Regional natural park
A regional natural park (PNR) is a public corporation of co-operation created between territorial collectivities and labellized by the State, recovering the territory of a remarkable rural area, in order to protect its landscape and its inheritance and to implement a durable economic development at it.
The PNR were created in France by a decree dated March 1st 1967. The territory of a PNR is classified by Décret Prime Minister for one 12 years renewable period. The rules of management of a PNR appear in its charter.
Inventory of fixturesToday one counts 45 regional natural parks (43 in Métropole, 1 in Guyana and 1 in Martinique). That represent 12% of the French territory, 3690 common S, more than 7 million Hectare S and more than 3 million Habitant S.
Distributed on the whole of the French territory and Overseas, the PNR include number of Paysage S of France in all their diversity: one indeed finds there the Volcans of Auvergne, the the Camargue, the solid mass of the Queyras, the Brière, of the zones of Bocage S, terraces, the landscapes of Montagne like large Culture S,…
The entire surface of the PNR is made up to 37% of Forêts (26% in metropolitan France), to 40% of agricultural surfaces (half of this surface consisting of pastures) and to 1,9% of built-up areas. One however notes important variations according to the areas.
The population density of the PNR is on average of 41 inhabitants to the km ². There too disparities exist: 1,5 hab. /km ² for the PNR of Guyana, 360 hab. /km ² for PNR of Scarpe the Scheldt.
Certain Parks are located on only one department while others are with horse on several departments and sometimes even several area S from where the choice of a management system in the form of Mixed trade-union.
Procedure of creation of a ParkThe Regional natural parks are created to protect and emphasize inhabited rural big spaces.
Can claim with the classification in PNR of the territories whose patrimonial interest is remarkable and who comprise sufficient elements recognized at the national and/or international level:
“Can be classified as “Regional natural park” a territory with dominant rural of which landscapes, natural environments and the cultural heritage are of great quality, but whose balance is fragile. ”
In fact the territories concerned with the PNR are generally threatened by the turning into a desert, or on the contrary, by the urban pressure of a great close agglomeration.
The classification of these territories in particular consists in setting up a concerted project of Sustainable development aiming protecting but also at developing the inheritance as well natural as cultural.
- “the charter of the park determines for the territory of the regional natural park the orientations of protection, development and development and measurements making it possible to implement them. It comprises a plan worked out starting from an inventory of the inheritance indicating the various zones of the park and their vocation. The charter determines the orientations and the basic principles of protection of the landscape structures on the territory of the park. ”
The first stage consists in determining the Périmètre of study territory of the park. The council (S) regional (with) concerned have the responsibility for this procedure. Then, comes time from the development of a Charte. By deliberation, the Area charges a local organization (grouping of communities or association) writing it with. Then, the file is transmitted to the Regional prefect then with the Minister in charge for the Environment for a classification in PNR.
The documents of town planning on the territory of the regional natural park must be in conformity with the orientations registered in the charter of the park which is thus regarded itself as a Document of town planning. So the charter project is subjected to a Public survey before its approval.
The classification intervenes for one 12 years period. Before flow of this time, a revision of the charter must intervene, under the responsibility of the Région (S) concerned (S). It (S) are appuyent with this intention on the structure of management of the park. This step is based on the assessment and the evaluation of the action of the park during the ten past years. A request for renewal of the classification is then formulated by the Région (S) concerned.
A markOnce classified, the territories concerned obtain the mark “Regional natural park”, label pertaining at the State and deposited with INPI. This mark allows certain products, services and knowledge to make be labellized with the profit of local economic development.
Criteria of classification
the inheritance of the territory
- unicity of the quality of the inheritance for the area concerned.
- recognition at the national and/or international level.
- perimeter in agreement with the identity of the territory.
- orientations and measurements planned to answer the diagnosis and the stakes of the territory.
- bonds between local partners (elected, farmers, companies, associations of protection of nature, cultural, inhabitants, administrations,…).
the control of the project
- adhesion of the communities (common, areas, departments,…).
- average human and financial with the height of the project.
- formalized partnerships and dialog (conventions, agreements, contracts of objectives,…)
The Federation of the Regional natural parksThe Federation is the spokesperson of the Regional natural parks.
Association 1901, the Fédération of the Regional natural parks of France lays down various objectives as well on the national plan as international:
To contribute to the definition and the deployment of the policy in favor of the French rural areas.
- To be the spokesperson of the regional natural parks near the national authorities and international to defend their interests.
- To communicate on the ethics of the Regional natural parks and their actions.
Its activities are thus organized around five poles:
The pole “Territories”This pole with for vocation to help the parks in the development or the revision of their charters like their methods evaluation.
The federation can have to check the project carried by a park so that it can fit with other territorial projects being able to exist on the spot. The same applies to the taking into account of this project in the territorial procedures of planning (territorial diagrams, documents of town planning) or of contractualisation (contracts of Parks).
Within the framework of its educational and cultural policies, the federation can evaluate the capacity of a park to lead its project in a participative way.
In practice to answer these tasks, two commissions were born. It are placed under the supervision of an office. This last gives the opinions and comments on the charters in project and revision with various stages of the procedure.
the Commission “Town and country planning” coordinates work concerning the evaluation, the cohabitation of the charters of parks with the other projects or procedures as well as the territorial policies as regards energy.
- the commission “Life of the territories” specializes for work concerning the participative operation of the mixed trade-unions of management, the educational action and the participation of the inhabitants.
Consultation of the Federation on the new projects of PNRThe Office of the Federation can be consulted for opinion on the perimeter appropriateness of park, on a preliminary draft of charter. However, its opinion is obligatory when it is about a final project of charter, last stage before it is approved by Éétat.
The Federation aims thus to:
- Veiller so that the charter is in conformity with the requirements of the criteria of classification and that it expresses precise engagements on behalf of the signatories.
- To confirm the choice of the influence of the park within sight of possible other projects being able to exist.
- to make sure that the project supported by a park out of its is not carried.
EvaluationsThe whole of the parks constitutes a network in which the federation diffuses a culture and a common methodology concerning the evaluation of the respect of the charter. In addition formations sets of themes are organized that it is in the Parks indivuellement, or in inter-Parks.
the Federation sets up audits to identify territorial descriptors being able to be common to all the parks, in order to in the long term propose indicators on the effects of the charters.
For that, a technical group “evaluation” coordinates three specific work groups: group methodology, descriptor group, computer tools group.
Projects of territoryThe improvement of the relations between parks and the local actors are a major strategic direction for the future of the parks. Several axes of co-operation are released like:
Development of formations common to the technicians of the Park, the Communities of communes and the Countries.
- Reflections on the cohabitation zone rural/urban areas (31 parks have a common territory or are bordering on a great agglomeration). In this objective, an work group “articulation” was created.
- Answers to be brought to the residential pressure. For example, the favorisation of the more sparing shapes of habitat of space.
Participative operationIn the right wire of the practices aiming at the participation of the civil society by means of the Councils of development in the countries and the agglomerations, the parks promote the constitution of such tools within their mixed trade-unions. On the level of the federation, the reflections, whose work group “Governorship” with the load, relate to three topics:
Recasting of the participative systems set up by the trade-union Committees and their animation: Advisory commissions, authorities, etc
- Better implication of the communal delegates.
- procedure of public survey.
Educational actionThe new circulars of the treating Minister of education of the place of the environment in the school programs support a work of capitalization of the experiments with the Collège S and Lycée S but also with the agricultural establishments where partnership are developed.
A guide entitled “At the school of the Park” intended for the teachers of the primary education was published and the development of the exchanges of classes inter-Parks is in the air of time.
The work group “Education with the territory” also thinks of the feasibility of an event key period of the educational matter network.
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