See also: Madec
Rene Madec (1736 - 1784) is a sailor and an adventurer, born and died in Quimper (department of the Finistere, area Brittany). Resulting from a modest family, it embarks at 11 years and sails on the boats of the Compagnie of the Indies. It takes part in the conflicts Franco-British in India and creates a private army which it puts at the service Indian princes and Grand Moghol, which does it Nabab. Combatant with the French against the British , it returns to the country after the capitulation. The King the anoblit and decorates it, which enables him to enjoy its fortune and to be made build beautiful residences in Quimper and the neighborhoods. He dies of a fall of horse.
Born on February 27th, 1736, Rene Madec is the eighth child of François Madec, schoolmaster and Corentine-Manon Melin, tenancière of inn. During its childhood, it is attracted more by the activity of the quays of the wearing of Quimper than that of the school, its future of sailor is decided.
At the 9 years age, it embarks for the first time for four months, on a wine coaster, based with Bordeaux. At the conclusion of this first contact with the sea, his/her father makes him follow courses of navigation and hydrography with an aim of integrating the Battalion of the East of the Compagnie of the Indies, with the rank of officer. He is only 11 years old when he embarks with Lorient on the Valeur , a slave ship which will charge its cargo with “ebony wood” (Esclave S) to the Senegal bound for Saint-Domingue.
Sailor and soldier
In 1750, new departure of Lorient bound for Pondichéry, voyage on board the Auguste during which he escapes the Scorbut and to the Typhus. This stay of a few months impregnates it for always charms of India; the road towards Europe is punctuated of a two months stopover to the Brésil, then with the hands of the Portuguese. Of return in Brittany where there remains eight month without employment, he has for only project to only turn over in this exotic country. That occurs in 1752 and dice its arrival, it joined the army of Joseph François Dupleix which faces the British troops, parts with the conquest of the Indian territory, Trichinapaly direction. After many armed engagements, peace between French and British are signed; Dupleix, repudiated, turns over to France. Madec, after having been useful like soldier during three years, thinks of returning at his place, but he does not manage to exceed the island Bourbon and must engage as sailor to make transport between the islands of the Indian Ocean.
In 1756, the war begins again between the belligerents, Madec regains Pondichéry on board the Duc of Orleans , after having been used in the navy as trade, it enters the navy of war. When he learns that its squadron will regain the Mauritius (then island of France), he decides to desert and he gains the continent with the stroke. He engages in the battalion of navy formed by the knight of Pouët where he is named at the rank of sergeant and on December 11th, 1758, the French troops arrive at Madras to besiege the British; the head office of Madras lasts forty five days, it is a failure. Then begin a long wandering warlike and adventurous through the Orissa, the Circars, the Dekkan and the Carnatique, Madec is seen entrusting the command of a troop of 400 Cipayes. In 1760, Lally-Tollendal, which is in a delicate situation, fact call to Breton of which he heard about the exploits and his temerity and the fact of entering to pomegranates to horse. A whimsical project of attack of Madras is set up, but the French troops are forced to be locked up in the fortress of Gingy and capitulate at the end of five months. Madec is made prisoner by the British and is locked up at the height Madras. In order to leave prison and not there not to die of hunger, it accepts, as well as a hundred French prisoners, to engage in the enemy troops, it is sent to Calcutta where it remains in garrison during one year. It makes this time profitable to study the local dialects, the habits and the political situation of the country. After having taken part in the rout of the army of the nabob of the Bengal Kassem-Ali-Khan on behalf of the British, it takes the direction of a mutiny which gains the camp of the overcome nabob, close to Vârânasî, where are also present the Grand Moghol Shâh Âlam II and the vizier Sudjah Dowlah. It is the beginning of its career of war leader, advising influential and its fortune.
In 1764, it is with the head of a private, strong army of approximately 1.500 men whom it puts at the service Rajah then Grand Moghol itself. Parallel to its warlike activities, it starts to build a colossal fortune. At the beginning of 1766, it marries the girl of an adviser of prince Shuja, Marie-Anne Barbette, 13 years old, whose family is of French origin, the weddings and the festivities seem to have been excessively sumptuous and expensive.
Towards 1767, it supports Jats in the conflict which opposes them to Rajputs, its decisive victories are very largely rewarded out of money and gold, which enables him to buy a palate with Bhaktapur, in which it settles with his wife and their son which has just been born in 1768, Balthazar-Rene-Felix. A new victory is worth to him the honorary title of Panchazari and its considerable fortune makes him consider its return in France. But the representative of the French government with Chandernagor wishes a bringing together with the Indian princes with an aim of containing the British and possibly to expel them Bengal. Madec sets out again in war on behalf of the emperor Moghol, Shâh Âlam II, which honors it with the title of nabob, in thanks of the rendered military services. It confers also the title to him of Bocci , which places it at the third rank of the imperial hierarchy, just after the Top dog and equips it with vast a to jaguir (kind of stronghold). Its army counts 6.000 men now, it became one of the most important men and most influential of the Hindustan . With her family, which increased of a girl, Marie-Anne, it saw some time with Delhi, then at Hyderabad, it arrives finally at Pondichéry in February 1778. It engages, once again, at the time of the seat of the city and the blockade of the port the British. The October 18th, it is the capitulation, two months, provided later with a safe conduct, Madec leaves India and returns to France.
Last years in Quimper
January 11th, 1779, it is the departure for France, on the Brisson . After a stopover in the island Maurice, the boat arrives to Europe where it is attacked with broad Spain by Corsaire S British. Captive fact, Rene Madec is held two months in Ireland. Unloaded to Lorient, it goes to the court to Versailles where it must give to Louis XVI which receives it, the report/ratio of the governor Guillaume Léonard de Bellecombe, on the head office of Pondichéry. It is informed it that since 2 years (January 1st, 1777), it has the rank of colonel and that it is received in the royal and military Ordre of Saint-Louis. It is, little of time afterwards, anobli by the king.
Rene Madec withdraws himself in Quimper, provided with his fortune and settles in a private mansion (with the n° 5 of a street which bears its name today). He acquires two fields, Coatfao in Pluguffan and Prat year Strong current in Penhars, where he makes rebuild the castle. In 1782, birth of a girl, Marie-Henriette. He dies on June 28th, 1784 of the continuations of a fall of horse, his wife survives to him until in 1841.
Sources and Bibliography
Albert the Lease, the Nabob - Rene Madec , Découvrance editions, Bouhet, 2004.
- Jean-Wolf April, Thousand Breton, biographical dictionary , Doors broad, Saint-Jacques-of-the-Moor, 2002.
- max Vines, history of the Nabob Rene Madec , Ground of fog, Rennes, 1995.
- Emile Bores (former Adviser at the Court of Appeal of Pondichéry), the Nabob, Rene Madec - diplomatic history of the projects of France on Bengal and Pendjab (1772-1808) - according to our original and new papers of state and the private archives of the family Madec . Felix Alcan editor, Paris, 1894.
- Irene Frain, the Nabob , Editions Jean-Claude Lattès, Paris, 1982.
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