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The pike (or large pike ) is a Poisson which lives the rivers, the lakes and the ponds of Europe, of North America, of Asia and Morocco (average Atlas, introduced). The pike is present on all the tape of the sphere between the Tropique of the Capricorn and the polar circle.
Regarded a long time wrongly as a monster glouton devouring all that is presented to its range, he is recognized today like an excellent regulator of population of the lakes and ponds. He is often introduced into the water levels where the carps are in excess.
Origin of the name
Resulting from old French stitches .
The pike is affublé many nicknames: pitcher , nozzle , nozzle-of-duck , spoiler , brocheton , skewer , brouché , roughs-hew , filaton , flute , goulu , large-nozzle , large-gousier , lanceron , lançon , luceau , pognan , pogneau , dagger , whistle , gobe fish , rifle , shark of river or fresh water , piraña francesa .
The pike is spindle-shaped and cover of fine scales, with differences according to its medium in life. The sides and the back are generally greenish or yellowish. Its size varies from 50 cm to 70 cm and its weight between 2 and 5 kg, however individuals of more than 150 cm and more than 20 kg exist but are rather rare (they are generally females). It has black eyes, surrounded by gold and motionless above the head with a field of vision of 70°. The dorsal fin constitutes for this fish a genuine additional engine. It has a mouth long, flattened, and equipped with 700 teeth pointed and hooked, able to push back.
In large pike 5 sensory pores visible under its mandibles inferiors, are maskinongé the 6 to 9 and the pike with a grid that 4. Only the superior part of the covers is scaled while the totality of those of the Brochet with a grid is covered with scale. An hybrid between large pike and maskinongé is sometimes observed where the two species are present. The color recall then delivered Maskinongé but certain features (the shape of the tail in particular) are intermediate. Moreover these hybrids were sown at certain places for sporting fishing. It is probable that it hybrid also naturally with the Brochet with a grid.
It affectionate rivers with slow current, arms died, rivers, ponds and lakes. It defends its territory against any intrusion. Example of habitat the lake of Aguelmame Aziza, Aguelmame Sidi Ali with Khénifra in Morocco, this fish is introduced by the French colonists at the beginning of the 20th century. It is also present in the Japanese rivers, in particular in the area of Tsuru, where the local speciality is the pike stuffed Tsunya.
Unfortunately, at certain places in the world, the pike is threatened of extinction by the change of sound Biotope: by pollution, by abusive fishing, the lack of precipitation, and more surely still by the systematic destruction of its places of reproduction (easily flooded zones and meadows) by the concreting of the banks and the mitage of the floodplains. In Canada for example the situation of this species is not alarming in almost the whole of its distribution.
Although fresh water species exclusively, the pike is also fished in salt water of the the Baltic. Indeed, the particular form of this sea, its very narrow access to the Atlantic Ocean, its strong contributions out of river fresh water and the weakness of observable marling, make that a layer of fresh water of several meters survives salt water. The pikes thus live in this layer of water, and make frequent intrusions in the layer salted for gaver, in particular of Hareng S. Their rate of annual enlargement and their maximum size (more than 2 meters!) become extraordinary.
It is a sedentary and solitary hunter. In the big lakes, one also finds it in benches, especially when they are young subjects. The pike can live more than 20 years. But the pike populations are in regression because of surpêche, the pollution and the destruction of the habitats but especially by the lack of easily flooded meadows where it reproduces , and of the bad management of the water level on these spawning grounds, very often catastrophic for a whole new generation of let us brochetons.
The food of pike evolves/moves with the age. It starts by nourishing Zooplancton S and insects when it is Alevin (30 mm). Then, at the adulthood, it nourishes alive, sick or dead fish (keep, brèmes, poles, trouts and even let us brochetons), but does not scorn some will extras (crayfish, Grenouille, rodent water duckling, Poule, …). The cannibalism is not rare in pikes. In fact there exist lakes Canadian where it is only the large predatory ones, thus the large specimens nourish mainly… small pikes. It is a fish which drives out in ambush; it is camouflaged in watery grasses or merges with immersed branches, and waits until a prey passes to its range. Its slim body is not adapted to long continuations but well to abrupt accelerations and in straight line. It is not rare that it attacks a fish taken with the line of a fisherman.
The large pike is an opportunist carnivore which nourishes itself of all that is easiest to capture. The size of its preys can be as large as the third or half of its own size.
The period of abrasion occurs February at April (water between 5 and 12 °C). The female lays approximately between 15 000 and 20 000 eggs per kg of its weight (between 3.000 and 600.000 eggs). The eggs are deposited in the herbaria located close to the banks. A large female is accompanied by one or two smaller males. No nest is built. The eggs clear amber from 2,5 to 3,0 mms in diameter are scattered randomly and are fixed at the vegetation Its growth is fast 30 cm at the end of its first year, 50 cm at the end of its second, then 10 cm per annum up to 100 cm, in the event of normal growth. It is interesting to note that the pike uses 17% of what it eats while creating directly of the muscle. Thus if it ingurgite a gardon of 100 grams it manufactures 17 grams of muscle.
These teeth being very cutting, the wire of Nylon, the Tresse, used for its fishing are easily divided, this is why a Crinelle of steel is recommended. Very required in certain areas by the sporting fishermen. It is also subjected to a certain commercial fishing in Saskatchewan and to Manitoba although it is not the species directly not aimed by these fishings.
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