A restaurant is an establishment where one serves of the prepared dishes and drinks to be consumed on the spot, in exchange of a payment. Generally, food is prepared there by a Chief cook. The term covers a multiplicity of places and a great diversity of the types of Cuisine S, as well local as foreign. The restaurants are sometimes the device reserved for the service of the meals within a greater entity (Hôtel, Université, Aéroport,…).
EtymologyThe restoring word comes from the verb to restore which means at the 12th century “ to give in state ”, “ to give upright”.
At the beginning of the 16th century, the term of “ restaurant ”, revêt a food meaning to indicate a “ food reconstituting ”. In the middle of the 17th century the term indicates more specifically a “ reconstituting bubble made gravy concentrated ” then, starting from the middle of the 18th century, the place which ensures the sale of it.
Restaurant indicates also a Pain of 400g in certain areas of the south of France.
HistoryThe first restaurant, in the modern meaning, was opened with Paris, street of the Pulleys (street of Louvre), towards 1765 by a café owner, Boulanger (known as Champ of Bird). He invents the name of restaurant in his current direction. Previously the restaurant was a bubble which restored the forces. It was the first to propose food on table at any hour according to and imitating the change of the service which takes place at that time in the aristocracy passing of the Service to the Frenchwoman with the Service with Russian in which the guest sat and been useful by the ustensils and the personnel which are dedicated to him individually. With the difference of the Inn S, the tables are individual and not communes. Moreover, one chooses on a Carte, whereas in the inns there was one dish proposed by the cook.
Until there, only the Traiteur S were authorized to sell Sauce S and Ragoût S, proposer with their tables of hosts of the meals at fixed hour, following the example what occurred in the inns. Boulanger breaks this monopoly and cooks what its customers like. It lowers the prices and posts the chart in front of the restaurant so that the customers know which will be the cost of their meal. The delicatessens brought in Boulanger a lawsuit, which they lost. Following this lawsuit, other restorers settle.
A certain passion is created for the establishment of Baker among the aristocracy and the intellectuals.
In 1782, Antoine Beauvilliers, cook of the Prince de Condé and officer of mouth of the count de Provence, takes again the formula of Baker and opens, within a refined framework, the “ Grande Tavern of London ”, with 26 rue de Richelieu in Paris. He proposes to the customers to eat as in Versailles. The service of the wines is made out of bottle, as with London, with the mode at that time. It is there the first true great restaurant of Paris, which will remain during more than twenty years without rival.
But it is starting from the French revolution that the phenomenon became extensive. Indeed, on the one hand, the escape of the noble leaves their personnel of service, whose their cooks, without employment and, on the other hand, of many provincial arrive at Paris where they do not count a family which can nourish them. Consequently more and more from cooks, trained with the preparation of kitchen of quality, will become restorers and one counts as of 1789 in Paris a hundred restaurants attended by the good company, gathered around the Palais Royal. Thirty years after the Revolution, 3000 restaurants are counted.
The restaurants quickly multiplied throughout the world, the first restaurant opening with the the United States as of 1794, with Boston. The service type will remain a long time based on the principle of the “ Service with the Frenchwoman ” where the dishes were posed with table, the guests serving themselves. However, this service made the invoicing difficult for the restorers. The current form of service, where the guest receives a meal drawn up on plate, called “ Service with Russian ”, was introduced in France by the Russian prince Kourakine into the years 1810 from where it was spread gradually.
Specific types of restaurants
GastronomicalA restaurant known as “gastronomical” in general proposes variable menus according to the complexity and or the value of the dishes proposed. This kind of restaurant in general proposes a menu with meat and fish.
See also: Gourmet restaurant
Brewery and barEstablishment where are been used for any hour of the day in theory more the great choice of hot drinks and fresh. One can find also there a choice more or less restricted of dishes cooked rather simple, one speaks then about Snack-bar. This type of establishment is generally established in the center of each agglomeration
Fast-foodRestaurant with fast service where one can generally consume there chips, Hamburger, ices and fizzy drinks. Any order is carried out with the counter where one withdraws his tray meal before " to put itself at table". Gifts of welcome are offered for the more young consumers. Mc Donald' S and Quick are the most known signs in France in this sector.
See also: Fast-food industry
PizzeriaThe pizzeria is a restaurant specialized in the sale or the service of Pizza S and other Italian specialities. The pizza pie remains however their principal product, the Italian restaurants rather serving of the pastes being indicated name of Osteria . Derivatives such as " stands with pizzas" were born in France in the Années 1980.
See also: Pizzeria
Count hostsEstablishment characterized by its user-friendliness and the choice of a chart proposing of many regional dishes where the restaurant is established.
Restaurant carService of restoration in the trains in general and the night trains in particular.
See also: Restaurant car
Transport cafeéRestaurant of edge of road established in open country or at the entry of the villages, and sometimes on the highway. They were especially created for the professionals of the road, they are characterized by their good atmosphere and are equipped with a sufficiently important carpark to station several trucks there, as well as showers and sometimes of rooms for those which do not wish (or cannot…) to sleep in their vehicle. For several years, they have disappeared gradually with the profit from restoroutes and the road centers.
Establishment exclusively established in edge of highway and fast track, this type of restaurant was born in France at the beginning of the Années 1960 under the crook of Jacques Borel. This last very quickly took a reputation of " bad restaurant" and place with the Arch made as of 1983.
See also: Restoroute
Brigade of kitchen
the Chief cook (or chief of brigade ) assumes the responsibility for the whole of the kitchen of a restaurant. It composes the menus and the chart of the mets, organizes and distributes work, announces the orders and controls the dishes ready to be been useful. Sometimes, it engages his collaborators;
- the Entremettier , charged with soups, vegetables, the dishes to eggs, potatoes and the pasta products;
- the Pantry , in charge of the finish of the believed meat, the poultry, fish; make the cold dishes;
- the Grill-room owner , in charge of all the mets roasts: meat, game, poultry and fish; work with the furnace, the grill, the pin, the fryer;
- the Saucier , charged with sauces, the meats and fish out of sauce; it replaces the chef;
- the Pastrycook , charged with the desserts, pastry makings, compotes, fruit salads and ices; also manufacture the crescents and the breads imaginations;
- the plunger , in charge of the cleaning of the crockery. One can have recourse to him for the preparation of certain straight feedingstuffs.
Brigade of room
- the 1st Main of hotel
- the Master of hotel
- the 1st Chief of row
- the chief of row
- the Made of row or continuation
- the clerk debarrassor
- the Trenching
- the trenching clerk
the chief Wine waiter
- the wine waiter
- the clerk wine waiter
Guides of restaurants
See also: gastronomical Guide
Restaurants are classified in gastronomical guides (like the Guide Michelin, relay castles…).
- Details of the marks of '' Restauration ''.
Restaurants of specialities
- Restaurant , of Andy Warhol, 1965
- the Great restaurant , of Jacques Besnard, 1966
- Nude Restoring , of Andy Warhol, 1967
- Playtime of Jacques Tati, 1967
- Alice' S Restoring , of Arthur PEN, 1969
- the Wing or the thigh , of Claude Zidi, 1976
- Boy! of Claude Sautet, 1983
- Big Night , of Stanley Tucci, 1996
- American Kitchen , of Jean-Yves Pitoun, 1998
- Restaurant , of Eric Bross, 1998
- Ratatouille , of Brad Bird, 2007
- On a tablecloth of restaurant , Jacques Dutronc
- Scenes from year italian restaurant , of Billy Joel
- Tom' S dinner , of Suzanne Vega
- the usual table , of Henri Tachan
- the signs of fast-food industry
- the signs of restaurant with topic
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