Rangoon (in Burmese my ရန္ကုန္မ္ရုိ့), in French Rangoun , officially re-elected in Yangon , is old the Capitale of the Burma (or Myanmar). Actually, Yangon is quite simply the Burmese pronunciation of the name. Located at the junction of the rivers Yangon and Bago, it is to 30 km of the Golfe of Martaban, in the Mer of Andaman.
The military junta which controls the country started to move the capital of the country inside, with Naypyidaw (Division of Mandalay), in November 2005. She is officially the capital of the country since March 26th, 2007.
Yangon comes from two Burmese words, yan (my ရန္) and koun (my ကုန္), which means enemies and to miss , respectively. The name can thus be translated like end of the discord , end of the conflict . Rangoon/Rangoun , as for him, probably comes from the bad pronunciation of Yangon on behalf of the Britanniques.
After the military blow of the general Win in 1962, Rangoon was and remains very little developed compared with the other big cities of the Southeast Asia. However, the field of construction sees a rise due to the overseas investment (in particular of Singapore and China). Many residential and commercial buildings were rebuilt or modified with the downtown area and the surroundings. Rangoon has the greatest number of colonial buildings of any city of the Southeast Asia. Offices of the government located in colonial buildings (Supreme court, the town hall, the Gone Bogyoke…) will be renovated soon. new cities (my မ္ရုိ့သစ္) and other surrounding areas remain poor.
Rangoon belongs to the Réseau of the Asian big cities 21.
HistoryThe city was founded under the name of Dagon by the My at the 6th century; these people dominated at the time the south of what is Myanmar today. Dagon was at the beginning only one small village of fishing located around the Pagode Shwedagon.
It was conquered by the king Alaungpaya in 1753 and was re-elected Yangon . The city is destroyed by a Incendie in 1841 and is heavily damaged during the Second war anglo-Burmese of 1852. The country is conquered by the British Empire the same year; Rangoon becomes the capital of the colony and an important economic and political center of Myanmar. The limits of the city are established when the Low-Burma is integrated into the British Raj. The streets of the downtown area (the cantonment ) are arranged like a set of failures by engineers Fraser and Montgomerie throughout the Fleuve Yangon after the end of the Second war anglo-Burmese.
British occidentalize education. They establish several universities there: in Government College will amalgamate later with in|Judson College to create the University of Rangoon, and the in Theological College for Karens is today the Burmese Institut of theology. Many Pensionnat S religious transfers the day during times of the British Empire to educate the English children, Anglo-Burmeses or Christian Karens .
For the colonial period the most important industries of Rangoon were the Riziculture and the tree felling, but of other products (whose Coton, invaluable stones, Cheroot and Ivoire) is them also exported. At the beginning of the Years 1900, Rangoon had infrastructure and public services on the same level of those of the London of the time. Jules DuBern contributes to the development of the port, like with the creation of the zoological garden.
Rangoon will be very damaged in 1930 by two natural disasters: a Earthquake and a Tsunami, and will suffer from the devastations of the Armée imperial Japanese woman, who invades the city during the Second world war on March 8th, 1942.
Before the war the Indiens were the ethnos group most represented. After the independence of the countries one saw more Burmese, but the Anglo-Burmeses continue to form approximately a quarter of the population of the city until the end of the Années 1960. Today the number of inhabitants belonging to the ethnos groups fewer increases. The departure of the Anglo-Burmeses, the Indians and the Chinese is explained by the dismantling of the colonial policies encouraging the immigration of these countries like by the departure of the majority of the English, thus decreasing the mixed rate of marriages.
The name of Rangoon is officially changed with Yangon into 1989, at the same time as much of other place names through the country. Though this change reflects the reality of the local pronunciation of the name, it was however prone to controversy because the military junta carrying out the change is not officially recognized like legitimate by certain governments and citizens. For example, the American government persists with the use of the anglophone names for the country and the city: Burma and Rangoon , respectively. At the same time, one changed many street names to the Burmese, but much of inhabitants still call them by their colonial names.
In 1996 the government decides to protect certain colonial buildings under governmental jurisdiction; it writes one List heritage structures to be protected.
Rangoon lodges in December 2004 the in [[World Buddhist Summit]] , which accommodated more: 1000 Monk S Buddhist and several Heads of State, of which Thaksin Shinawatra, Prime Minister for the Thailand.
In November 2006 the Burmese government starts to move the capital with Naypyidaw, 322 km in north in the Division of Mandalay. The reasons are dubious, but the most widespread theory with the country is that Than Shaw, Head of State of the country, makes enormously confidence in the Astrologie, and moved the capital to avoid a fine close relation. Some propose that the military regime which controls the country moved the capital inside the country to be placed better and protected in the event of an invasion. Other theories postulate that it is for better controlling the ethnic minorities present in the States Karen, Shan and Chin, or to have a capital far from foreign telecommunications.
Since the semione, the residents of certain districts of Rangoon must put photographs of the inhabitants of the apartment/house some share on their premises for safety reasons , and any inhabitant must maintain a list of the members of their family. The visitors at an inhabitant of Rangoon must record their stay with the local authorities before settling there.
GeographyLocated at the junction of the rivers Yangon and Bago, it is to 30 km of the Golfe of Martaban, in the Mer of Andaman.
Rangoon is managed by the Committee of the urban development of Rangoon ( in Yangon City Development Committee , or YCDC); this coordinate committee the Town planning.
The mayor is the sergeant-general Aung Thein Lynn.
The city is divided into four districts, which gather 32 districts, each one of those being managed by a committee of leaders of the district who make decisions relating to maintenance and the infrastructure.
The jurisdictions of the Municipality of Rangoon include the 32 districts. The myo-thit ( new cities or satellite towns) is not included/understood in these jurisdictions.
District of Ahlone
- District of Bahan
- District of Dagon (where the Pagode Shwedagon is located; crested district)
- District of Kyauktada (many historical buildings shelter, of which the town hall, supreme court, and of the colonial buildings as well as embassies)
- Arrondissement of Kyeemyntdine
- Arrondissement of Lanmadaw (Chinese population; shelter the ministry for energy)
- Arrondissement of Latha (it Chinatown from Rangoon; very commercial district)
- District of Pabedan (in the center of the district; very commercial, shelters markets)
- Arrondissement of Sanchaung
- Arrondissement of Seikkan
District of Dagon Seikkan
- District of Eastern Dagon
- District of septentrional Dagon
- District of septentrional Okkalapa
- District of southern Dagon
- District of Thingangyun
- District of Botahtaung
District of Hlaing
- District of Hlaingthaya
- District of Insein
- District of Kamayut
- District of Mayangone
- District of Mingalodon
- District of Pazundaung
- District of Shwepyitha
Arrondissement of Paved
- Arrondissement of Dawbon
- Arrondissement of Mingalataungnyunt
- Arrondissement of Thaketa
- Arrondissement of Tamwe
- Arrondissement of Yankin
- Arrondissement of Seikkyi Kanaungto
The vernacular one of Rangoon is the Burmese . The English is often spoken among the oldest most educated inhabitants and.
The city shelters the oldest university of Myanmar: once affiliated with the University of Calcutta, the Université of Rangoon is officially founded like institution with share in 1920. Two of the four universities of Médecine of Myanmar are in Rangoon.
The principal television channels of the country are based in Rangoon. There are two local chains: TV Myanmar and Myawaddy (this last created in 1995), which diffuses 7:00 with 4:00, and 16:00 with 23:00, respectively. The majority of the hotels have the satellite.
There are other chains, but national: MRTV3 , MRTV4 , and Chanel 5 . MRTV3 diffuses English emissions of 9 with 10:00 in Burma; abroad it diffuses of 13 with 14:00, 18 with 19:00, and 2 with 4:00. It is an English chain for a foreign public, being able to be seen in 126 countries. MRTV4 (launched in 2004) diffuse of the educational emissions and entertainment, 7 with 23:00. Chanel 5 diffuses films in foreign language (English, Chinese, Hindi…), with subtitles in Burmese, as well as cartoons.
Radio Myanmar diffuses in English of 8:30 to 9:00, 1:30 to 2:00, and 9:00 to 10:30. New City FM (founded in 2002) diffuses of 8 with 10:00 and 13 with 17:00, while City FM diffuses of 7 with 21:00 (music of Burma and elsewhere, emissions various, interviews…).
There are three newspapers published the morning: Myanmar Ah Lin , Kye my in Myanmar , and The New Light off Myanmar (this English last). Another national newspaper is published in Mandalay, The Yadanabon News .
In weekly newspapers one finds the Myanmar Times Journal in English, distributed every Monday, and in Burmese, distributed every Friday; both based in Rangoon.
There are three English magazines, Golden Myanmar , Myanmar Chronicle , and Myanmar Perspective .
One finds foreign newspapers and magazines in certain bookstores.
Sites and inheritanceThe city shelters several Buddhist buildings , the population of the country being mainly Buddhist, like several museums.
Mémorial with Allied the
- Alan Pya Paid (formerly the pagoda of the Signal)
- Marché Bogyoke (formerly the Scott market)
- Pagode of Botahtaung
- Chaukhtatgyi Paya
- Lac Inya (formerly Lake Victoria)
- Lac Kandawgyi (formerly the lake Royal)
- Kyaukdawgyi Paya
- Parc and public garden of the people
- Parc Mahabandoola (formerly Filche Square)
- national Village of the races
- Cathédrale Sainte-Marie de Yangon
- Pagode Shwedagon
- Pagoda Sule
- University of Rangoon
- General hospital of Rangoon
- Zoological gardens of Rangoon
- Daragah de Zafar Shah
One finds there the National museum of Burma (old history and arts), the Museum of the service of defense (military), the Museum of the gems and the jewelry, the Museum Bogyoke Aung San, the Museum of the elimination of drug, and a Planétarium.
There is several dozen Cinéma S in Rangoon. One also finds there coffees, living rooms of the and theaters. There exist churches and mosques downtown.
Sometimes the weekend, the inhabitants of Rangoon leave to spend a few days to the beaches not far from the city, of which Chaung Tha and Ngwe Saung (Division of Ayerwaddy).
Rangoon is the economic center of Burma. The currency is the Kyat. The majority of the imports and exports are done in Rangoon, especially with the port on the Yangon river, which joined further the Irrawaddy. One envisages the construction of a special economic Zone in the district of Thanlyin, opposite the port of Thilawa. It is on standby of authorization.
The international airport of Rangoon is the International airport of Mingaladon, located at 19 km of the downtown area. One inaugurated new a recently there final airport to accommodate larger planes and to promote tourism in Burma.
The Autobus are crammed at the rush hours.
The cars, though expensive, are seen more and more on the streets of Rangoon, and there start to be problems of road traffic. The government restricts the importation of foreign cars regularly; the Black-market is thus the independent source of new cars and occasion (they come especially from Thailand, then of Japan and China). One leads on the right. The government rations the Pétrole, therefore the majority of the cars roll on a mixture of oil of the government and black-market.
In the city even it is interdict to use Vélo S, Moto S, and Rickshaw S.
The lines of train go to the north of the country and leave the Central station of Rangoon. There is a line in the city which binds certain districts.
Rangoon was formerly an example to be followed for the remainder of the Southeast Asia. Three types of streets were built-in during the construction of the colonial city. Those going from west in east were broad of 49 Mr. Celles going from north in the south consisted of two streets of 9,1 of broad each one, a 15 m broad street, two 10,5 m broad streets, and a 30 m broad street; this order is repeated in those going from west in east. The smaller streets were numbered while those of intermediate size and large were named, certain in honor of important inhabitants.
For example, one could find the street Lanmadow, of 30,5 m broad, followed small streets 17th and 18th, then street Sint-O-daN, of intermediate size to 17,7 m, followed of the small streets 19th and 20th, then the street Latha of 30,5 broad, then still two small streets, the streets 21e and 22e.
The parallel streets going from west in east are the streets Strand, Merchant, Dalhousie ( Maha Bandoola ), Fraser ( Anawrahta ) and Montgomery To commission ( Bogyoke Aung San ).
After the independence of Burma in 1948, much of streets were famous. Today the current and colonial names are used indifferently for certain arteries. Here a list of the principal streets whose names were changed:
- Campbell Road → Ngahtatgyi Pagoda Road
- Dalhousie Street → Mahabandoola Road
- Lower Kemmendine Road → Lower Kyimyindi Road
- Montgomery Street → Bogyoke Aung San Road
- Pagoda Road → Shwedagon Pagoda Road
- Prome Road → Pyay Road
- Upper Phayre Road → Upper Pansodan Road
- Sparks Street → Bo Aung Kyaw Street
- Stockade Road and Judah Ezekiel Road → Theinbyu Road
- Voyle Road → U Wisara Road
- Lancaster Road → Nawaday Road
- Windermere Road → Than Lwin Road
- Windsor Road → Shin Sawpu Road
- Stevenson Road → Hledan Road
- Fraser Road → Anawratha Road
- Lewis Street → Seikkanthar Street
- Bar Street → Mahahbandula Park Street
- York Street→ Yaw Min Gyi Street
In the Classification of Köppen Rangoon an equatorial climate with Mousson has.
- Aung San Suu Kyi, the leader of the democratic opposition, was born in Rangoon on June 19th, 1945.
- Nick Drake, musician Folk English, was born in Rangoon on June 19th, 1948.
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