The province indonésienne of Riau (to pronounce “riao”) is located in the central part of the east of the island of Sumatra. In 2002, its 3.214 islands and small islands were separate to form the new province of the islands Riau.
The province is crossed by the equator (a third of Riau in the south of the equator, two thirds in north). It is bordered in the west by the province of the Sumatra-Septentrional , in the south by the provinces of the Sumatra-Westerner and Jambi, in the east by the Mer of Java and in north by the Détroit of Malacca. Its capital is Pekanbaru.
The surface of the province is of 329.867 km ², including 94.562 km ² of emerged grounds. Its population was of 5.308.700 inhabitant in 2003, with an average annual growth of 4,31% of 1990 to 2000 (average of Indonesia: 1,9%). The majority of the inhabitants (68%) live in rural area.
Tropical and wet with annual precipitations of 2000 to 3000 Misters the rain season extends from November to April with January like culminating point. During the dry season, the thermometer oscillates of a minimum of 22,2 degrees Celsius to a maximum of 31,9 degrees.
Penetrating water ways
Riau is crossed by four large rivers or rivers:
Siak, 225 km length, depth from 8 to 12 meters;
- Indragiri, 550 km length, more than 360 km naviguables, depth from 6 to 8 meters;
- Kampar, 400 km length, 300 km naviguables, depth 6 meters;
- Rokan, 350 km length, 275 km naviguables, depth 6 to 8 meters.
HistoryOne found vestiges Buddhist in the province, in particular in Muara Takus, which one dates from IXe or Xe centuries. It was not established yet if this site had a relationship with the Buddhist city-State of Sriwijaya, whose site was that of current the Palembang in the province of the Sumatra-Southerner.
In the years 1670, the VOC opens a counter with Bengkalis with the mouth of the river. They can thus control the trade of tin, vital for their establishment with Malacca.
The Treated of London of 1824 , signed between the English and the Dutchmen, grants to the latter control territories asserted by Europeans in the south of Singapore, founded in 1819 by Raffles. Riau finds thus separate sultanate of Johor on the Malayan Péninsule. More generally, this treaty marks the separation of the world Malayan in two parts, one being today in the Federation of Malaysia and the other in the Republic of Indonesia.
The Dutchmen finally subjected and dissolved the sultanate of Riau- Lingga in 1911.
LanguageRiau is regarded as the cradle of the language Malayan E, spoken on the east coast about Sumatra, in addition to in Riau, in the provinces of the Sumatra-Septentrional and Jambi, on the coastal strip of the provinces of the Kalimantan-Westerner and the Kalimantan-Southerner to Borneo, in the Fédération of Malaysia and with Singapore.
Three inscriptions, gone back to 683,684 and 686, and written in an antiquated form of Malayan, reveal the existence of a kadatuan (principality) named Sriwijaya. This city-State was on the site of current Palembang. Arab and Chinese texts confirm that Sriwijaya was a powerful State which controlled the sea traffic in the strait of Malacca, at the time already an important international sea route. This power probably supported the use of Malayan like language of exchange between the ports of the area.
Located on the maritime Silk route, Malacca, based on the Malayan peninsula by prince de Sumatra, is an important stopover for the Moslem merchants who control this trade. During XVe century, this city-State becomes in its turn the most important port of the area. The rise of the trade enters the islands made of Malayan the language of the ports and the exchanges the archipelago.
The nationalist movement born at the beginning of the XXe century in the Indies Dutchwomen quite naturally decides to adopt the Malayan one like language of the future independent nation and " baptizes it; indonésien". In 1928, various associations of young natives of the Indies Dutchwomen, assembled in congress, pronounce a " Oath of Jeunesse" by which they state to adopt three ideals: a fatherland, Indonesia, a nation, the nation indonésienne, a language, the indonésien.
EconomySince the setting in production of the giant field of Mined in the years 1950, Riau is the first producer indonésien of oil, approximately producing half of the crude of the country.
- Pekanbaru : the provincial capital has many construction in the traditional style of the area, the such Brush Dang Merdu and the Adat Brush. One finds there also Taman Budaya Riau (" cultural park of Riau").
Park of the Sultanate of Siak : A Moorish palate of style was built in 1889 to 120 km upstream of Pekanbaru on the Siak river by the sultan Syarif Hasyim Abduljalil Syarifuddin. It is today a museum which contains royal objects.
Temple of Muara Takus : As much of other structures of this type with Sumatra, this whole of Stupa S Buddhist S, located close to the village of Muara Takus in the district of Tigabelas Koto, is built out of red brick and sand. One thinks that it was built with IXe or Xe centuries after J. - C., at the time of the apogee of the city-State of Sriwijaya. Excavations continue to know the exact age and the function of this unit.
Beaches: The coasts punts and marshy of the province of Riau do not offer many beautiful beaches. On the northern coast of the island of Rupat on the Strait of Malacca, one finds the beach Pasir Panjang, where one can practice the Surf.
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