the Langue S by studying the Arab . It passes what remains to him time to study the Fauconnerie and the Escrime. In 1842, it took part in a equestrian obstacle race in violation deliberated on the payment of the college and had then the face to declare with the authorities of the college which the students should have the authorization to take part in such races. Following this blow of glare, he hoped to be returned only temporarily, the temporary suspension being the punishment inflicted to the least provocative students, those which had done nothing but attend the race as spectators. Instead of what it was expelled definitively of Trinity College. It is said that by leaving Oxford, it had a gesture of ultimate challenge for the medium that it had come from there to scorn while making pass its Cheval and its car on the partères of flower of the college.
Its military career (1842-1853)According to its own good words “with anything else that to be made draw above for six pence per day”, Burton engages in the army of the English Compagnie of the Eastern Indies, on the councils of former already enlisted comrades of college. He hoped to fight on the face of the first anglo-Afghan war, but this conflict was completed before its arrival and he was affected with the 18th indigenous regiment of Infantry of Bombay based with Gujarat under the command of the general Charles James Napier.
Arrived to India it started to usually speaking the Hindustani (which it had learned with London), the Gujarâtî and the Marâthî as well as the Persan and the Arab (of which it had begun the study as an autodidact with Oxford). Its knowledge of the culture hindouist reached a level such as its Hindu professor would have officially authorized it to carry the Janou (the dress of Brahmane). However this is not a certainty because such a distinction would have required to achieve long studies, to practice the fast and to shave the head partly. The interest of Burton (and its active participation) to the cultures and the Religions of India were considered to be strange per many of his/her comrades who showed it “to turn indigenous” and treated it of “white Negro”. Moreover Burton had many special practices which put it in margin other soldiers. Whereas it was in the armed , it maintained a whole menagerie Singe S tamed in the hope to learn their language. One gave him the nickname of “Dick Ruffian” because his “démoniaque ferocity with the combat and because it had can be faced in singular combat more enemies than any other man of his time”.
One entrusted the mission to him of establishing the land survey of the Sindh, and it was for him the occasion to learn how to make use of the measuring instruments which would be later useful for him in its exploring trade of . It is at that time that it took the practice to travel disguised. Under the name of Mirza Abdullah it often misled people of the country and its comrades officers who did not manage to recognize it. It started to work like agent for the account of Napier and although the details of its mission are not known, it is known that it took part in a secret investigation in a famous Lupanar to be attended by English soldiers and where young boys prostituaient. Its interest of always for the sexual practical led it to produce a report/ratio so detailed and realistic that it was to later cause him of the troubles, when later readers of this report/ratio (which one had however ensured to him that there would remain secret) came from there to believe that Burton had taken share itself with some of the activities that he described there.
Gained by the evil of the country, it turns over in Europe in March 1849. In 1850 it writes its first book, Goa and the blue mountain ( Goa and the Blue Mountains ), a guide of the area of Goa. It goes to Boulogne for there vister the school of Escrime and it is there that it meets his future wife Isabel Arundell, a catholic young person of good family.
Travel in Mecque (1851-1853)
Mû by its taste of the adventure, Burton obtains the support of the Royal Geographical Society for an exploration in the Arabic peninsula and the permission of the management committee of the English Compagnie of the Eastern Indies to leave the army. Its seven years spent to India had familiarized it with manners and uses of the Moslem and were a good preparation with its attempt to carry out the Hajj (i.e. the Pèlerinage with the Mecque and in this case with Medine). It is this voyage, undertaken in 1853, which was worth its first celebrity to him. It had planned it whereas it travelled disguised in company of the Moslems of Sindh, and had thoroughly prepared with the test by the study and the practice, going until being made circoncire to reduce the risk to be uncovered.
Burton was not the first European to achieve the Hajj : Ludovico de Verthema had preceded it in 1503, but had had for that to convert with the Islam. The pilgrimage of Burton remains nevertheless most famous and best documented time. It borrowed several disguises of which that of a Pachtoune to give an account of the least bizarery in its speech, but in spite of that it still remained to him to make the demonstration of its comprehension of the ritual most complex Moslems and of its familiarity with the Eastern manners and the label. The tour of Burton until Mecque appeared extremely dangerous and its Caravane was attacked by gangsters (what often arrived in this time). Like he says it itself, although. “neither the Coran nor the Sultan claim the death of the Juifs or of the Chrétiens making intrusion inside the columns delimiting the limits of the sanctuary, nothing could have saved an European detected by the rabble, or whoever would be declared incroyant after the pilgrimage”. Having achieved the pilgrimage, it could carry the title of Hajji and had the right to carry a Turban green Burton reports itself its voyage in “a personal narration of a pilgrimage of Médine to Mecque” ( has Personal Narrative off has Pilgrimage to Al-Medinah and Meccah (1855).
The first explorations (1854-1855)
Returned with the Cairo since Mecque, Burton embarks for the India and joined there its regiment. In March 1854, it is transferred to the political department of the company of the Eastern Indies and goes to Aden on the Arabic peninsula in order to prepare there a new forwarding under the auspices of the Royal Société of geography. It was a question of exploring the interior of the grounds of the Somalia and beyond that, where he hoped to discover the big lakes about which he had intended to speak by the Arab travellers. It is with Aden, in September of this year 1854 qu ' it becomes acquainted with the future captain (then lieutenant) John Hanning Speke which was to be later his/her companion in most famous of its forwardings. Burton made only the first part of its voyage. It sets for goal the city of Harar (in current the Ethiopia), in which no European had never penetrated. Indeed according to an old prophecy the city would start to decline the day or a Christian would arrive inside. This part of forwarding lasted 3 months, although most of this time occurred in the port from Zeilah, where Burton, once more disguised, waited until it is assure him that the road of Harar was sure. Burton not only reached Harar but was also introduced near the emir and remained ten days in the city, officially like its guest, but actually like his prisoner. The return voyage was compromised by the exhaustion of the provisions, and Burton wrote that he would have died of thirst if he had not seen Oiseau X of the Désert indicating the proximity of a water point to him.
After this adventure, it made preparations to set out again towards the interior of the grounds accompanied by lieutenants Speke, G.E. Herne and William Stroyan as well as many African carriers. Before forwarding could raise the camp, it was attacked by members of a Somalia tribe of which the officers estimated the number at two hundreds. During this combat, Stroyan was killed and Speke captured and wounded in eleven places before managing to escape. Burton had as-with him the transpierced face of a Lance whose point penetrated by a cheek and arose by the other. This wound left him a Cicatrice characteristic good visible on the portraits and the photographs. It was obliged to escape with the weapon still driven right through its head. The failure of this forwarding was judged severely by the authorities and survey a two years was carried out to determine Burton up to what point would not have taken the responsibility for the disaster. It ends up leaving bleached any charge but this did not help it in its career. It describes this fatal knack in its book “First steps in East Africa” ( First Footsteps in East Africa ) (1856).
In 1855, Burton joined the army and leaves in the Crimea in the hope to take again active service in the Crimean War. It serves in the Dardanelles within the Beatson' S Horse a body of Bachi-bouzouk S. These local combatants placed under the command of General Beatson, were relaxed due to “mutiny” after they had refused to obey the orders and the name of Burton was mentioned (with its detriment) in the investigation which followed.
The exploration of the Lakes central Africa (1856-1860)
In 1856 the royal Company of geography ( Royal Geographical Society ) financed a new forwarding at the beginning of Zanzibar to explore the “inland sea” whose one knew the existence. This mission was to study the local tribes and to determine which goods could be exported in the area. One hoped as secretly as forwarding would manage to discover the source of the the Nile but this objective had not been explicitly laid down. Only insane, had one says to Burton, would acknowledge that the goal of the voyage was to find the source of the Nile because if this objective were missed it is the whole of the forwarding which would be regarded as a failure. Before gaining Africa, Burton became engaged in secrecy to Isabel Arundell, knowing that its family would never grant the marriage, Burton not being catholic and not having any fortune.
Speke accompanied it again and the June 27th 1857 they left the Eastern coast of Africa while moving towards the west in the search of one or several lakes. It were helped considerably by Sidi Mubarak (still called “Bombay”), a local guide tested and familiarized with the habits and languages of the area. As of its beginning the voyage was disturbed by problems such as the recruitment of reliable carriers, the flights of material and the desertions. Burton and Speke were both reached various tropical diseases. Speke became blind during part of the deaf voyage and of an ear because of an infection which has occurred after having tried to extract a Scarabée from it. Burton as-with was a long time unable for him to go and it had to be carried.
Forwarding arrived at the Lac Tanganyika in February 1858. Burton was petrified of admiration to the sight of this splendid lake, but Speke because of its provisional blindness was unable to distinguish the stretch of water. This point of forwarding, the essence their material of observation had been lost, damaged or stolen and they were in topographic impossibility of establishing the raised of the zone as well as they would have wished it.
At the time of the return voyage, Burton fell again sick and Speke continued explorations without him while moving towards north for finally arriving, the August 3rd 1858, with large the lake Ukéréoué, which he baptized “Nyanza Victoria” (Lake Victoria), of the first name of sovereign reigning of Angeleterre. Not having the material nor of the adequate instruments, Speke did not manage to correctly establish the raised of the area, but it was closely persuaded that it was about the source of the Nile sought so a long time. Burton gave the description of their voyage in one entitled book: “Areas of the Lakes equatorial Africa” ( Lake Areas off Equatorial Africa , 1860). Speke gave on its side its own report in its “Newspaper of discovered source of the Nile” ( The Journal off the Discovery off the Source off the Nile, 1863).
Following their voyage, the health condition of Burton and Speke had been degraded at an extreme point and they regained the England separately. Faithful to its Burton practice had kept very detailed notes, not only concerning topography, but also the languages, manners and until the sexual behaviors of the populations met. It was its last great forwarding, but its geographical and cultural notes were to prove to be invaluable for explorations of its successors Speke, James Augustus Grant, Sir Samuel Baker, David Livingstone and Henry Morton Stanley. In 1863 the forwarding of Speke and Grant left the east coast once again, close to Zanzibar, circumvented western bank of Lake Victoria until the Lac Albert and is concluded by a triumphal return while descending the the Nile. They had however stumbled on a crucial point by losing the trace of the course of the river between Lake Victoria and Albert, which allowed Burton and with others to preserve reserves on the fact that the source of the Nile had was irrefutably identified.
Its conflict with SpekeThe voyage which led to discovered lakes Tanganyika and Victoria by Burton and Speke is often regarded as most famous of explorations of Burton. But this one was followed of a long public argument between the two men, who harmed the reputation of Burton seriously. According to the letters which came from to us it seems that, as of before the departure of their second forwarding, Speke hardly any more trusted Burton and was already in bad terms with him. Several reasons are at the origin of their disagreement. Initially, it is clear that the two men were very different characters, Speke being more in phase with dominant morality victorienne. There was also an important element of professional competition. Cerains biographers suggested that the friends of Speke (in particular Laurence Oliphant) also poked animosity between the two men. Moreover it seems that Speke disputed the position of chief of the forwarding of Burton, by claiming that this function of command was only nominal, Burton having been invalid lasting the essence of the second forwarding. There were moreover problems with the debts of forwarding, always unpaid with their departure of Africa, Speke claiming that only Burton took the responsibility for there. Finally there was the question of the source of the the Nile, whose discovery was undoubtedly for an explorer of this time the supreme reward. It is known now that the Lake Victoria is well the source of the White Nile, but at the time the question was not yet distinct. Speke undertook its forwarding without Burton (this last being then immobilized by various diseases) and it could have only one rudimentary idea of the unsolved area by leaving the question of the sources. Burton and with him many eminent specialists, such Livingstone, very showed skeptics on the assumption according to which the lake was well the true source of the Nile.
Once their forwarding concluded his, the two men achieved each one on their side their return voyage in England, where Speke arrived the first. In spite of an agreement made between them in virtue of which it is together that they were to give their first public conference, Speke made with the Royal Geographical Society a report asserting its discovery, Lake Victoria, as being the source of the Nile. When Burton arrived at London was there to find Speke haloed of glory and its own role reduced to that of simple souffreteux comparse, and to learn that Speke was organizing without him other forwardings in the area of the big lakes.
During following months Speke often tried to tarnish the reputation of Burton, going until claiming that this last had tried to poison it. Burton made on its side of the declarations against alleged discovered source of the Nile by Speke, asserting that taken measurements were too vague to be conclusive. Speke thus organized a second voyage which it made in company Grant, in order to bring the final proof that the Lake Victoria was well the true source of the the Nile. But once again of the problems with the statements and measurements prevented the question of being clarifée in a unanimous way. It is interesting to raise that before this expéditon Speke had made sign in Grant a document mentioning inter alia things: “I give up all my rights to publish… my own report forwarding until it is approved by the Speke captain, of the R.G.S. (Royal Geographical Society)”.
The September 16th 1864 Burton and Speke were to discuss together question in front of British Association for the advance of Science ( British Association for the Advancement off Science ) to the annual meeting of this organized company with Bath. Burton, better speaker and having knowledge wider than those of Speke would have probably dominated its adversary in this debate. But the day before this one, Speke died of an accidental shot during a shooting party which took place in the field close to one of his/her parents. In the absence of direct witness, the noise was spread initially that it was committed suicide and it is the police officer in charge of the investigation which concludes with an accident from hunting. Burton was already in the room of the debate, in waiting of its conference, when the news of the death of Speke came from to him. It if was upset by it that it decided to cancel its intervention.
Its career of diplomat and writer (1861-1890)
In January 1861 Richard Burton marries Isabel Arundell, an young woman resulting from the catholic upper middle classes , which it had met for the first time in 1849 with Boulogne-sur-Mer. The Church wedding is celebrated according to the catholic rite at the time of a peaceful ceremony, but Burton however never converts with this religion. A little later the couple is forced to separate some time at the time when Richard begins officially his career with the British Service from the Foreign affairs as consul with Fernando Po, the current island of Bioko in Guinea Equatoriale. It was not a prestigious nomination there and the climate being famous like extremely unhealthy for the European , Isabel cannot accompany there. Burton will spend most clearly its time to explore the coast of the Western Africa: it will be, with the German botanist Gustav Mann, the first European to climb the top of the Mont Cameroun (4095 m), the culminating point of the West Africa.
The couple is joined together in 1865 when Burton is transferred to Santos with the Brésil. Once on the spot he travels through the central high plateaus of Brazil, and descends by canoe the river Sao Francisco from his source to the falls from Paulo Afonso.
In 1869 it is named consul with Damas, a station cut for him to measure because of its knowledge of the area and its habits. However, Burton is done many enemies during his mandate. It in particular succeeds in putting at back the majority of the Jewish population of the area because of an argument on the conditions of money loan. It was hitherto of use for the British consular authorities to continue those which could not refund their Emprunt S. While putting fine at this Burton practice attracted each other solids inimitiés.
The Burton husbands were magic of their stay in Damas where they bound friendship in particular with famous the adventurous Lady Jane Digby and with Abd El-Kader Al-Jazairi, the chief exiled of the Algerian revolution . However, the area at that time was seriously shaken by disorders which had with the extreme tensions which reigned between Jewish communities , Moslem and Christian. Burton endeavoured to maintain peace and to solve the conflicts, but this attracted sometimes troubles to him. He once told to have escaped with an attack of hundreds of armed riders and meharists sent by Mohammed Rashid Pasha, the governor of Syria. He wrote on this subject: “I never in my life as felt flattered myself as by thinking as it would be necessary to put three hundred men to kill me”. In addition to these mishaps, Burton had been largely made hate and much wished to see him withdrawing such a sensitive station. Finally, the situation was regulated during the year 1871, by its transfer to Trieste which then formed part of the Empire of Austria-Hungary. Burton was not declared really satisfied with this new station, but this last did not require much work of its share and gave him freedom to write and travel.
In 1863 Burton is with Doctor James Hunt the cofounder of the Anthropological Society off London , the anthropological Company of London. According to the proper words of Burton, the principal goal of the company (with tavers publication of the periodical Anthropologia ) was “to provide to the travellers a body which would draw their observations from obscure manuscripts and would print curiosities having milked at the companies and their sexuality”. The February 5th 1886 it was made knight of the Ordre of Saint-Michel and Saint-Georges (KCMG) by the Reine Victoria.
He wrote during this period a certain number of books of voyages, which were not particularly well accommodated. Its contribution the arts persons most known at the time were considered to be dared even pornographic and published under the auspices of the Kama Shastra society . Among these books one can quote off The Kama Sutra Vatsyayana (1883) (more known under the name of Kâmasûtra), The Book off the Thousand Nights and has Night (1885) (the Thousand Night old book and a Night, better known like Thousand and One Nights or Nights of Arabia), The Perfumed Garden off the Shaykh Nefzawi (1886) (the garden scented of the Sheik Nefzawi) and The Supplemental Nights to the Thousand Nights and has Night (the additional nights to Thousand and One Nights, published in sixteen volumes of 1886 with 1898).
It also published during this period The Kasidah , which it had composed on its return of Mecque. This book was regarded as the proof of the membership of Burton to the Soufisme. The poem and the notes and comments of Burton on this one contain worms of significance soufie and seem to be intended for a project of teaching Sufism in occident. The passage of generally quoted Kasidah is the following:
Do what thy manhood bids thee C from nun drank self-service expect applause; /He noblest lives and noblest dies/who makes and keeps his coil-made laws
(Make as your humanity you it ordonne/N' wait applause of anybody except you-même/Il lives and dies with the greatest nobility/That which establishes and follows itself its own laws).
Among his works of interest one can raise “Vikram and the Vampire,” a collection of Hindu tales , ( Vikram and the Vampire , 1870) and “the Book of the sword” a unfinished history of people of sword ( The Book off the Sword , 1884). It translated into 1880 Lusiades , national epopee Portuguese of Luís de Camões, and wrote the following year a Biographie brushing a portrait sympathetic nerve of this Poète Aventurier. The book The Jew, the Gipsy and el Islam ( the Jew, the Gipsy and Islam ) was published in posthumous title in 1898 and violently caused a controversy because of its tone anti-semite and because it lent credit to the existence of ritual human sacrifices which would have been practiced by the Jews. The survey carried out by Burton into this subject had started the hostility of the Jews of Damas (see the article Affaire of Damas). The manuscript of this book contained an appendix discussing the subject more in detail, but which was not finally published on decision of its widow.
Burton died in Trieste, early in the morning of the October 20th 1890, of a heart attack. His Isabel wife managed to convince a priest to manage to him the last Sacrement S, although the late one was not catholic. This caused thereafter an estrangement between the widow and some of the former friends of Burton. Commentators evoked the possibility that the death is in fact which has occurred late in the night of the October 19th and that Burton was already died at the time when the last sacraments were managed to him.
Isabel never recovered from this loss. After the death of her husband, it burned a great number of its papers, including all its diaries and a new translation in the course of the “Jardin scented” which was to have as a title “the Garden of the Scents”. This gesture was generally condemned; for its part she declared herself persuaded to have acted to protect the reputation from her late husband (in fact, she claimed to have received spirit of her husband the instruction to burn the manuscript of the “Garden of the Scents”).
Isabel wrote thereafter a biography with the glory of her husband.
The couple is buried in Mortlake, in the south-west of London and their tomb is remarkable by his shape of tent Bedouin.
The Company of Kama Shastra
Burton always expressed interest for the Sexualité and the erotic literature. But the Law on the publications obscenes ( Obscene Publications Act ) of 1857 had been worth with the editors of the custodial sentences and the continuations carried out by the Company for the suppression of the defect ( Society for the Suppression off Vice ). A manner of circumventing this law was to make circulate the books into private among the members of another Company. It is what brought Burton with Forster Fitzgerald Arbuthnot, to create the Company of Kama Shastra ( the Kama Shastra Society ) in order to print and to put in circulation books which would have differently fallen under the blow from the law.
Among all its books, one of most famous was in 1885 its translation integral in 10 volumes of Book the Thousand Night old and a Night (better known like Thousand and One Nights or the Nights of Arabia in the shortened version of Andrew Lang) to which later was added 6 additional volumes. An edition of thousand specimens was printed by the Company of Kama Shastra on subscription reserved for its members, comprising the guarantee that there would be never impression of a greater quantity of books in this form. The stories collected often had sexual contents and were regarded as concerning Pornographie at the time of their publication. The “final Test” (the Terminal Essay ), in particular was one of the first texts in English language to dare to treat Pédérastie, a practice that Burton considered especially widespread under southernmost latitudes, in a geographical surface which he had baptized the “sotadic zone”. At that time, of the rumors ran already on the sexuality of Burton and were reinforced by this work.
The most known book of Burton is perhaps its translation of the Kâmasûtra. Actually it is not exact that he was the true translator, the original manuscript being written into old Sanskrit, a language which it did not read. But he collaborated on this work with F.A. Arbuthnot and provides the translations of later versions of the manuscript in other languages. The Company of Kama Shashtra printed the book for the first time in 1883 and the version of Burton was continuously republished so far.
Its translation in English of a French edition of the Arab erotic guide “the Garden of the Scents” ( The Perfumed Garden ) appeared in 1886 under the title “the Garden of the Scents of the Sheik Nefzaoui: an Arab handbook of erotology” ( The Perfumed Garden off the Sheik Nefzaoui: In Manual off Arabian Erotology ). With its death, Isabel Burton burned many papers, among which the manuscript of a later version entitled “the Garden of the Scents”, containing the final chapter of dedicated work to the Pédérastie. It is interesting to raise that Burton intended this work to be published after its death in order to improve the incomes of its widow and also as ultimate gesture of challenge against the company victorienne.
Scandals of the life of Richard Burton
Richard Burton was always discussed and there were in the British company those which preferred to leave the part rather than to be likely to be in its presence. In the army sometimes one called it “Dick Rufian” and its lack of respect for the authority and conventions created many enemies to him and was worth to him that and there a reputation of rabble.
Initially, in a company where sexual repression was the standard, the writings of Burton spread out with an unusual frankness its interest for the Sexe and the human Sexualité. Its accounts of voyage often abound in details on the sexual practices of the inhabitants of the zones which it crossed, which could shock the average British. Its curiosity pushed it for example to measure the length of the Pénis men of various regions, and to bring back these measures to its books of voyage. Moreover, its manner of describing the sexual techniques having course in the areas which he visited, often gives to think that he took part in it actively breaking by there at the same time the sexual and racial taboos of his time. Many of its contemporaries considered the Company of Kama Shastra and the books which it published like scandalous.
He was suspected of Homosexualité during most of his life, a particularly serious charge since it was about an criminal act in the England of the time. The biographers are in disagreement on the fact that Burton ever had homosexual relations (itself never recognized it explicitly in its writings). These allegations had begun in the army at the time of the secret investigation carried out at the request of Napier in a closed house male attended by the British soldiers. Some could see in the precision of the details of the report drawn up by Burton an indication that he attended to him even the establishment. Its later writings about the Pederasty and the fact that its couple is remained without children still fed the speculations.
Burton was large a drinker in various periods of its life and also admitted to have made use as well of Haschisch as of Opium. The friends of Algernon Swinburne condemned Burton to have canted the poet by making it sink in the Alcoolisme and by causing its leaning for the work of the Marquis de Sade.
Burton was also shown to have killed a man on the road of Mecque. It was told that during its voyage it had by accident let appear its quality of European and had killed a witness (a man or a young boy according to the versions) to maintain his secrecy. Though Burton often denied the facts it also had fun to mystify its most credulous listeners, as the two following anecdotes remained testify some famous: a doctor would have one day requested to him: “How do you feel after having killed somebody? ” with what did Burton retort, “Extremely well, and yourself? ”. Questioned by a Prêtre on the same Burton subject would have answered: “Sir, I am proud to announce to you that I have made all the sins of the Decalog”
These charges united with its readily irascible character harmed its career and explain why it never profited from promotions as well in the army as in the diplomatic corps. A death announcement described it as follows: “… it was not made to fold under the official harness and had passion byron ienne to shock people and to tell on itself of the legends in fact stripped of base” According to Ouida, “the men of FO (Foreign Office)… were accustomed to hawking black horrors on Burton and it certain that wrongly or rightly, he was honni, fears and is considered to be suspect… not for what he had made but for what one it believed able to make”
Whatever the truth on the many charges which weighed on him, the centers of interest of Burton and its outspokenness made of him a character discussed during all his life.
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mark: (line, white) At: 1821 text: " 1821: Birth with Torquay, County of Devon, Kingdom-Uni." At: 1840 text: " 1840: It is registered in Trinity College of Oxford." At: 1842 text: " 1842: It is returned from Oxford and engages in the armée." At: 1851 text: " 1851: It recontre Isabel Arundell, its future wife. Publication of its first livre." At: 1853 text: " 1853: It goes in Mecque and Médine disguised in pèlerin." At: 1854 text: " 1854: It meets John Hanning Speke." At: 1855 text: " 1855: Burton and Speke are attaqés and wounded during an exploration with Berbera." At: 1856 text: " 1856: Burton is useful in the army during the Crimean War and becomes engaged to Isabel Arundell." At: 1858 text: " 1858: Burton and Speke explore the Africa Centrale Lakes. They locate the lakes Tanganyika and Victoria." At: 1861 text: " 1861: Marriage with Isabel. Burton is named consul with Fernando Po (Bioko). " At: 1865 text: " 1865: It is named consul with Santos." At: 1869 text: " 1869: It is named consul with Damas." At: 1873 text: " 1873: It is named consul with Trieste." At: 1883 text: " 1883: Translation of Kama Sutra with Forster Fitzgerald Arbuthnot." At: 1884 text: " 1884: Translation of the Nights of Arabia (full version of Thousand and One Nights). " At: 1886 text: " 1886: It is made KCMG (Knight Commander about St Michel and St Georges). " At: 1890 text: " 1890: He dies of an heart attack in Trieste 19 or on October 20th. "
width: 30 fontsize: S textcolor: black from: 1826 till: 1839 color: Gray $right text: " 1826 – 1839: the family of Burton travels through Europe, and remains in France and Italie." from: 1842 till: 1849 color: Gray $right text: " 1842 – 1849: it is useful in the army of Indes."
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Selected works of Richard Francis BurtonThe titles of all its books are given in their original version. The bonds return to the full text on the Projet Gutenberg.
- Goa and the Blue Mountains (1851)
- Scinde gold the Unhappy Valley (1851)
- Sindh and the Races That Inhabit the Valley off the Indus (1851)
- '' Personal Narrative off has Pilgrimage to Al Madinah and Meccah '' (1855) off
- '' First Footsteps in East Africa '' (1856)
- Falconry in the Valley the Indus (1857)
- Lake Regions off Equatorial Africa (1860)
- The City off the Saints, Among the Mormons and Across the Rocky Mountains to California (1861)
- Wanderings in West Africa (1863)
- Abeokuta and the Cameroon Mountains (1863)
- has Mission to Gelele, King off Dahomé (1864)
- Wit and Wisdom From West Africa (1865)
- The Highlands off Brazil (1869)
- Letters From the Battlefields off Paraguay (1870)
- '' Vikram and the Vampire gold Bruise off Hindu Devilry '' (1870)
- Unexplored Syria (1872)
- Zanzibar (1872)
- Ultima Thule (1872)
- ''Two Trips to Gorilla Land and the Cataracts off the Congo '' (1876)
- Etruscan Bologna (1876)
- Sindbar (1877)
- '' The Land off Midian '' (1879)
- The Lusiads (in two volumes 1880)
- The Kasidah off Hadji Abdu El-Yezdi (1880)
- '' To the Gold Coast for Gold '' (1883)
- The Kama Sutra off Vatsyayana (in collaboration with F.F. Arbuthnot, 1883)
- The Book off the Sword (1884)
- The Book off the Thousand Nights and has Night off (in ten volumes, 1885)
- The Perfumed Garden the Shaykh Nefzawi (1886)
- The Supplemental Nights to the Thousand Nights and has Night (in six volumes, 1886-1888)
- The Gypsy, the Jew and El Islam (1898)
- The Sentiment off the Sword: With Country-House (1911) Dialogs
Biographies and other books devoted to BurtonMany were the biographies published of Burton. One will find of it below a selection with other works inspired by Burton. This list stresses recent works or having been of a certain influence. All the works are in English and indicated in their original version.
has Rage to Live: In Biography off Richard & Isabel Burton by Mary S. Lovell (W.W. Norton & Company Inc.: New York 1998).
- Journey to the Source off the Nile by Christopher Ondaatje (HarperCollins Publishers Ltd.: Toronto 1998).
- Sindh Revisited: In Journey in the Footsteps off Captain Sir Richard Francis Burton by Christopher Ondaatje (HarperCollins Publishers Ltd.: Toronto 1996).
- Burton: Snow one the Serves by Frank McLynn (John Murray Publishing 1993).
- Off No Country: Year Anthology off Richard Burton by Frank McLynn (Charles Scribner' S Sounds: New York 1990).
- Captain Sir Richard Francis Burton: Secret The Agent Who Made the Pilgrimage to Makkah, Discovered the Kama Sutra, and Brought the Arabian Nights to the West by Edward Rice (Charles Scribner' S Sounds: New York 1990).
- Burton and Speke by William Harrison (St Martins/Marek & W.H. Allen 1984).
- The Devil Drives: In Life off Sir Richard Burton by Fawn Mr. Brodie (W.W. Norton & Company Inc.: New York 1967). Translated into French under the title: “A wretched fellow” by Fawn McKay Brodie.
- Burton: In Biography off Sir Richard Francis Burton by Byron Farwell (Penguin Books: London 1963).
- Death Rides has Camel by Allen Edwardes (The Julian Press, Inc.: New York 1963).
- '' The Life off Sir Richard Burton '' by Thomas Wright (1905).
- '' The Life off Captain Sir Richard F. Burton KCMG, FRGS '' by Isabel Burton (Chapman and Hall 1893).
The fictitious characterRomans
- Richard Francis Burton is one of the principal characters (with the writer Mark Twain and Alice Liddel-Hargreaves, another outstanding figure of the era victorienne) of the saga of Science-fiction " the River of eternity " ( , 1966-1993) of Philip Jose Farmer, in five volumes.
- George MacDonald Fraser reveals Burton in its series of historical novels Flashman (1969-2005) (where it is generally designated as “this rascal of Dick Burton”).
- John Dunning puts in Burton scene in a Detective novel entitled The Bookman' S Promise (Scribner, 2004).
- Ilija Trojanow wrote Der Weltensammler , a German novel in where Richard Burton appears (Hanser, 2006).
- the series of the novels Area 51 (1997-2004) of Robert Doherty shows Burton discovering a hidden extraterrestrial race. These books comprise passages drawn from the writings of Burton itself.
- the detective novel “moon stone” The Moonstone of Wilkie Hakes (1859) watch a character, Mr. Murthwaite, apparently inspired by Burton. It is “celebrates it Indian traveller, Mr. Murthwaite, who, with the danger of his life, penetrated disguised where no forever put European the foot before” (chapter X).
- the hero of the historical novel of Karen Mercury “Four quarters of the world” ( The Quarters Furnace off the World ) (2006) is inspired by Burton. After having had the transpierced cheek Somaliland, it becomes the right-hand man of the emperor of Abyssinie Tewodros before the fall of its empire.
- Richard Burton appears in the novel Steampunk Larklight of Philip Reeve, where it east depicts as having become on Mars as at his place after having married Martian.
- the film With the sources of the Nile ( Mountains off the Moon , 1990) of Bob Rafelson tale mishaps in Africa of Richard Francis Burton (interpreted by the Irish actor Patrick Bergin) and John Hanning Speke, officer of the British army, to update one of the great mysteries of the time: where the source of the the Nile is. The film is drawn from the novel from William Harrison “Burton and Speke” ( Burton and Speke ) (1984). (IMDb Card).
- Zero Patience (1993) restores Burton within a contemporary framework under the features of homosexual driven back obsessed by the research of the patient zero responsible for the propagation of the AIDS.
- In the televised series The Sentinel (1996-1999) (with Richard Burgi and Garett Maggart) a fictitious monograph allotted to Richard Burton (“the explorer, not the actor”) constitutes weaves it intrigue.
- Search for the Nile , is a mini-series of the BBC of 1971 with Kenneth Haigh in the role of Burton.
indirect Allusions in works of fiction
- In the film Lara Croft: Tomb Raider, the mausoleum of the father of Lara is inspired by that of Burton.
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