Quimper , or Kemper in Breton (the name of Quimper-Corentin is sometimes attested in reference to Saint Corentin, one of the Seven Saints Breton Founders) is a common French, ancient capital of Cornwall, located in the department of the Finistere and the area Brittany.
Its inhabitants is called in French the Quimpérois and Quimpéroises and in Breton Kemperad (male), Kemperadez (female), Kemperiz (plural).
GeographyLocated at the junction of the Steir, the Odet and the Jet. By its population, is the second town of its department, behind Brest. The sea goes up there the steepsided valley of Odet and a position of basic port of estuary gives him which explains its establishment and part of its economic role. It is also a very old road crossroads.
Administration|- | align=right| March 2001 |||| Alain Gerard ||align=" center" | UMP ||
Demographydemographic trends of Large Quimper (communes amalgamated of Quimper, Kerfeunteun, Ergué-Armel and Penhars)
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The name Quimper corresponds to Breton modern the Kemper " confluent" , the city having been built with the junction of the Steir, the Odet and the Jet. This term kemper finds in modern Welsh cymer " conjonction" and the Irish modern comhar " coopération". The old name of the city was Quimper-Corentin - Saint Corentin being famous the first bishop - then with the French revolution it was renamed Mountain-on-Odet for finally becoming Quimper. It is in Quimper-Corentin that Jean of the Fountain place his fable of the Charretier embourbé . Aquilonia was the Roman name of Quimper.
Prehistoric and ancient Quimper was the subject of intense archaeological research thanks to the existence of a municipal archaeological service.
Vestiges of habitats dating from the Age of iron, of forging mills and burials were found in the old communes of Ergué-Armel and Penhars with a concentration on the site of the Braden. A flourishing agricultural activity is développpée.
But, the discovery in 2003 of a Gallic horse agglomeration on Steïr in North, close to the village of Kergolvez, brought a confirmation of the seniority of the urbanization, since the datings go from 2nd or from to an abandonment dated towards 30 av. J. - C. There too, of metal slags made it possible to detect a notable metallurgical activity, as well as artisanat.
A Gallo-Roman agglomeration was located in the district of Locmaria. It comprised a forum and thermal baths in the center of a squaring whose significant element was found in 2006 near a probable port on the estuary and of a Acropole located on the Western summit of the Mont Frugy (in the past Cnech Cuki). A Roman way connected it to Vannes and others with Brest, Carhaix and the Pointe of Van.
It seems to have remained without historical traces after 6th since a civitas aquilonia (the city of North?) mentioned in an act of the 11th century by the name of a place of worship Sancta Maria in aquilonia civitate around the church of Locmaria as seems to confirm it another act of existed 1124.
Towards the end of 9th appears the mention of a bishop of Saint Corentin, first bishop according to the tradition, for one as of its successors. The name of Kemper or Quempercorentin appears at the end of the 11th century. One finds then the terms Latin Confluentia and C (H) orisopitum which one believes being a Cacographie of Curiosolitum (the old Gallic city of the Coriosolites, chief town “Fanum Martis”/Corseul, meadows of Dinan. One finds in Locmaria some traces of a worship of Saint Tudy (see on this subject equivalence with Saint Tugdual) and the mention of a very old monastery which would have followed the Celtic uses. A stone Maen Tudi exists indeed on the minihi priory of Locmaria. But nothing still convincing on prehistory the episcopal see which is not given like overseas origin like others in Brittany. The Age High-Means shows a confusion of the ducal and episcopal capacity under certain Binidic, wire of Budic of Châteaulin. This contestable situation is untied by the attribution of the County of Cornwall in Alain Canhiart (or Cainhart), wire of Binidic, and that of évêché successively with his/her two brothers, Orscant and Binidic. There will remain the fact about it that the bishop will keep until 1791 the possession of the city strengthened between Odet, Steir and Frout, the count, then duke of Brittany keeping the known western suburb under the name of the Ground-with-Duke.
The city developing, the duke of Brittany is brought to take account of notable and to grant privileges to them to support the local economy and thus its own tax re-entries.
The movement starts by an act of Jean IV, but so of the meetings of the “body of city” are attested in one of the vaults of the closed city, there is not trace of fights to set up a “commune” in opposition with the ducal or episcopal authority.
It is only into 1704 that the creation of an office of mayor is decided. The Moyen-âge is one period of economic development and also religious orders which settle in and out of the closed city. In 1490 a called country insurrection “the commune of Cornwall bursts”: thousands of badly armed peasants besiege the city, but are pushed back and massacred.
Printing works came only about 1525, but its rise, like will everywhere be contained by the policy of absolute control of Louis XIV which reduces to a printer by city the authorized activities, which must be under the fastidious glance of the bishop.
The 18th century brings to Quimper the coal mining of Ground-Black to Penhars and especially the development of the Faïence laughs initiated since 1690 by a contractor of Provence, Jean-Baptiste Bousquet followed by Rouennais Pierre Crussy. They exploit the excellent clay extracted with a few km in the South from Locmaria.
The Revolution will be well accommodated, but excesses of the mountain Left and hebertist in 1793 will cause oppositions such as the Chouans will be close controlling all the surrounding countryside in 1799.
The “denshering of the Saints”, the December 11th and 12th 1792, days of plundering and the destruction of the churches will mark the spirits: the municipality let make the antireligieux extremists before realizing that Convention had required to avoid such excesses.
The continental Blocus set up by the British Navy in 1805 benefits the wearing a little of Quimper sheltered well at the bottom from its ria, because it is especially Brest which is surveillée.
At the 19th century, the administrative offices and religious reinforce the role of Quimper which knows a slow increase in its population which overflows little by little on the common neighbors, because its territory is exiguous and the other agglomerations very proches.
It is also a garrison city which lodges the 118e regiment of infantry of line (colonel Philippe Pétain with the command in 1907).
The arrival of the railroad in 1863 prolonged later on until Douarnenez and the development of the port for the export and the importation of agricultural food products create an economic development which accelerates close 1880 because of improvement of the agricultural productivity and a real industrialization though moderate.
The improvement of the communications allows the beginnings of tourism which involves the development of the hotels and the companies of transport.
The fusion of 4 communes to form Large Quimper in 1960 supports the rise of construction and the equipment to make city an agglomeration where transport develops by creation of new ways, by-passs, bridges and by the arrival of fast connections per plane (connection towards Paris), per train (TGV) and per road (expressway towards Paris and Brest).
If Brest is selected in 1962 like sits of the University of Western Brittany (UBO), Quimper accommodates finally a IUT, a wide university college in a university pole depend on the UBO in 1998 and various higher formations, the whole concerning more than 4.000 étudiants.
The collective habitat is established by national planning with Penhars and Ergué-Armel, while the heights cover thousands of houses to the white walls and the dark slate roofs. From 14.000 inhabitants before 1960, Quimper passes to 63.000 in 1999, far from the 120.000 imagined in 1970, but continuing to accommodate a few hundreds of new inhabitants each year. Great industrial parks in the East and the West are added to the central zone of the Hippodrome.
855 : First mention of a bishop “close Saint-Corentin”
- 1022: Holders different from the county and from évêché (Alain Canhiart and its Orscant brother)
- 1085: First mention of Quimper “Quempercorentin” in an act of the count (duke) Alain Fergent
- 1239: Beginning of work of the current cathedral
- 1344: Catch of Quimper by Charles of Blois
- 1364: Seat and taken of Quimper by Jean IV of Montfort
- 1384: Jean IV grants privileges to the inhabitants of the closed city (exemption of feudal rights and taxes)
- 1490: Country insurrection in Cornwall, revolted take the city which is taken again by the king Charles VIII in 1491.
- 1594: Seat of Quimper by the marshal of Aumont
- 1620: Creation of the College of the Jesuits
- 1690: Creation by Bousquet of the first factory of Earthenware to Locmaria
- 1704: Creation of the office of mayor of Quimper
- 1746: Set fire to which lasts 12 days in the old center (street of Guéodet and street Kéréon)
- 1790: Quimper is finally preferred with Landerneau to establish there the Chief town of the new department of Finistere
- 1793: The day of the Holy Corentin, under the pressure of antireligieux, the municipality orders the destruction of and the armorial bearings liturgical objects of the churches and the cathedral in front of which is operated the “denshering of the saints”
- 1800: Assassination by the Chouans of the bishop Yves Marie Audrein. First Prefect named by Napoleon Bonaparte
- 1842: Boring of the street of Brest
- 1856: Completion of the arrows of the cathedral
- 1858: Reception of the emperor Napoleon III which announces the financing of the quay of Kerguélen and of the public garden
- 1863: Arrival of the railroad
- 1876: Louis-Marie Hémon, first republican deputy
- 1904: Inauguration of the municipal theater (name max Jacob given in 1998)
- 1905: General strike of the workmen during 4 days
- 1923: First festival of the Queens of Cornwall become now the Festival of Cornwall
- 1935: Aerodrome open to Pluguffan
- 1944: Release of the city, the resistant ones armed forcing the enemy to withdraw itself more quickly.
- 1960 : Fusion of the 4 communes to form Large Quimper (with Ergué-Armel, Kerfeunteun and Penhars)
- 1964: The Aéroport of Quimper Cornwall is opened with the regular lines of passengers towards Paris
- 1968: Inauguration of sports complex of Penvillers
- 1969: Last public appearance of * the General de Gaulle at the time of a speech on the place of Resistance
- 1969: Opening of the “second boulevard” length of Odet (data base Dupleix)
- 1969: Opening of the first hypermarket, road of Bénodet in the district of Créac' h-Gwenn
- 1969: Opening of the Academic institute of technology
- 1973: Startup of the administrative City with Ty-Nay
- 1976: Set fire to covered markets
- 1982: Transfer at the city of the barracks the Tower of Auvergne
- 1986: Inauguration of the Center of Arts, the Culture and congress, street of the Hat-Red
- 1988: Creation of the Technopolis Quimper-Cornwall
- 1989: Opening of the retail park of Gourvily
- 1997: Inauguration of the university Pole Pierre-Jakez Hélias in Créac' h-Gwenn
- 1998: Inauguration of the Theater of Cornwall
- 2005: Quimper accommodates the 42ème Européade
- 2007: Beginning of work of installation of Fiberoptic, project Very Hermineo High banc, in the streets of Quimper
Tourist monuments and places
Quimper is classified town of art and history.
Cathédrale Saint-Corentin (Gothic style - XIIIe-XIXe - neo-gothic arrows of 77 m)
- Église prieurale of Locmaria (Romance style - XIe-XIIe)
- Église Saint-Mathieu (XIXe - neo-gothic style)
- Église of Kerfeunteun (late style Gothic - XVIe)
- Chapelle of Ty Mamm Endows ( Maison of the Mother of God ) with Kerfeunteun (XVIe-XVIIe)
- Ancienne vault with the College Jesuit (XVIIIe)
- the Old man Quimper (ramparts, old houses, of which the House of the Cariatides, street of Guéodet)
- the Museum with the Art schools (close to cathedral)
- Breton departmental Museum (old archeology, ethnology, furniture and costumes, prints, earthenware) in the old episcopal palate
- Museum of Earthenware
- Walks of the Frugy Mount: ways in a wooded cliff overhanging the city
- Festival of Cornwall (third week of July)
- HB-Henriot Faience manufactures * Throats of the Stangala where the river Odet runs (to 7 km N.E.)
- wooded Gorges of the estuary of Odet (visit in the tourist high-speed motorboats)
- Place the Tower of Auvergne, drew up before the last war the monument set up in 1908, with the memory of the carhaisien the Tower of Auvergne, " first pomegranate of Empire" , born in 1743, killed with the combat of Oberhausen in Germany on June 27th, 1800 and author of various works on the Breton language. This bronze statue of the sculptor Philippe Joseph Henri Lemaire representing on foot of estal of masonry the expiring hero supported by a winged victory, occupied the center of the place, which is used now as paying parking lot. A statue of granite replacement, appearing the same character in the guard with you, work of the scuptor Robert Michel, was set up after war, but its site in edge of carpark, between two plane trees, does not emphasize it.
- The north-western angle of the same place has draws up the war memorial First World War, representing a marine cast iron fusilier. It is about a monument set up at the origin under the aegis of the French memory in 1909 with the cemetery Saint Marc. It is not that in 1951 qu ' it was transferred on its current site. The character of the marine fusilier, former to 1914, does not represent thus, as opposed to what one says sometimes, one of the glorious sailors of the admiral Ronarc' h. It acts himself in fact of the certified copy of the one of the many characters of the base of the monument inaugurated in Mans in 1885 with the memory of the second army of the Loire demolished near this city by the Prussians after two days of resistance in January 1871. The creator of the sailor is the of the Ardennes sulptor Aristide Croisy.
- Proximity of the Firmin bridge has draws up the monument of the girls of the sea, of the sculptor François Bazin, going back to 1935; it represents, with the foot of a menhir of granite, a sénane and Ouessant-native carved in the same rock, damaged at the origin in the contemplation of the oceanic floods, and maintaining in that of the local motor vehicle traffic.
- In small space in edge of the street Rene Madec, along Stéir redécouvert, was inaugurated few years ago a surmounted stele of a bronze bust of resistant the Jean Moulin, which had occupied in the years the 1930 functions of sub-prefect of Chateaulin. Force is to note that this monument does not have anything which draws the attention of the passers by. It is the same for the stele with the Général de Gaulle, which pronounced its last great speech public at the time of its voyage to Quimper in 1969.
UJAP Quimper (Basketball) evolves/moves in Pro B (the 2nd division).
- Stade Quimpérois (Football) evolves/moves in CFA-2 Groupe G.
- Rugby Club Quimpérois (Rugby) evolves/moves in Fédérale 3.
- Club of canoe-kayak of Quimper: CCKQC
- Quimper Athletics
Town of services (many administrations);
- Mechanical engineering;
- Plastic S;
- Textile industry;
- Earthenware of Quimper;
- Factory of Cider of Name of controlled origin (A.O.C.) “Cider of Cornwall”;
- Station S.N.C.F.;
- Airport of Quimper Cornwall to 8 km (Pluguffan);
- university Pole Pierre-Jakez Hélias, IUT, Preparatory classes at Universities (PCSI, PC, PSI);
- Colleges, private clinics and hospital.
Quimper is the seat of the Chamber of commerce and industry of Quimper Cornwall. It manages the Aéroport of Quimper Cornwall located on the commune of Pluguffan and the wearing of Quimper.
Quimper has several elementary schools. Its principal public colleges are the colleges max Jacob, Auguste Brizeux, the Turret and of the Tower of Auvergne. As for the college public, there are four principal. They are the college Auguste Brizeux, the college of Cornwall, the college Yves Thépot and the college Jean-Antoine Chaptal. Quimper also counts four colleges of private education under contract: The Sand pit, Holy Jean-Baptiste, Holy Therese and Saint Yves. The private colleges are Sainte Therese, Paraclet, Kerustum and Likès.
Quimper counts finally two poles of preparatory classes at the universities: one scientific, within the framework of the college Auguste Brizeux, and the other arts person within the framework of the college of Cornwall.
The city is chief towns of three cantons :
- the 1st canton is made of part of Quimper (24 712 inhabitants);
- the 2nd canton is made of part of Quimper and commune of Ergué-Gabéric (27 755 inhabitants);
- the 3rd canton is made of part of Quimper and communes of Plomelin and Pluguffan (24 789 inhabitants).
TwinningsQuimper is twinned avec ;
- Limerick, in Ireland.
Ourense, in Spain.
Famous people born in Quimper
- Jean Moreau, canon and author of Memories on the wars of the League in Cornwall (towards 1552)
- Élie Fréron, critical arts person, adversary of Voltaire (1718)
- Rene Madec, soldier of the King, general and Nabob of Large the Moghol of the Indies (1736)
- Rene Laënnec, doctor, inventor of the Stethoscope (1781)
- Alexandre Massé, textile manufacturer, inventor of the button with four holes, benefactor (1829)
- Emile Lemoine (1840-1912), geometrician
- Louis (- Marie) Hémon, lawyer, appointed, then senator of Finistere (1844)
- Pierre Alexis Ronarc' H, Admiral (1865)
- Victor Gorgeu, senator of Finistere, mayor of Brest, regional police chief of Brittany (1881)
- max Jacob, writer and painter (1876)
- Charles Hernu, minister, appointed the Rhone (1923)
- Jacques Mahé of Villeglé (known as Villeglé)), painter/famous plastics technician for his lacerated posters (1926)
- Jean-Yves Besselat, politician (1943)
- daN Ar Braz, Song writer and performer (1949)
- Philippe Baby in-arms, navigator (1954)
- Marc Guillemot, navigator (1959)
Famous people deceased in Quimper
- Jean Moreau, to see above (June 29th 1617)
- Marie Trommel, known as Marion of Faouët, gang leader, tortured and hung in 1755
- François Valentine, painter and politician (1804)
- Pierre-Paul of Grandière, Admiral, governor of Cochinchine (1876)
- François-Marie Luzel, conservative of the Departmental records, folklorist, writer into Breton (1895)
- Henri Perennial, priest and historian (1951)
- Pierre-Jakez Hélias, writer into Breton, journalist, professor of letters (1995)
Famous people having lived or having worked in Quimper
- Father Julien Maunoir, Jesuit.
- Joseph François Dupleix (1697-1763), governor of the French Indies, studied with the college of the Jesuits.
- Theophilus Malo Corret of the Tower of Auvergne, born with Carhaix the 12/23/1743, made its studies with the college of Quimper.
- Nathalie Lemel (1826-1921), bookseller, militant socialist, leading of the Commune, partner of exile of Louise Michel.
- Pierre Tal Coat (Pseudo of Pierre Jacob, 1905-1985), painter.
- Julien Gracq (Pseudo of Louis Pear tree), writer.
- Edmond Michelet, elected appointed of Quimper the March 12th 1967, one month before becoming Minister for the Public office and re-elected in June 1968 with a seat which it left the June 22nd 1969 to become Minister for the Cultural Affairs, succeeding André Malraux.
- Emile Rock, painter, sculptor and ceramist who worked much on the topic of Quimper.
- Yann Brekilien, writer.
- Bernard Poignant, former mayor of Quimper, European deputy.
- Ronan & Erwan Bouroullec, designers.
- Rene-Yves Creston, artist plastics technician, ethnologist and resistant, with the Breton Museum.
- Festival of Cornwall
- Bagad Ergué-Armel
- Bagad Kemper
- Bagad Penhars
- Holy Bagad Patrick
- List of the bishops of Quimper
- UJAP Quimper
- rear Eostiged Stangala - Kerfeunteun-Quimper
- Site of the town hall
- Weather station of Quimper
- QUB, the joint grid system (drunk) of Quimper and Quimper the Community
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