The phrase Quiet revolution indicates one important period of the history of the modern Quebec. In all the authors, historians, sociologists and political economists who wrote on the Quiet revolution, the master word to describe it is modernization. These beginnings can go up in 1949 at the time of the Grève of asbestos, but it takes surely its take-off in the years 1960. This name is the Francization of the expression Quiet revolution whose author is a journalist of the Globe and Mail, a Toronto-native daily newspaper, in the years 1960, although none the consulted sources gives official dating for the birth of the expression. It is besides one of the characteristics of the myths of foundation to leave in the blur the circumstances of their genesis.
This expression is quickly taken again like spearhead by the political elite and intellectual Québécois. The “revolution” consists in fact in a great number of transformations as well on the social plan as political, economic and monks which proceeded very quickly during the decade 1960, especially between the election of the Liberal party of Quebec (directed by Jean Lesage), in June 1960 until 1966.
The Quiet revolution is generally regarded as a vast movement of liberalization of manners, overall comparable with the phenomenon of “Counterculture” with the the United States or the phenomenon of May 1968 in France. The Quiet revolution and its economic policies Keynésiennes are generally comparable with a “golden age” by the mobility left-wing policy of the Quebec, and considered by some as the base of the “Québécois Modèle”.
It is one time of modernization of the structure of the Québécois State which enters the era of the glorious Thirty. The liberal government creates public institutions such as the Régie revenues of Quebec (management of the retirements) and the Caisse of deposit and placement of Quebec (management of the naps coming from capitalization from the various modes of retirement and another program of insurances managed by the State).
The Report/ratio Relative, published in 1963 and 1964, is at the base of the changes occurred in the field of education during the Quiet revolution. The education, hitherto managed by the Catholic Clergy (mainly French-speaking) and Protesting (mainly anglophone) Québécois, is withdrawn from ecclesiastical control while remaining denominational, with catholic school commissions and other Protestant women. (The Jewish schools of Quebec were entirely private.)
The Québécois State deals with its complete administration by the means of the minister of education and the Superior council of education. The parents are also free to choose private schools, financed by the State with 40% (compared to 100% for the public schools), although reached a maximum with the same expenditure as the public schools.
The general-purpose schools are created to integrate in the same establishment secondary education, whether it is general training or the training of the trades. In the same way, the network of CEGEP is set up to ensure the formation pre-academic as much as the teaching of the techniques.
One of the large actors of this period is Rene Lévesque which, as Minister for the Natural wealths, nationalizes the whole of the privately held companies of production and distribution of electricity, making to company Hydro-Quebec an economic actor and industrial essential. The election of 1962 is done primarily on this question. The government creates also companies of State in various economic domains: forests, mines, oil research.
The quiet revolution, by new confidence that it gives to the Québécois French-speaking people, is characterized by a fulgurating rise of the Québécois Nationalisme. After the Crisis of October of 1970, the nationalist push leads to the come to power of the Québécois Party (independence) in 1976. The referendums of 1980 and 1995 on the National question will respectively indicate 40% and 49.4% of support to sovereignty, but will not allow to solve the statute of Quebec in Canada.
The Civil code is amended. For the first time, a woman is elected appointed with the National Assembly. The legal tendencies making of the married woman minor under the supervision of her husband are removed little by little. The government of the Canada amends the law and allows the divorce…
Tightened “knitted” catholic company, the French-speaking majority secularizes and forsakes the religious practice. The hospitals and the schools, held by the religious communities, are transformed and the management staff becomes increasingly laic. The influence of the Catholic church in the life of the families grows blurred. The number of children per family falls, the divorces increase and the sexual revolution to the great displeasure makes to its way catholic institution which sees that its interdict of the contraceptive Pilule is followed very little by some.
The government of Quebec creates in 1961 the ministry for the cultural Affairs whose first holder is Georges-Emile Lapalme. Arts, the letters, the theater, the song, the cinema, and the whole of the Québécois culture integrate new forms.
During the Quiet revolution , the Québécois writers adopt a committed style of writing and militant which depict the Inhabitants of Quebec in way which wants to be more realistic. To anti-hero then is spoken. Indeed, one speaks about the individual problems, that is to say for the Inhabitants of Quebec of stock or the immigrants who have difficulty in integrate the company. The whole proceeds in a search where the characters try to assume themselves.
- File “Quiet revolution”, in the Encyclopedia of the Agora line.
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