Relation between science and faith
The sometimes conflict relation, sometimes peaceful between Science and religion is a broad subject tackled since the Antiquité and within the framework of many fields of investigation or research of which the Philosophie of sciences, the Théologie, the Histoire of sciences and history of the Religion.
Modern science vis-a-vis the religious faith" Can one still believe in a God in a world dominated by science? " For answering such a question, it would be necessary to wonder what one understands by " foi". If " is heard; to believe that God exists " , one restricts ipso facto the question with the universe Christian and Western and one does not take into account the relations of science and the religion (in this case, rather than of the faith) in other surfaces of civilization.
When the question was put to French in 1994 at the time of a survey SCUMS:
- 49% answered that indeed: " the more the scientific knowledge progresses, the more it is difficult to believe in a God. "
- 32% estimated that: " to believe in God is not necessary any more to our time ".
- 61% regarded that the existence of God as some or probable.
- half of the researchers of CNRS state today to have the Foi or something which approaches some.
- 70% of them agrees to think that science cannot to date exclude or rehabilitate the idea of God.
Thus, even if " one a long time thought that science was going to drive out the religious function, it was a erreur. " as the Astrophysicien Hubert Reeves underlines it. On this subject, two designs are opposed:
- Science and Religion does not tackle the same questions: science describes the Phénomène S, the mechanisms, the principles to which we are subjected, in a word the " how " of our existence. However, " our thirst for significance and Espérance is not taken into account by science because one cannot introduce it into the équations ! " (Pierre Karli, Academy of Science). the Faith , of dimensioned sound, is interested in the existential questions concerning the direction of our life ici-bas and in beyond, the existence of God, our relation with Him, in a word the " pourquoi " of our Existence.
- the other thesis and that of the continuity of knowledge
Evolution of the relation between science and religion
Ancient philosophyJean Hadot points out that the schools of ancient philosophy held place of what we name today Religion in that they prescribed of the doctrines and a way of life, generally recognizable among others.
See also: ancient Philosophy
For Plato , (427 av. J. - C. - 348 av. J. - C) any knowledge must be certain and infallible and must relate to reality and not appearance. He then opposes the real world, which is immutable and perfect, to the world physical, inconstant. He thus rejects empiricism, i.e. the acquisition of knowledge by the experiment of the directions. This theory of the Forms takes all its significance in the examination of the mathematical objects. For example, the circle is defined like a plane figure made up of a succession of points, all located at equal distance from a given point. But nobody can see such a figure. What one sees in fact is a drawing, an approximation of the ideal circle. But the fact that the mathematicians can define a circle proves that they know his nature. Thus for Plato, the " circularité" , as well as the " quadrature" and the " triangularité" are forms which exist apart from space and of time. This theory of the Forms and, more generally, the teaching of Plato heavily influenced the thought Western, as well philosophical, religious and social as scientific.
If Aristote accepts certain Platonic ideas, like the immortality of the heart and the divine nature of the celestial bodies, it calls into question certain theories of the Master: for him, more the high degree of reality is not what appears by the reasoning, but what is perceived by the directions. He affirms that the reason is empty before the directions do not enter in action. He poses the laws of the reasoning and founds the Logique (Organon) like precision instrument of the philosophical speech. He shares the knowledge in three fields corresponding to fields of the human activity: creation or Art, practice or morals, the theory or science.
It introduces a design of the phenomena of Causalité into the nature, which it divides into four: the material cause, the efficient cause, the formal cause and finally the final Cause or telos. It is the latter which bases the principle of Aristote on the finality of the things; according to him, all obeys a “intention” which exceeds us; this idea will have a great influence on the Christian theologists of the Moyen-âge.
It is via the translations and of the comments of the Arab philosophers like Avicenne and Averroès that the work of Aristote arrived to Occident and nourished the medieval thought. Thus, at the 13th century, holy Thomas d' Aquin tries to reconcile philosophy aristotelician and the Foi revealed of the Writings. The medieval Philosophie transmitted these intellectual bases of the to us To know, that are the philosophies of the great authors of antiquity.
See also: Augustin d' Hippone
Augustin d' Hippone (354 - 430) was not a scientist but it strongly influenced the development of the Western scientific thought by its philosophical designs. At the beginning of the Middle Ages, science was taken between two large theological currents. The first preached the single study of the question of the hello, science being able only to harm the Christian hearts. The second current taught that the study of the world learns how to recognize and to respect the size of its Creator. Augustin defended this idea ardently. For him, science had a role to play in the Christian religion. It developed the divine theory of the knowledge according to which the universe, expression of the divine will, could only be good, and its study to reinforce the faith.
The Middle Ages
Averroès (1126-1198) devotes all its life to the work of Aristote. He seeks to find the original direction of them by removing it from all interpretations made up to that point. He adapts it with enough penetration and power to build a system which carries its personal mark. It is with the question of the origin of the beings that it is interested more. According to him, Aristote claims that nothing comes from nothing and that neither the form nor the matter are not created. The movement would be eternal and continuous: it is the doctrines of the eternity of the matter. It distinguishes in the man passive intellect and active intellect. This one would be located beyond the individual: he would be higher, former for him, outside because he would be immortal. Immortality would be an attribute of the species and not of the individual. This distinction leads Averroès to separate radically reason and faith, the lights of the Revelation being accessible only to active intellect.
Thomas d' Aquin (1225-1274), on the other hand, will seek to reconcile them, melting theology like rational science . These philosophical doctrines will raise passionate debates in the Christian world and will find almost as many disciples as opponents. The tendency to separate the reason and the faith as concerning two distinct orders of truth was likely to ruin the efforts of those which wanted on the contrary to reconcile, through Aristote, profane knowledge and revealed faith. The principles of Averroès considered as dangerous will be finally condemned by the Church in 1240, then in 1513 underlining the considerable influence of the Arab philosopher in Occident, in particular in the medieval schools. Condemned in its time by the Islamic religion which reproaches him for deforming the precepts of the faith, Averroès must flee, hide, live in clandestinity and poverty, until he is reminded Marrakech, where he dies, rehabilitated, in 1198.
It was mixed in 1268, with a controversy around the aristotelism opposing the partisans of the philosophy of Saint Augustin to the averroïstes. The first felt threatened by the seconds who preached the independence of philosophy with respect to the revelation. In the middle of the debate, Thomas d' Aquin then supported an intermediate position which binds faith and reason. For him, the knowledge rested at the same time on truths of faith and experimental truthes, the ones more than the others according to whether the examination question relates to the spiritual one or the material. In addition, the Christians, according to him, did not have to fear pagan philosophy because any study of Nature is a study of the work of God. However, in spite of his moderated position, Thomas d' Aquin is condemned at the same time as the averroïstes. Called in 1272 in Naples to create a studium there, he dies two years later. In 1277, the Masters of Paris, then more the theological high jurisdiction of the Church, again condemn it for some of its writings. But very quickly after this episode, one starts to become aware of the value of the efforts made by Thomas d' Aquin to reconcile Greek science and Christian orthodoxy. He will be canonized since 1323.
16th century: Copernic and end of the geocentrismScholar, avid of knowing, Nicolas Copernic (1473-1543) studies in all the fields: theology, medicine, mathematics, economy and astronomy. He confirms the results of Aristarque de Samos which, in -208 had been opposed to the Géocentrisme; he had declared that the ground rotated around the sun and. The pope Paul III, who wants to reform the calendar, entrusts a study of planets and sun in order to check to him the theory of Claude Ptolémée, a Greek geographer of the 2nd century which affirms that the Earth is located at the center of the universe, the sun and the planets revolving around it. The catholic doctrines are based on this thesis to affirm that the Man, and thus the Earth, are in the center of creation. Very quickly, however, Copernic establishes the inconsistency of this theory. Careful, because fearing rightly the lightnings of the Curie, Copernic will await the end of its life to publish its conclusions in revolutionibus orbium coelestium. Its work made great noise and released the scientists of the theological prejudices presented like divine truths…
Basing itself on work of Nicolas Copernic and Nicolas of CUSE, Giordano Bruno (1548-1600), shows, in a philosophical way, the relevance of an infinite Universe, populated of an innumerable quantity of worlds identical to ours. Shown heresy by the Inquisition it is burned alive after eight years of lawsuit.
17th Galileo century and rupture between science and religion
In 1632 and 1633 took place the lawsuit of Galileo , because of the publication of a work openly favorable to the Héliocentrisme (the Dialog on the two great systems of the world ). This lawsuit marks separation between the old one and the new one as regards sciences. It is a rupture between science and the Religion, which will lead to an extraordinary development of science. The Academia dei Lincei, to which Galileo belongbelonged, was a learned society which prohibited to mix political or religion with science. At the time of his lawsuit, one opposed to him, inter alia, a biblical quotation where Josué was addressed to the Sun to require of him to stop its race. Galileo hoped to convince the Pape. Urbain VIII, which was however his/her friend, decided to deliver Galileo to the court of the Enquiry, and immediately commuted its sorrow to house arrest. The judges refused to look in the glasses. The Bellarmin cardinal évertuait himself to regard as purely hypothetical a scientific assertion whereas he admitted like true apart from any doubt a biblical quotation…
These controversies on the biblical interpretation of cosmology, which also rested on a drafting of a Psaume which implied at the time the universe was geocentric had considerable consequences on the relations between science and the Foi.
In November 1633, Descartes learned the judgment from Galileo. This is why, in 1634, receiving from his/her friend Beeckman a specimen of the Dialog on the two great systems of the world , the work of Galileo who had been worth his judgment to him, Descartes decided not to publish its work: the Treated world and light . This treaty was published only in 1664, after the death of Descartes. The lawsuit of Galileo to some extent started the philosophical career of Descartes.
Age of Enlightenment
See also: Age of Enlightenment
In its Philosophiae naturalis principia mathémathica of 1713, Newton had defended the thesis according to which the creation of the world, just like its structure and its to become, can be explained by mechanical causes, the order of the world being guaranteed by God. The advanced argument by Newton was of nature double: (1) it was a posteriori, proceeding of a observation of the natural order, regularity (laws) of the natural phenomena; (2) and analogical, introducing a similarity enters the order of the world and that of the thought (rational productions of the man). In fact, such an argument necessarily brought to the thesis according to which the system of the world can be only the product of an intention or a divine intention. The Révolution copernician is the passage of the geocentric Représentation with the heliocentric representation with 18th and with 18th.
The pope Benoît XIV made give the imprimatur to works Galileo in 1741, and raised the index on the heliocentric theory in 1757. These measurements, as well as the homages paid to Galileo by the modern popes, implicitly constitute a rehabilitation of Galileo by the Catholic church. The Church revised the principle of the biblical studies with 19th and 20th centuries. The Pape Jean-Paul named in 1981 a charged commission to study the controversy ptolemeo-copernician. This commission gave its conclusions in 1992.
In biology, XIIXe is one period of intense controversies between holding of the épigénèse and the Catholic church which defends the Théorie of preformation because of the Doctrine of the preexistence and the fitment of the germs: God being the creator it any thing, it has, as of the beginning, created all the animals, all the plants and all the men brought to populate the world until the end of times. The children to be born thus exist already, they are placed completely formed but in a microscopic state in their parents, and they even in this microscopic state shelter their children, who shelter them it following generation, etc
The 19th century
The ideas positivists
See also: Positivism
In France it should be noted the range of the thought of Auguste Count (1798 - 1857), philosopher, and founder of the Positivism. Originating in a catholic medium, it loses the Foi as of the 14 years age. Brilliance raises in mathematics, it is returned Polytechnic school for insubordination and rebellion. Taking as a starting point Roger Bacon, Descartes, Monge, Condorcet, it opens, in its residence a course of philosophy at the time which it exposes his Loi of the three states of the human spirit, that it compares at the stages evolution of the Man: theological, or fictitious, in its youth; Metaphysical, or abstracted, in its adolescence; and positive in its maturity, which becomes the age of science. This last state seeks the " comment" things and not the " pourquoi" , because the nature of the things, the absolute, the universal explanation of nature are Utopias which concern the Métaphysique and do not have to be required: Count rejects the Main cause, and seeks to explain the Phénomène S by laws exprimables in mathematical language.
The scientific approach according to Auguste Count makes it possible to reveal reality and to describe the natural laws for a destination practical, useful, for the action, in opposition to knowledge for knowledge. Auguste Count carries out a classification of various sciences and considers that there remains still a positive science to found, most important because it has as an aim the human facts and must allow the progress of the company. It calls it " Sociology " (according to the expression of Sieyès). Auguste Count determines and treats on a hierarchical basis thus six fundamental sciences, each one of them depending, for his development, of that which precedes it; mathematics, astronomy, physics, chemistry, biology and sociology. They constitute the general system of knowledge that its " course of philosophy positive" try to coordinate. The purpose of philosophy is to unify knowledge and to make of it the synthesis vis-a-vis the dispersion of the disciplines which constitutes a danger to science.
Darwin condemned by the fundamentalist Catholic church and churchesDarwin was conscious of the revolutionary character of its thought. That made it hesitate as well with respect to the scientific authorities as of the religious authorities. The publication of its main work in 1859: the Origin of the species (in English One the Origin off Species by means off Natural Selection ), caused impassioned reactions although Darwin did not seek to be particularly provocative since it still quotes the Creator.
It is only later that it is expressed clearly on the man with The Descent off Man, and Sélection in Relation to Sex . Although the notes of its notebooks indicate clear options materialists as of 1837, he declares agnostic only in 1876. The reactions of the Church were categorical, the animal origin of the man could only be in contradiction with the bible and the catholic doctrines. As of 1860 the German council of Cologne, heralding the spirit of large the Council the Vatican I with respect to science, is opposed to the thesis darwinienne and declares: Our parents were created by God immediately. This is why we declare completely contrary with the Scriptures and the faith, the opinion of those which do not have shame to affirm that the man, as for the body, is the fruit of the spontaneous transformation of an imperfect nature into others increasingly perfect until the current human nature .
Position of the Churches at the 19th centuryThe modernistic Crise is due to the success of the Exégèse historico-critical impetus by the Protestant researchers and theologists
In the requirement heretic , Peter L. Shepherd writes into 1979 that " Protestantism is confronted in an innate way with modernity in that which it caused a current of theologists who were turned over against their own Ecritures ". This critical boldness caused successes in Europe with the Laïcité and of the reverses in the USA with the creation of the Fondamentalisme Protestant which protests at the same time against pontifical infallibility and scientific interpretation.
Pie IX rejected without nuances the theory suggested by Darwin. Appeared then of many anti-darwiniennes publications. The pope appreciated Moïse and Darwin particularly. The man of the Genesis compared with the man-monkey or the religious teaching opposed to atheistic teaching . Pie IX distinguished true science and distorts science; the true one is that which conforms to the infallible divine revelation, " étoile" who must guide the scientist and " lumière" who " helps to preserve shelves and erreurs". Science was shown to propagate the Athéisme and the Matérialisme.
See also: modernistic Crisis
Leon XIII, successor of Black and white IX, was more liberal as for its glance on science: it renewed the biblical studies by the encyclical Providentissimus Deus . However, the theological situation hardly developed on the ground. Preaching with Notre Dame remains firm: the catholic has the " science suprême" ; it " does not fear anything false science, because always it is confused; nothing the true science, because always it falls from agreement with the truth. "
Black and white X, to the blunt spirit, was going to undertake a true hunting for the witches to choke the novel ideas and to remain about it with the traditional teaching of the seminars where in the handbooks well thinking was written: " preserves the crowned writer of any error, not only of any error dogmatic and moral, but also of any historical error or scientific ". The seminarist was to stick to the Concordisme; the bible to agree perfectly with the History and the Science.
See also: anti-modernistic Oath
Nevertheless, the catholic positions of the church did not change anything with work ecclesiastics engaged in the scientific world, in particular in research on the Préhistoire and the origins of the man.
See also: the abbot of Broglie, Pierre Teilhard of Chardin
The 20th century
The circle of Vienna
See also: Circle of Vienna
The circle of Vienna (Wiener Kreis) was a grouping of scientists and philosophers trained with Vienna as from 1923 around Moritz Schlick, in order to develop a news Philosophie of science in a spirit of rigor, and by excluding any metaphysical consideration. Under the name of " scientific design of the world " , the common program characterizes a " turning of the philosophie" Schlick. It presents three major principles:
- science must be able to be unified in its language and the facts which found it. Any scientific knowledge, indeed, comes either from the experiment, or of the " tautological working of the pensée".
- philosophy, that it is (Carnap, Reichenbach) or (Schlick) is not regarded as a true science, is reduced to an elucidation scientific proposals relating directly or indirectly to the experiment, proposals which sciences themselves have as a task to check. Philosophy will be thus before any philosophy of science; and, dealing with this positive aspect of human knowledge, it will tend towards an effective objectivity (Reichenbach, introduction to the n° 1 of Erkenntnis). In order to return the language of science clearly, it will use the logical symbolism of Frege and Russell.
- the success of such a philosophy announces the end of metaphysics: " Because it will not be necessary any more to treat " philosophiques" questions; , since with any question one will deal philosophically, i.e. in open language and equipped with sens" (Schlick, Die Wende DER Philosophy). And the traditional questions of metaphysics will appear then as relating only on words whose direction had not been sufficiently cleared up, and to unverifiable proposals.
The French SchoolLouis Leprince-Ringuet figure among the most famous French scientists, in addition, being leant on the nature of the relation between science and Faith. It contributes in particular to the Annuaire of the Catholic church of France. Its reflection relates to science and its ethical starting from a quotation of Jacques Monod, extracted from its inaugural conference to the Collège de France. This modern scientist was atheistic (chance and need); for him as for other scientists, science brings closer the men on all planet, whereas the religions separate them. It seems that between science and religion, there is in fact a fundamental difference in nature. Science endeavors to formalize laws, to say the " comment" , but she does not explain the " pourquoi" universe. Thus the forecast of our acts will never be given by the development of research. Such as it presents itself, science is in oneself atheistic; no traces of God in the immense accumulation of studies which covers all the fields of rational knowledge.
Concerning the position of the Church L.L.R., watch which its attitude increasingly open but is known little about, including catholics. Its instrument of reflection and dialog resides mainly, and that since 1936, in the Pontifical Académie of Sciences which comprises 80 scientists of all nationalities, disciplines or confessions, of which a score of Nobel Prize; the catholics are minority there. It is established with the the Vatican and organizes several times per annum " weeks of étude" or of the conferences. The Pope, held with the current, chairs each autumn the plenary session; thus on November 10th, 1979, it initiated the process which was to lead in 1992 with the quasi rehabilitation of Galileo.
Position of the Catholic church at the XXe centuryThe attitude of the Catholic church evolved certainly /moved under the pontificate of Jean-Paul II.
At the beginning of its pontificate, on November 10th 1979 (hundredth birthday of the birth of Albert Einstein), Jean-Paul II initially wished to look further into the case of Galileo. July 3rd 1981, it appoints a commission of made up study theologists, scientists, and historians, in order to “make disappear the distrust which this business still opposes, in many spirits, with a profitable harmony between science and faith. ”
October 31st 1992, the commission gives the conclusions of his report and Jean-Paul II fact a speech in front of the pontifical Academy of sciences:
Thus new science, with its methods and the freedom of research which it supposes, obliged the theologists to wonder about their own criteria of interpretation of the Writing. The majority did not know to do it. Paradoxically, Galileo, sincere believer, showed themselves more perspicacious on this point than his adversaries theologists. “If the Writing cannot wander, writes it in Benedetto Castelli, some of its interpreters and commentators can it, and in several ways”. One knows also his letter with Christine of Lorraine (1615) which is like a small treaty of biblical hermeneutics.
In its famous message addressed to the pontifical Academy of sciences on October 22nd 1996, it affirmed the acceptance of the Théorie of the evolution (or, more exactly of the theories of the evolution, of which the theory darwinienne):
Today, nearly one half-century after the publication of the Encyclical , of new knowledge results in recognizing in the theory of the evolution more than one assumption . It is indeed remarkable that this theory gradually was essential on the spirit of the researchers, following a series of discoveries announced in various disciplines of the . Convergence, by no means required or caused, of the results of undertaken work independently from/to each other, constitutes by itself a significant argument in favor of this theory.
Moreover, the development of a theory like that of the evolution, while obeying the requirement of homogeneity with the data of the observation, borrows certain notions from the Philosophie of nature. And, to tell the truth, more than of the theory of the evolution, it is advisable to speak about the theories about the evolution. This plurality holds, on the one hand, with the diversity of the explanations which were proposed mechanism of the evolution and, on the other hand, with various philosophies to which one refers. There exist thus readings Matérialistes and Réductionnistes, and readings Spiritualistes.
One of the principal French thinkers on the relation between science and faith, the cardinal Paul Poupard, president of the Pontifical Academy of the Culture, specifies indeed, echoing the concept of Non Overlapping Magisteria (not covering of the magitères (NAMED)) of the American paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould that the epistemological distinction between the knowledge is a requirement to avoid detrimental forms of confusion, however if science and the faith are knowledge of deeply different forms, it is not true to think and teach, as some make it, that they constitute worlds with share and separated, which never meet: if one and the other has a direction for the man, it is in the truth and the truth of the man that they become, paradoxically, of the convergent parallels.
In 1996, the Pape Jean-Paul II affirmed that the evolution was more than one assumption . Thus the Catholic church refused to support the campaigns in favor of the Créationnisme which divided the United States. In 2005, George Coyne then, director of the Observatoire of the Vatican also has gave an opinion against the Intelligent design (a creationnism camouflaged for its detractors) in answer to the remarks of the Austrian cardinal Christoph Schönborn.
September 14th 1998, at the end of the thousand-year-old IIe, the Pape Jean-Paul II published the Encyclique Fides and ratio , which synthesizes this relation between the Foi and the Raison. Starting with the formula of Socrate (“know yourself”), it continues with this sentence:
The faith and the reason are as two wings which make it possible the human spirit to rise towards the contemplation of the truth.
In this Encyclical, Jean-Paul II recalls the work of appropriation of the ancient Philosophie (Aristote) by the occident during the Moyen-âge, in particular thanks to Saint Thomas d' Aquin, and the need for the base:
I only wish to declare that reality and the truth transcend the factual one and the empirical one, and I wish to affirm the capacity which has the man to know this transcendent dimension and Métaphysique in a veracious and unquestionable way, even if it is imperfect and analogical. /.../ a big challenge which arises to us at the end of this millenium is to know to achieve the passage, as necessary as urgent, of the phenomenon to the base. It is not possible to stop with the only experiment; even when this one expresses and proclamation the interiority of the man and his spirituality, it is necessary that the speculative reflection reaches the spiritual Substance and the base on which it rests. A philosophical thought which would refuse any opening Métaphysique would be thus radically inadequate to fulfill a function of mediation in the intelligence of the Révélation
See also: Fides and ratio
In the year 2000, the Church made act of Repentance for the errors made in the History. The analysis of the text of the repentance of March 12th, 2000 shows that each regret is preceded by an extenuating circumstance, except for the paragraph relating to the Persécution Jewish . Moreover the text starts with " for the service of the faith " in the majority of the European languages except for the Spanish language where it starts with " For the service of the truth " ; the text of the repentance is thus adaptable according to the position of the Catholic church in each nation.
See also: Repentance
The pope Benoit XVI, successor of Jean-Paul II, specified the point of view of the Catholic church in April 2007: Christianity made “the option of the priority of the creative reason at the beginning of all and principle of all”. It thus rejected the second possible option, that of “the priority of irrational according to which all that functions on the ground and in our lives would be only occasional and a product of irrational and affirms that “each one of us is the fruit of a thought of God”. This standpoint does not contradict the theory of the evolution, but refuses that this theory dictates the vision which one must have of the individual.
; Jean-Paul II:
- The faith and the reason are as two wings which make it possible the human spirit to rise towards the comtemplation of the truth. (Fides and ratio, September 14th 1998)
; Albert Einstein:
- What you read on my religious convictions was a lie, of course, a lie which is repeated systematically. I do not believe in personal God and I never said the opposite of that, I rather expressed it clearly. If there is something in me which one " can call; religieux" it would be then my admiration without terminals for the structures of the universe in so far as our science can reveal it. In the human side , Ed.Helen Dukas and Banesh Hoffman, letter of March 24th, 1954.
; Martin Luther King:
- There can be conflict between men of religion to the fragile spirit and scientists with the firm spirit, but not between science and religion. Their respective worlds are distinct and their different methods. Science seeks, the religion interprets. Science makes known to the man which is power; the religion gives to the man a wisdom which is control. Science deals with the facts, the religion deals with the values. They are not two rivals. They are complementary. Science prevents the religion from sinking in irrationalism impotent and the paralyzing obscurantism. The religion retains the science of embourber in the out of date materialism and the moral nihilism .
- Autonomy of science
- World (universe)
- Islamic Sciences and technology
- Encyclical Fides and ratio of the pope Jean-Paul II, September 14th 1998.
- faith and science | Ideology
- a life, a work Alfred North Whitehead Science and metaphysics (radio program to be listened on line)
- science and the religion - (the Site of the History)
- Site Hominidés.com : Evolution of the species and Faith as a God
- science and Moslem faith - (Encyclopedia)
- Science and religion. Science and Faith.
- Science & Religion: The impossible cohabitation? - ENS of Lyon
- Jean Bricmont '' Science and religion: irreducible antagonism ''
- Richard Dawkins '' Science and religion: which convergence? ''
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