Rhythm and blues
The term was introduced in 1949 by Jerry Wexler, then journalist with the professional magazine Billboard, which became a little later one of the producers most famous of its time within the firm Atlantic Records. This term, which lends itself more to the musical Marketing, replaces little by little the expression race music (“racial music”), too pejorative.
Rather than to identify a quite precise musical genre, the term rhythm and blues was gradually used to describe any type of popular modern music among the population Afro-American. Although re-used since the end of the Years 1990 in Europe (and in particular in France), the " term; R&B" was always used in the United States (of the Années 1950 with today).
At its beginnings, the rhythm and blues indicates, as its name indicates it, a form of blues rythmée, played exclusively by Noirs musicians. Born with leaving the Second world war, this style is strongly influenced by the orchestras of black Jazz of the era of the swing, the rate/rhythm Boogie-woogie, the structures harmonic of the Blues, and especially the Gospel. It is distinguished from the blues by its merrier topics, a faster tempo, and the stress laid on the battery and coppers. The Saxophone is then the instrument king of this musical genre, which is also marked by the singers with the powerful voice: the Blues shouter. Also called jump music, the rhythm & blues precede the Rock “roll, of which it contains already all the elements.
At the end of the years 1950, the term appoints especially the black musicians of rock'n'roll “roll (sometimes also described as Black Rock), and the groups of Doo-wop.
The term of rhythm and blues passes from mode in the Années 1960 among its original public Afro-American, to be replaced by the Soul music , the Motown and James Brown; but the kind will be one of the major influences of many young people British musicians who will form the groups which will renew the rock'n'roll, of the Rolling Stones to the Who.
The rhythm and blues, in particular in its version of La Nouvelle-Orléans, is also a major influence in Jamaica where the local musicians (who call it Shuffle) make the base of it of what will become the Ska.
The rhythm & blues are again adopted by a British public in the years 1970 with the scene Pub rock'n'roll.
Always used in the United States since, and synonymous with black music (that it is Soul, Funk, Disco or Urban during the years 1970 and 1980), the term R&B (or R' B) reappeared in France in the middle of the years 1990, this time indicating the new American black popular music strongly influenced by the Hip-hop. This new music R' B/hip-hop has sometimes only one very remote relationship with the rhythm & original blues, put aside for certain artists the same manner of singing resulting from the Gospel.
Various currents and principal artists
Rhythm & Blues
(years 1940/1950, before the Rock'n'roll & roll)
" Black" rock'n'roll & roll (end of the year 1950)
The Doo-wop (years 1950)
The Girl groups
(beginning of the year 1960)
The drunk person (years 1960/1970)
Stax (years 1960, at the beginning of years 1970)
Motown (years 1960 and 1970)
The Philly Sound (years 1970)
The funk (end of the year 1960, years 1970 and 1980)
The disco music (1976-1980)
See Disco music
Urban Music (years 1980)
New Jack Swing (end of the year 1980, beginning of the year 1990)
See New Jack Swing
R&B/hip-hop (middle of the years 1990 with today)
See R' B
Naked Drunk person (middle of the years 1990 with today)
See " Naked soul" in RnB
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