Research and development
Its missions consist to anticipate or create the technological revolutions, the ruptures of Usage S and to develop the Innovation by creating prototypes and testing them before making them operational.
The development part, consisting in implementing the discoveries (developed of the products and the processes of production), is often longest and most expensive.
A theoretical definition is proposed by the Manuel of Frascati. It results in mixing two capabilities distinct from an economic entity: the scientific research and the technical innovation on the one hand, the Development of products, infrastructures and services on the other hand. That amounts for example putting at the same plan of the research organizations like CNRS and a SS2I ensuring the writing of computer programs of management.
This confusion comes owing to the fact that the border between the two worlds is not always clear, that it is in term of Processus that of necessary Compétences.
Examples in industry and the services
- electric orders of flight of the planes Airbus resulting from the R & D Harmony
- the search for new molecules, tests clinical and the setting in production with new large scales Drug S.
- On the level of the services, the development of products of placement, insurance or financings complex by financial Engineering.
Use of the Technologies the information
The use of information technologies spread in the research and development, around several types of software:
- computation softwares scientific to the finite elements, employed on Supercomputer S, for the dimensioning of the technical objects: in mechanics, thermohydraulics, aerodynamics,…
- design software and of design.
Whereas the applications of Management, scientific data processing, and industrial data processing were partitioned enough, a new generation of applications is appearing around the Ingénierie of knowledge. in particular taking support on the Web. This one became an essential tool of the research and development, while making it possible to create communities of researchers (Communautés of practice) who exchange ideas on the same subject, in Groupware S, kinds of forums.
A structured design of these applications can make it possible to protect the rights of the researchers.
- Project management
Bonds of information
- Techneo, the French engine of research of technological competences
- the Network of national Technological development
- the Network of Technological development of Ile-de-France
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