SituationThe Land, more populated Germany, includes/understands the septentrional part of the valley of the the Rhine, of the old federal capital Bonn until Clèves close to the border Dutchwoman. It is there that the industrial area of the the Ruhr is. The oriental party of the Land is the old province of Westphalia.
Main citiesThe Land counts 30 cities of more than 100.000 inhabitants (June 30th, 2003) whose majority (23) are city-districts:
- Aachen ( Aachen ), 253.900 hab. - old capital of the Carolingian Empire
- Bergisch Gladbach (arr. the Rhine-Berg), 105.940 hab.
- Bielefeld, 328.048 hab.
- Bonn, 309.732 hab. - federal city (Bundesstadt), old capital of the the Federal Republic of Germany of 1949 with 1990.
- Bochum, 388.007 hab.
- Bottrop, 120.768 hab.
- Köln ( Cologne ), 1.024.346 hab.
- Dortmund, 590.329 hab.
- Duisburg, 507.702 hab.
- Düsseldorf, 571.933 hab.
- Essen, 584.898 hab.
- Gelsenkirchen, 274.043 hab.
- Hagen, 200.788 hab.
- Hamm, 184.852 hab.
- Herne, 173.305 hab.
- Krefeld, 238.864 hab.
- Leverkusen, 160.148 hab.
- Moers (arr. of Wesel), 107.822 hab.
- Mönchengladbach, 262.579 hab.
- Mülheim year DER the Ruhr, 171.388 hab.
- Münster, 269.105 hab.
- Neuss (arr. the Rhine Neuss), 151.591 hab.
- Oberhausen, 220.608 hab.
- Paderborn (arr. of Paderborn), 141.764 hab.
- Recklinghausen (arr. of Recklinghausen), 123.562 hab.
- Remscheid, 118.107 hab.
- Siegen, (arr. of Siegen-Wittgenstein), 108.099 hab.
- Solingen, 164.396 hab.
- Witten (arr. the Ennepe-Ruhr), 102.316 hab.
- Wuppertal, 363.194 hab.
Other towns of interests
Administrative subdivisionThe Land is subdivided in 5 districts ( Regierungsbezirke ) of Arnsberg, Köln, Detmold, Düsseldorf and Münster. The president of the district ( Regierungspräsident ) is named by the government of the Land.
At the communal level exist the 2 provinces ( Landschaftsverbände ) of the Rhineland and Westphalia-Lippe. The first includes/understands the districts of Cologne and Düsseldorf, and the second the districts of Arnsberg, Detmold and Münster. The provincial assemblies ( Landschaftsversammlungen ) are elected by the councils of the rural districts and district-cities.
A reform unifying the functions of the provinces and districts by forming the three districts of the Rhineland, the Ruhr and Westphalia is projected for the year 2012.
Since the reform of the municipal territories of the years 1967 to 1974, there are 31 rural districts ( Kreise ) including/understanding 373 communes ( Gemeinden ) including 267 cities ( Städte ), and 23 district-cities ( kreisfreie Städte ).
List minister-presidents1946 - 1947: Rudolf Amelunxen (Center)
1947 - 1956: Karl Arnold (CDU)
1956 - 1958: Fritz Steinhoff (SPD)
1958 - 1966: Franz Meyers (CDU)
1966 - 1978: Heinz Kühn (SPD)
1978 - 1998: Johannes Rau (SPD)
1998 - 2002: Wolfgang Clement (SPD)
2002 - 2005: Peer Steinbrück (SPD)
since 2005: Jürgen Rüttgers (CDU)
- to see the Treated of Westphalia
With the Congrès of Vienna the Prussia recovered the duchies of Clèves and Geldern, the principality of Minden and the counties of the Mark and Ravensberg which it had before the Paix of Lunéville and of old évêché of Paderborn and the southernmost part of old évêché of Munster that it had received in 1803. The territory complete by the Western part of old was évêché of Munster, the old duchies of Berg and Westphalia and all the territories in left bank of the Rhine in the North of the Nahe. It formed of them the three provinces of Juliers-Clèves-Berg, Grand-Duché of the Low-Rhine ( Großherzogtum Niederrhein ) and Westphalia whose two first were unified with the Rhenish Province ( Rheinprovinz ) in 1822.
In 1945 the province of Westphalia and the north of the province of the Rhineland with the districts of Aachen, Cologne and Düsseldorf were occupied by the Great Britain. The southernmost part of the Rhineland became under French occupation. August 23rd, 1946, the British administration unified Westphalia and its part of the Rhineland to the Land of Rhineland-of-North-Westphalia. Provisional Landtag was named on October 2nd and was renewed on December 19th, 1946 after the first municipal elections. January 21st, 1947, the old State-free one of Lippe was attached there.
The Union Christian Democrat of Germany (CDU) gained the first elections of Landtag of April 20th, 1947 and formed a coalition with SPD, the Zentrum and until February 7th, 1948 KPD. The constitution was adopted by referendum of June 18th, 1950 and came into effect on July 11th, 1950. Because of importance of the catholic population of the Land and thanks to the support of the Church, CDU remained with the capacity until 1966. This year and for the first time, the Catholic church did not give its support for CDU. The SPD obtained the relative majority and controlled in coalition with the FDP.
From this date, Rhineland-of-North-Westphalia became a sure stronghold for the SPD. The German socialist party remained indeed with the capacity until 2005. However as of the years 1990, the results with the various elections marked a progressive retreat of the SPD because in particular of the number decreasing of union members who represented the traditional voters of the party.
Thus in 2005, at the time of the last elections of Landtag, the SPD was beaten by the CDU which was combined with the FDP. For the first time since 1966, the SPD is not any more with the capacity in Rhineland-of-North-Westphalia.
The companies established in Rhineland-of-North-Westphalia are p.ex.: Ford with Cologne, Opel in Bochum, Bayer with Leverkusen and Wuppertal, Henkel, Dr. Oetker (Ancel), ThyssenKrupp etc Owing to the fact that 23% of German (18,8 Million) live in this Land, its economy is most important of Germany.
The unemployment rate of 11,0% (at the end of December 2006) corresponds to German average rate.
- Official site of the Land of Rhineland-of-North-Westphalia
- Parliament of the Rhineland of North-Westphalia
- Official site of the capital city of the Land of Rhineland-of-North-Westphalia
- Official site of tourism in Rhineland-of-North-Westphalia
- Code for the fastening of State-free of Lippe to the territory of the Rhineland-of-North-Westphalia Land of January 17th, 1947
- Information and resources on the history of Westphalia on gate Web " History of Westphalie"
Simple: North Rhine-Westphalia
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